体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
25 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
  • 佐藤 郁雄
    1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 53-63
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study deals with comparative physiological changes such as basal metabolism (BM) between two inhabitants of Hirosaki, a cold district in Japan. One of the matched male subjects was a permanent inhabitant while the other had immigrated from Tokushima, a warm district in Japan, half a month before.
    From May 1969 to September 1970, body weight and physiological functions such as BM and others were measured every morning. Subjective estimations of their amount of work, dietary intake, the way they felt about the temperature on the previous day (temperature feeling), how fatigued they had felt when they got up (fatigue feeling), and how well they had slept (sleeping condition) were recorded by means of a five-grade scaling method. It was supposed that these factors would affect BM. The results were as follows:
    1. Differences in the values of the above influencing factors on BM between the immigrant and the permanent inhabitant were large during the early period of experiment, but they diminished and almost the same values were obtained from October 1969, except in November. Differences in decending order between the subjects were found in temperature feeling, fatigue feeling and sleeping condition, while amount of work and dietary intake were not so different.
    2. The changes of BM showed a pattern that had a peak during the hottest period in summer for both the immigrant and the permanent inhabitant from May to October 1969. It was possible that the difference in climate and geografical features affected the immigrant like a stress, and the high temperature and sports in summer affected the permanent inhabitant. However, after October 1969 there were differences in BM between the two subjects. The immigrant had a high BM during the warm period of spring, but the value was sharply lowered during the hottest period of summer. This change was quite different from that of the permanent inhabitant which followed the normal pattern.
    3. R.Q. of the two subjects peaked highly in winter and lowly in summer. The values were a little higher for the permanent inhabitant than for the immigrant. Although the body weight of the immigrant increased a little in winter and decreased a little in summer, such a seasonal change was not observed for the permanent inhabitant.
    4. The significant relationship between the average monthly atmospheric temperature and the monthly variation of BM from October 1969 to September 1970 was obtained for the permanent inhabitant. The critical atmospheric temperature, that raised and lowered his BM, was 9.8°C. The immigrant was found to have such a relationship only during the limited period between April and July.
    5. The representative mean values of monthly BM, which were measured on one day in the middle of month, on three days during the same period, on sixdays, i.e. two days of each of the three ten-day periods, and on every day, were compared with one another. The values of the one- and three-day measurements were considerably different from those of the every day measurements in the months during which there were large climatic changes, such as April, June or September. These monthly changes were shown to be markedly different.
    However, the values of the six-day measurements were similar to those of the every day measurements. It is supposed that at least six days are necessary for the measure-ment of BM during sudden changes of climate. But, it would be more desirable to increase the number of measurements to obtain more accurate data.
  • 菅波 茂
    1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 64-70
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this report is to measure physical load of students on practice of sports in a senior high school.
    Donaggio's reaction on urines before and after practice of base-ball and kendo by students demonstrates the following results.
    1) A coefficient of correlation between the titer of Donaggio's reaction of deprote-inization treatment by heating urines and that of omitting the treatment by heating urines before practice of base-ball shows 0.84 and that after practice of base-ball shows 0.83, which are very correlative.
    2) The titer of Donaggio's reaction corrected with specific gravity of 1.024 is better than actual titer of Donaggio's reaction.
    3) The results on the high titer of Donaggio's reaction corrected with specific gravity of the urines of students before practice of sports indicate accumlation of fatigue, which needs to be taken steps for them to encounter more exhaustion and to get over tiredness.
    4) Counterimmunoelectrophoresis shows the presence of HH, Znα2 and myoglobin in the urines before practice of sports and the increase of Znα2 and myoglobin after practice of sports. The presence of myoglobin in the urines before practice of fatigue of foregoing day.
    5) There is little correlation between titer of Donaggio's reaction and complaints of fatigue caused by physical load on practice of sports.
  • 永田 晟, 北本 拓, 室増 男
    1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 71-77
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    前腕部の屈伸運動による原学習をおこなった後, ショート・タームな運動の再現学習を実施し, 前腕部 (末梢部) を中心とする運動再現特性の基礎資料を得た。運動リズム, 負荷量, 運動距離等の条件変化による再現状態への影響を検討し, データーの相関関数的解析方法によって以下のような結果を得た。
    1.前腕部の屈伸運動の再現状態の評価には, 原学習時と再学習時の運動パターンの相関関数的手法が有効で, 定量的に解析可能となった。
    2.末梢部を中心とした再学習でのショート・ターム・メモリーは心理学的研究の言語, 記憶学習におけるロング・ターム・メモリー時に生じるレミニセンスと反対の様相である。
    3.運動リズムの再現には, 目標リズムより遅いリズム, 即ち全周波数時の値を平均して約0.05Hzのおくれを生じた。
    4.再学習時の運動利得は, 0.8Hzの速い運動リズムや, 0.5kgの負荷が与えられた時に, 原学習時と変らぬ利得を示し, 運動利得の良好な再現性を示した。
    5.把持率 (偏差率) よりみた再現状態は, 再現経過時間とともに, その率は減少し, 正確性が低くなった。また, 再学習時の運動リズムが0.1Hzから0.8Hzと速くなるに従がつて, 目標リズムに合致した再現運動リズムがあらわれ, 適確な再現状態がみられた。
    6.屈伸運動距離を短かくすると再現性は, 向上するが, 記憶上の至適な距離は, 6cmと3cmのほぼ中間と考えられた一
    7.身体運動の再現性について運動上のショート・ターム・メモリーの立場から考察を加え, 現場への応用の基礎資料を得た。
  • 玉木 伸和, 石河 利寛
    1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 78-84
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    呼吸筋の酸素消費量, 肺抵抗, 換気量および酸素摂取量が, 自転車エルゴメータによる最大下運動中の男子鍛練者10名および男子非鍛練者10名で測定された。
    肺抵抗は, 運動強度の増加にともなって大きくなったが, 鍛練者と非鍛練者との間に差はみられなかった。一方, 運動中の呼吸筋の酸素消費量は, 換気量が等しい場合, 物理的運動強度が等し い場合およびVo2maxの%で示した生理的運動強度が等しい場合のいずれにおいても, 鍛練者の方が非鍛練者よりも有意に少なかった。すなわち, 非鍛練者は鍛練者に比べて呼吸の機械的仕事に酸素がより多く使われ, 運動の効率が低下することが認められた。
    本研究の結果から, 非鍛練者の全身持久性能力は, 鍛練者よりも呼吸筋の酸素消費量によってより大きく影響されるものと思われる。
    稿を終わるに臨み, 本研究のために貴重な時間を割き, 献身的な協力を惜しまなかった被験者の諸兄に深謝の意を表します。
    本稿の要旨は, 第52回日本生理学会人会 (1975) において発表された。
  • 林 浩一郎, 田渕 健一, 矢吹 武, 関根 紀一, 立花 新太郎, 中村 耕三
    1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 85-89
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    ○アーチェリー熟練者4名, 未経験者6名のフォームを比較検討した。
    ○「前腕の締め」をX線写真から考察し, これが肩関節回旋中間位, 前腕回外位であることを明らかにした。
    ○「前腕の締め」が何故重要かを筋の作用機序から考察した。
    ○筋電図パターンの解析から, レリースよりポロースルーに至る間の弓の固定が習熟過程の重要な問題であることを指摘した。
  • 大山 良徳
    1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 90-97
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is studied in this paper whether the current physical growth rate over four seasons parallels the physical growth rate over four seasons as observed in previous studies. For these purposes, some physical growth traits influenced by urbanization among rural school children were investigated in comparison with urban school children using the longitudinal method.
    The results obtained were as follows:
    1) Fathers whose only job was farming in the rural sample, were decreasing; conversely farmers having other jobs were increasing. Number of siblings were two in average and families with both parents working increased in rural sample, thus the rural school children were observed being influenced by urbanization remarkably.
    2) As for the physical growth rate, the tendency to show remarkable growth in spring was observed to be decreasing, because the season of maximum growth was dispersed among the four seasons, the season depending on age. This is, significantly different physical growth rates were observed in all seasons in addition to spring; therefore growth rate seems to be averaging over seasons as a whole.
    3) The change of periodicity in one year was observed in both samples in the process of physical growth on height.
    4) But on the other hand, study of the percentage of school children showing maximum growth by seasons revealed that the percentage of those with maximum growth in summer and spring was highest, and those with maximum growth in autumn and winter was lowest. This same seasonal growth was observed in both samples.
    5) The two results mentioned at 2) and 4) obtained between the physical growth rate and the percentages of school children showed a possible point of disagreement regarding the maximum growth rate. It should be understood that most of the school children showed maximum growth rate in summer and spring, but the difference of growth rate between these two seasons and the other ones was decreasing.
  • 小野 三嗣
    1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 98-106
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    統計学的にもとめられた標準体重は, 必ずしも個人にとっての理想体重ではないという考え方から著者自身について人体実験を行い次のような結論を得た。
    身長約160cm体重83kgから56kgまで減量して, 低体重に概ね安定したと思われる1年間経過後, 体重を増加して行ったところ, 63kgまでは体肪脂量より除肪脂体重の方の増加分が大きかったが, 63kg以上では逆転, 66kg以上ではほとんど除肪脂体重の増加が見られなかった。
    持久走トレーニングを開始した結果体重が減少したが61.3kgまでは体脂肪の減少が著明で除脂肪体重の減少は少なかった。61.3kg以下の体重になってからは除脂肪体重の減少が顕著になり, 体脂肪量の減少はほとんどみられなくなった。
    血糖負荷試験での負荷前値への恢復の速さを指標にしてみると62.3kgの体重の時が最もよく, その体重から遠ざかるに従って恢復が悪くなる。
    体重62kg以下での長距離ランニングトレーニングでは栄養状態や走り方の如何によって不整脈や左室前壁虚血所見があらわれる。
    基礎代謝時呼吸商, 尿中窒素及びクレアチニン1日排泄量の消長や筋力等の測定成績からは決定的な証拠は得られなかった。
    以上の諸成績から著者の理想体重は62~63kgの間にあるものと推定された。
  • 1976 年 25 巻 2 号 p. 107-110
    発行日: 1976/06/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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