Exercise therapy as well as diet therapy, is fundamental in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, however, its methods and effects of long term physical exercise therapy has not yet been clarified. The present study has been designed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise therapy in diabetic patients with fasting hyperglycemia. Ten non-insulin dependent diabetic patients participated in a 6-month physical exercise program consisting of 30 min, of jogging performed 3 times per week (Exercise group) . The exercise intensity represented 40% of estimated Vo2max. The following results were obtained: 1. More significant improvement of glucose tolerance and plasma insulin response to glucose load was observed in exercise group as compared with the patients treated with mild caloric restriction alone (Diet group, N=15) . 2. The significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio was observed only in exercise group. 3. The reduction of body weight in exercise group was significantly greater than that in diet group. 4. The physical exercise also resulted in an improvement of cardiovascular adaptaion to exercise. 5. Improvement of symptoms in daily life activity was also found after physical exercise therapy. However, some medical troubles such as hypoglycemia, muscle pain and arthralgia were found during observation period. In conclusion, physical exercise therapy is useful as an adjunct to diet to improve metabolic control in patients with diabetes mellitus. And for effective exercise therapy, exercise program must be individualized, and motivation is stimulated by team including physician, trainer, nurse and dietitian.
To assess the effects of short term physical training on left ventricular dimensions and function, 12 young sedentery subjects were studied with echocardiography before and after 10 weeks of endurance physical conditioning consisted of a 3000 meter running protocol 3 days a week. Exercise training led to an increase in maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max: 48.3±4.4 versus 60.0±6.2ml/kg/min: p<0.001) . This functional improvement, however, was not accompanied by any significant change in resting echocardiographic measurements including left ventricular dimensions, ejection fraction and mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening. On semi-supine exercise echocardiography no significant change was revealed after 10 weeks of physical training. This study suggests that short term physical training in young subjects result in significant increase in Vo2max but this functional improvement is not always associated with significant alterations in left ventricular dimensions and function as observed by echocardiogram.
The purpose of this study is to determine the progress of whole body sweating rate (SR) in the initial stage of moderate work in two hot environments, and to relate the SR to the body temperature attained. Four healthy males, 28 to 31 years of age, performed leg exercise of 40% VO2max with a Monark bicycle ergometer set up on a platform scale (Potter bed balance) . All the experiments were carried out in a climatic chamber at ambient temperature (Ta) of 30°C or 40°C (relative humidity, 45%) in winter season following body heating for 30 min at a room temperature of 30°C. Skin sweating was monitored by the bed balance with automatic weight change indicator throughout the experimental period. Rectal (Tre) and 7 skin temperatures were measured every minute by a thermistor and thermocouples, respectively. Oxygen consumption was determined before and during the work by the Douglas bag method. Heart rate was recorded by electrocardiography throughout the experiment. At Ta 40°C, the SR increased as soon as the work started, whereas at Ta 30°C it took a few minutes. The mean SR during the work at Ta 40°C was significantly higher than that at Ta 30°C. The level of mean skin temperature (Tsk) was higher at Ta 40°C (35°C) than Ta 30°C (33°C), and Tre was approximately 37.3°C at Ta 30°C and 40°C. The changes in the Tre and Tsk were similar in two different conditions. The negative correlations were found between the SR and the Tsk during the work. The regression line was significantly different at Ta 30°C and 40°C. The Tsk decreased in proportion to increase of the SR. Moreover, there was a good correlation between the SR and heart rate during the work in both environments. Heat production stood at the same level in two different thermal conditions. The present study suggests that the body core temperature in working men is maintained at least constant level, since the evaporation in the initial stage of the work is largely stimulated, and the reduction of skin temperature may be caused by other factors than the evaporation.
Manner of muscular relaxation in elbow flexion was observed on the subjects aged from 7 to 22 years old. Relation between surface electromyogram of m, biceps brachii and mechanogram of elbow flexion were used for the parameters of muscular relaxation. Results were as follows: 1) At elder subjects, silence of surface electromyogram preceeded to the tension decrease. But discharge of surface electromyogram preceeded during muscular relaxation at younger subjects. 2) It could be observed the transient tension increase before muscular relaxation. The appearance rate of the transient tension increment increased as becoming elder. From above results, it could be considered that the inhibitibility of spinal alpha motoneuron pool did not yet developed for about 7 years old.