The physical fitness and motor ability of 17, 000 school children in Kyoto City, age 10-17, was studied in 1966-1968. A sports test from the Japanese Ministry of Education, 1963 was used. The sports test consists of seven items-physical fitness diagnostic test and of five items-motor ability test. At first, the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and g1-statistics were calculate using the data of each item of the sports test for boys and girls of every age. In the paper the results obtained by these preliminary analysis of the data are reported The results which are most worth mentioning are as follows. 1. The age when muscular strength is most remarkably developed coincides with the age when the increase of height is the most remarkably developed. However, according to the results obtained from the Modified Harverd Step Test and Endurance Running, improvement of respiratory and circulatory function seems to occur at a slightly older age. 2. In every item of the sports test records clearly show individual differences. The individual differences related to physical fitness and motor ability seem to be greater than the individual differences related to body type. The greatest individual differences are generally found during the age when the children are most rapidly developing-girls, 10-11 years; boys, 12-14. 3. In most of the items, the distribution is found to be asymmetric which is especially noticable in chinning (modified), step test and trunk extention. In these items the evaluation of individual relative ability among the group by the use of mean and standard deviation is not necessarily suitable. The use of median or mean as the standard value is recommended Records of our subject were compared with the standards records reported by the Japanese Ministry of Education and with several reports done 30-40 years ago.
Takahira's calculation formula of the Japanese body surface area, A=W0.425×H0.725×71.84 (A=cm2, W=kg, H=cm) is early known which was designed on the basis of the physique of ten Japanese men in the 1920's. While it is not inconvenient in the practical use it rather looks oldish. Therefore we actually measured the body surface area of Japanese men and women in 1954-1961 and could success in making a new calculation formula based on these values of actual measurements. We compared and studied or investigated of many kinds of calculation formulas of the body surface area which have been published up to now and could success in reaching to a satisfactory result. From the result a form A=K1W+K2H+Q (W=weight, H=height) is the most adaptable as the calculation formula for getting an approximation of the body surface area. According to this formula we made up various kinds of calculation formulas for the body surface area in the sex and the age respectively and investigated the adaptiveness and at last confirmed the practicality. (Table IX)
Using the data on physical fitness and motor ability measured on 17, 000 school children aged 10-17, in Kyoto City, the relationship between body build and physical fitness and the relationship between body build and motor ability have been examined. When children were classified into five groups according to their height, it was found that the tallest group had generally the most excellent physical fitness and motor ability in both of boys and girls of every age group. The items of sport test in which the tallest group did not show the best record were only chinning (modified) and continuous belly grinds. When children were classified into five groups according to their Rohrer Index, it was found that the group of the largest Rohrer Index had the strongest muscle strength, but the group of the largest Rohrer Index and the group of the smallest Rohrer Index were generally inferior to the group of average or middle Rohrer Index in the other facets of physical fitness and motor ability. This trend was found in both of boys and girls of every age group, although the detail of the relationships between Rohrer Index and Physical fitness or motor ability were a little different by age and sex.