体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
60 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の11件中1~11を表示しています
原著
  • FUKI NAKAYAMA, TAKURO TOBINA, MAKOTO AYABE, YUKIKO DOI, YUKARI MORI, T ...
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 379-386
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study sought to determine whether aerobic exercise training affects cognitive functioning among semi-independent (> 75 years) and independent elderly people. Seventy-six semi-independent and independent elderly subjects were divided into the following groups: semi-independent control (n = 16); semi-independent training (n = 13); independent control (n = 22); independent training (n = 25). During the 12-week intervention, subjects in both training groups performed a bench-stepping exercise at the intensity of the lactate threshold. Subjects were assessed at baseline and post-intervention using the Frontal Assessment Battery test (FAB), the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS), and a bench-stepping test of aerobic capacity. During the intervention, FAB scores improved only in the semi-independent training group (p = .002), while 3MS and MMSE scores improved in both the semi-independent training (p = .032 and p = .004) and independent training groups (p = .001 and p = .013). FAB and 3MS scores were higher in the semi-independent training (p = .001 and p = .002) compared with the semi-independent control group after the intervention. Finally, post-intervention scores for FAB, and 3MS in the semi-independent training group almost reached the baseline levels of the independent control and independent training groups. These results indicate that moderate intensity bench-stepping exercise training can improve cognitive and frontal lobe functioning in semi-independent elderly people, almost to the level exhibited by independent elderly people.
  • 辻 大士, 三ッ石 泰大, 角田 憲治, 尹 智暎, 北濃 成樹, 尹 之恩, 大藏 倫博
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 387-399
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The vertical ground reaction force (GRF) parameters in a sit-to-stand movement are useful for measuring lower-limb muscle strength and power in older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine which GRF parameters would be more strongly associated with a person's physical functioning, history of falls, fear of falling and mobility limitations, all of which are known to be related to lower-limb muscle strength and power. We performed cross-sectional analyses on 363 community-dwelling older adults, which included 160 men and 203 women, aged 65-85 years (73.4 ± 5.3 years). Five parameters were measured: peak reaction force, two rate of force development and two time-related parameters. Their rate of force development was relatively higher correlated with results from timed “up and go” tests, standing times from a long sitting position and 4-way choice reaction times (partial r = -0.37 ∼ -0.52); these tests were accompanied with a dynamic movement of lower-limb; than their peak reaction force and time-related parameters. The rate of force development were poorer in subjects reporting falls, a fear of falling or a mobility limitation compared with those reporting no falls, fear of falling or mobility limitation. These results suggest that measuring the rate of force development in a sit-to-stand movement provide a better assessment of lower-limb muscle strength and power.
  • 池袋 敏博, 久保 啓太郎, 岡田 純一, 矢田 秀昭, 角田 直也
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 401-411
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study aimed to investigate the differences in the development of muscle thickness (MT) in the lower limbs with specific sports-event training. Furthermore, the relationship between MT of the lower limbs for weightlifters and sprinters and their competition performances (total weight lifted and 100m sprint times) was examined. Subjects were 64 males divided into 3 groups: weightlifters (n=20), sprinters (n=20), and untrained subjects as controls (n=24). The MT{relative to (body weight)1/3}of knee extensors (KE), knee flexors (KF), plantar flexors (PF) and dorsi flexors (DF) was measured at 21 sites (proximal, middle and distal) along the length of the upper and lower leg by B-mode ultrasound. The MT of KE for weightlifters was significantly greater than that for sprinters and controls, while the MT of KF and PF for sprinters was significantly greater than that for weightlifters and controls. The MT of rectus femoris (RF), vastus intermedius (VI), vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) for weightlifters was significantly greater than that for sprinters and controls, while the MT of RF and VM for sprinters was greater than that of controls. On the other hand, the MT of KE for weightlifters and sprinters (especially VM) correlated significantly with competition performances. These results indicated that squatting affected the MT of KE except for RF while sprinting affected the MT of KF and PF. It was also concluded that the MT of KE for weightlifters and sprinters (particularly VM) was related to their competition performances.
  • 根本 みゆき, 藪下 典子, 清野 諭, 金 美芝, 松尾 知明, 鄭 松伊, 大須賀 洋祐, 大久保 善郎, 田中 喜代次
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 413-422
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purposes of this study were (i) to determine the characteristics of physical function for frail older adults, compared with those for the independent and the dependent, (ii) to examine validity of the “health check-up questionnaire” (Kihon Check-list: CL) for finding frail older adults. Five hundred thirty-nine older Japanese people (75.5 ± 7.0 years) were assigned to each one of the three categories: the independent, the frail and the dependent according to the classification criteria of long-term care insurance system. Physical function score (PFS) was estimated by principal components analysis. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess validity of the CL and to examine the screening tool for detecting frail older adults who have a higher risk for becoming the dependent. Significant differences were observed among the three groups in PFS (the independent, 0.580 ± 0.467; the frail, -0.309 ± 0.733; the dependent -1.347 ± 0.949). The Odds ratio (OR) of the dependent for older adults to whom the CL was applied was 2.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3 - 4.5), and the OR for those to whom both the CL and the hand-grip strength test were applied was 5.4 (2.6 - 11.5). These data suggest that the comprehensive status of physical function of frail older adults, which varied widely, was intermediate between the independent and the dependent. It is useful to add the hand-grip strength test to the CL as a screening tool to subdivide frail older adults.
  • 田口 素子, 高田 和子, 大内 志織, 樋口 満
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 423-432
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of the present study was to examine the validation of prediction equation of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in Japanese female athletes. The study population consisted of 122 Japanese female athletes (age 20.2 ± 1.3 years, height 162.5 ± 6.3 cm, body weight (BW) 57.4 ± 7.7 kg, and fat-free mass (FFM) 45.5 ± 5.1 kg). Body composition was estimated by using air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD System). BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry using dougras bag tequnique, and predicted BMR was calculated from different equations based on FFM. When compared with measured BMR, predicted BMR from the equation of Taguchi et al. (BMR (kcal/day)= 26.9×FFM (kg)+ 36) and equation of Owen et al. were not significantly different. Whereas, predicted values from equation of Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, National Institute of Health and Nutrition and Cunningham were significantly different from measured value. Estimation error and Total error were smaller in equation of Taguchi et al. and Owen et al., however, equation of Owen et al. had a larger estimation error in the subjects who was small body size (less than 42kg) or large body size(more than 69kg). Furthermore, newer equation of Taguchi et al. (BMR=27.5×FFM+5) was developed from the pool data (n=205) in the present study. Standard error of estimation (SEE) of this equation was smaller than the equation of Taguchi et al., and systematic error was hardly observed.
    In conclusion, the newer equation of Taguchi et al. developed from measured BMR of Japanese female athletes was useful to predict BMR.
  • 進藤 弥生, 皆川 健太, 飯田 薫子
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 433-441
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    “Exercise Guideline 2006” was published by Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan to maintain and promote the health of people and to prevent lifestyle-related diseases through improving their habits of physical activity and exercise. In “Exercise Guideline 2006”, define ‘Ex’ as a unit of quantity of physical activity, and recommend to increase the ‘Ex’ value for physical activity to maintain the health of people. We investigated the effect of physical activity instruction using this new guideline on the profiles of dyslipidemia outpatients.
    We gave monthly physical activity instructions to 25 outpatients with dyslipidemia according to “Exercise Guideline 2006” and evaluated body composition and blood profiles 6 months after the instruction was started.
    Weekly physical activities were significantly increased by the instruction, from 7.1±4.1 Ex (pre) to 15.5±10.6 Ex (post). As the increased amount of physical activity in each subject was varied with individuals, we classified the subjects into two groups (increased group, or non-increased group) according to the increased amount of activity. In the subjects in increased group, significant decrease in body weight and serum triglyceride, and significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol were observed at 6-month point. There is no correlation between the variations in body compositions and the variations in triglyceride or HDL cholesterol levels.
    In conclusion, we suggest that physical activity instruction using “Exercise Guideline 2006” might be a useful and convenient strategy to improve lipid profiles in dyslipidemia patients.
  • 斉藤 太一, 福 典之, 三上 恵里, 川原 貴, 田中 宏暁, 樋口 満, 田中 雅嗣
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 443-451
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Background: Although previous reports have shown a lower proportion of the ACTN3 XX genotype (R577X nonsense polymorphism) in sprint/power athletes compared with controls, possibly attributed to the importance of skeletal muscle function associated with alpha-actinin-3 deficiency, the findings on association between endurance athlete status and R577X genotype are equivocal. Purpose: The present study was undertaken to examine association of ACTN3 R577X genotype with elite Japanese endurance athlete status. Subjects and Methods: Subjects comprised 79 elite Japanese endurance runners (E) who participated in competition at national level and 96 Japanese controls (C). We divided endurance runners into two groups, i.e., 42 national level runners (E-N) and 37 international level runners (E-I) who had represented Japan in international competition. R577X genotype (rs1815739) was analyzed by direct sequencing. Frequency differences of polymorphisms between athletes and controls were examined by Chi-square tests. Result: The R allele frequency tended to be higher in E group than in C group (P=0.066). When we divided E into two groups, the R allele frequency in E-I group was significantly higher than that in C group (P=0.046); whereas there were no significant differences between E-N and C groups (p=0.316). Then, the three genetic models were tested. In the additive genetic model (RR>RX>XX), there were significantly differences between E-I and C (P=0.038), but not the dominant (RR vs. RX+XX) and the recessive (RR+RX vs. XX) genetic models. Conclusion: R allele of the R577X genotype in the ACTN3 gene was associated with elite Japanese endurance athlete status.
  • 設楽 佳世, 緑川 泰史, 太田 めぐみ, 矢内 利政, 金久 博昭, 福永 哲夫, 川上 泰雄
    2011 年 60 巻 4 号 p. 453-462
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/08/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study, we examined applicability of existing equations to predicting the body surface area (BSA) of children, and newly developed prediction equations for the BSA of children. BSA of 87 children of both genders (7∼12 yr) was determined by the three-dimensional photonic image scanning (3DPS), which was used as reference. BSA predicted using existing equations yielded overestimation or underestimation and/or a systematic error with respect to the reference. BSA prediction equations for boys and girls were developed using height and body mass as independent variables for the validation group and cross-validated for another group. The standard errors of estimation of the prediction equations were 105 cm2 (0.9 %) for boys and 158 cm2(1.4 %) for girls. In the cross-validation group, there was no significant difference between the predicted and measured values without systematic errors. These findings indicate that existing equations cannot accurately predict BSA of children, and that the newly developed prediction equations are capable of predicting BSA of children with adequate accuracy.
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