体力科学
Online ISSN : 1881-4751
Print ISSN : 0039-906X
ISSN-L : 0039-906X
41 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の19件中1~19を表示しています
  • 河野 一郎
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 139-146
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 久雄, 高橋 香代, 吉田 総一郎, 吉良 尚平, 三浦 孝仁, 太田 善介
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 147-155
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A study was designed to examine the effects of exercise intensity on renal clearance parameters. Five healthy male subjects underwent exercise tests on an bicycle ergometer at 4 different work loads for 15 min. The indicators of exercise intensity employed were the percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate level (La) . As parameters of renal clearance, para-aminohippurate clearance (CPAH), thiosulfate clearance (Cthio) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) were measured by the continuous infusion technique during the exercise.
    1) The renal clearance parameters during exercise decreased linearly as the exercise intensity increased. The percentage of maximal oxygen uptake at the onset of the decreases in %CPAH, %Cchiu and %Ccr were 36, 45 and 47%VO2max, respectively.
    2) Among the indicators of exercise intensity, the decrease in La showed the closest correlation with renal clearance during the exercise.
    3) The renal plasma flow, which was measured as CPAH, began to decrease linearly at a significantly lower exercise intensity than the glomerular filtration rate, which was measured as both Cthio and Ccr.
    The above results suggest that renal clearance parameters begin to decrease at the threshold as exercise intensity increases.
  • 井上 恵子, 西川 〓八, 木村 直人, 広田 公一
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 156-165
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    日常継続的な運動を行っていない6名の男子学生 (23~25才) に対し, 主に上腕二頭筋がコソセントリックおよびエクセントリック収縮となるような重量負荷運動を課した.運動強度は20%MVCであった.そしてその運動の3週間後に同一運動 (2nd Ex.) を再負荷し, 筋痛と血清CK活性値, および白血球数におよぼす影響について検討し, 以下の結果を得た.
    1.血中乳酸値は, 1st, 2nd Ex.とも運動直後に有意 (P<0.01) な上昇を示し, 運動終了6時間後には安静レベルに戻った.血中乳酸値は, 両運動間でほとんど差はみられなかった.
    2.白血球数は1 st Ex.および2nd Ex.ともに運動終了直後から6時間後まで一過性に増加し, その後安静レベルに戻ったが, 運動終了7日後に再び上昇を示した.1st Ex.の運動終了6時間後と7日後に, 5%レベルで安静値より有意な上昇が認められた.
    3.血清CKは, 1 st Ex.において5名に安静値からの著しい上昇 (266~763%) がみられ, 上昇のピークは運動終了3~4日後と遅延した上昇を示した.これに対し2nd Ex.のCKは僅かな変動しか示さなかった.血清CK値の両運動間には有意 (P<0.01) な差が認められた.
    4.1st Ex.の運動後, 3~7日間に亘って被検者全員に筋痛が認められ, そのピークは運動終了2日後であった.しかし2nd Ex.においては, 筋痛の程度は軽く, 消失も早くなる傾向が認められた.
    5.2nd Ex.において, 1st Ex.と同程度の筋痛が見られた被検者YIについては, CKにっいても1st Ex.と同様の上昇が認められた.しかしその値は, CK上昇が見られた5名中最も低い値であった.
    以上のことから, 1st Ex.により, 筋組織に損傷を与え筋痛を引き起こしたものと思われるが, 2nd Ex.で認められた筋痛と白血球数およびCK逸脱の低減は, 筋組織の損傷後修復過程が進行し, 3週間後の運動: 負荷に対し耐えうる準備ができたことによると推察された.また, 1st Ex.においてCK上昇の程度が低かった者には2nd Ex.においても筋痛とCKの低減が認められず, 筋組織に適応を引き起こす閾値が存在することが推測された.
  • KENZO KOYAMA, EIJI GOTO, KAZUYA MAEDA
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 166-173
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Male mice of dd-strain, at 4 weeks of age were used in the present study. The materials were divided into four groups; namely, mildly, moderately, severely trained and untrained. The treadmill exercise program for mildly, moderately and severely trained groups consisted of running at speeds of 6 m/min, 10m/min and running up a 10% grade at a speed of 12m/min for 10 min 5 times a week, respectively. The collagen content of the skin was measured by means of concentration of hydroxyproline. Moreover, the proportion of neutral salt-soluble (NSC), acetic acid-soluble (ASC) and insoluble collagen (ISC) in the skin was isolated. We attempted to study about the effects of physical activity on the metabolism of collagen by aging. Hydroxyproline concentration of the skin in untrained group increased rapidly until 6 weeks of age. Maximum hydroxyproline concentration was observed at 7 weeks of age in untrianed group. In three trained groups, maximum hydroxyproline concentration was observed at 9 weeks of age. The collagen content of the skin in the three groups was higher than that in untrained group at 9 and 11 weeks of age. The proportion of NSC, ASC and ISC of the skin varied with age in four groups. In the untrained group, the proportion of ISC increased with age and was recognized to reach 81.9% at 15 weeks of age. The proportion of NSC and ASC in both the moderately and severely trained groups indicated approximately 20% increase compared with that in the untrained group. This fact suggests that the degree of maturation of collagen is influenced by physical activity, especially, moderately and severely training. The authors conclude that continuous exercise training control the formation of intramolecular and intermolecular cross-links in skin collagen.
  • 星川 保, 豊島 進太郎, 池上 康男, 森 悟, 斉藤 由美
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 174-182
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Information on daily physical activity is essential for determining daily nutritional demands and devising physical conditioning programs. In order to obtain reliable information on daily physical activity, it is necessary to record the activity in some way. Up to now, however, such data have been collected using retrospective questionnaires and observation, and by measurement of heart rate over extensive periods. These methods are too cumbersome and expensive.
    The purpose of the present study was to develop a new device for recording physical activity in the form of an actogram. A pedometer was used to record the physical activity, and a microswitch was set inside the pedometer to convert the pedometer count into an electric signal, since it is advantageous to process the data by computer. The pedometer count was recorded in the IC memory of a computer with a 32-kbyte. The memorized pedometer count was fed into the personal computer through an interface, and after processing it was displayed as an actogram representing the activity pattern and the amount of physical activity.
    The new device developed in this study could serve as a practical tool for recording the quantity and time course of physical activity during daily life, since it is small (110mm×70 mm×30 mm) and light (170g), less expensive and also convenient to handle.
  • 岡田 修一, 平川 和文, 高田 義弘, 小田 慶喜
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 183-189
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A study was conducted to examine the feasibility and validity of using integrated electromyographic signals (IEMG) for determination of anaerobic threshold (AT) in the elderly. Twentynine healthy elderly subjects (aged 67.6±7.7 yr) and twelve young males (aged 23.2±7.9 yr) performed ramp cycle exercise to exhaustion, increasing at a rate of 12.5 W/min for the elderly group and 25.0 W/min for the young group, following 3 min of exercise at zero work load. Myoelectrical signals were measured continuously from the vastus lateralis muscle, and values in terms of IEMG were computed every 10s throughout the test with AID conversion at 500 Hz. For the criterion of IEMG threshold, the breakpoint in the relationship between power output and IEMG was determined by two-segmental linear regression. VT was defined as the VO2 at the onset of a nonlinear increase in VE and/or a sustained rise in VE/VO2 without a rise in VE/VCO2. It was found that the value of VO2 in terms of IEMGT was similar to VT in both groups, 16.3 and 18.1 ml/kg/min for the elderly group and 33.5 and 36.3 ml/kg/min for the young group, respectively. Furthermore, IEMGT was correlated significantly (p<0.001) with VT in both groups (r=0.871 for the elderly group and r=0.925 for the young group) . It is concluded that the IEMGT method for determination of AT in the elderly is simple and useful.
  • 伊藤 晶子, 石井 恵子, 大石 邦枝, 樋口 満, 小林 修平
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 190-199
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Nutritional profiles in middle-aged trained and untrained women were compared both before and after menopause. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups : (1) pre-menopausal trained (Pre-T: n=14, aged 43±5 years, running distance 56±27 km/week, Vo2max 49±4ml/ kg/min, mean±SD), (2) pre-menopausal untrained (Pre-UT: n=25, 42±5 years, 34±5 ml/kg/ min), (3) post-menopausal trained (Post-T: n=19, 53±3 years, 49±17 km/week, 42±6 ml/ kg/min), (4) post-menopausal untrained (Post-UT: n=26, 54±3 years, 31±3 ml/kg/min) . There were no significant differences in hematocrit (range 38.7 to 39.3%), hemoglobin (12.8 to 13.1 g/dl) and total protein (6.9 to 7.1 g/dl) among the four groups. Serum iron concentrations in the post-menopausal women (Post-T: 97±30μg/dl, Post-UT: 106±29μg/dl) were relatively higher than in the pre-menopausals (Pre-T: 85±35 pg/dl, Pre-UT: 78±33 pg/dl) . Mean total iron binding capacity in Post-UT (326 pg/dl) was lower than other groups (352 to 361 pg/dl) . Higher serum ferritin levels were observed in the post-menopausal women (Post-T : 35.8±27.5 ng/ml, Post-UT : 60.4±47.1 ng/ml) than the pre-menopausals (Pre-T: 18.3±13.1 ng/ml, Pre-UT: 16.6±10.7ng/ml) . Intake levels of the four groups with regard to the major nutrients were sufficient as compared with the recommended dietary allowance appropriate for age, sex and physical activity level. Intakes of calcium, iron and vitamins B1, B2 and niacin were higher in the trained groups than in the untrained. Regularly performed endurance exercise resulted in higher protein and iron intakes associated with higher energy intakes both before and after menopause. These results suggest that nutritional status of middle-aged women who regularly perform vigorous endurance running could be adequate for maintaining their health in a good state.
  • MAYUMI IMAMURA, YUTAKA MIYANAGA, TORU FUKUBAYASHI, NOBORU MESAKI, JINJ ...
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 200-205
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    An investigation was conducted to clarify both the effect of water polo training on bone mass and the effect of training-induced menstrual disorders on bone. The subjects were 12 female college water polo players and 7 age-matched sedentary college women as a control group.
    Menstrual condition was evaluated by 12 montes of basal body temperature measurement. Seven of the water polo players were eumenorrheic, and five had training-dependent (reversible) menstrual disorders (two with amenorrhea and three with cycle disturbances) .
    Bone mineral measurement revealed differences between the water polo players and the sedentary women. The eumenorrheic water polo players had a higher bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and total body skeleton than the sedentary control group, being 11.2% and 11.3% higher, respectively.
    Effects of menstrual disorders (including cycle disturbance) were clear in the water polo players. The BMD of water polo players with menstrual disorders was 9.8% and 9.6% lower in the total body and lumbar spine that of eumenorrheic water polo players.
    Hormonal examinations revealed a lower serum estradiol level in water polo players with menstrual disordsers in comparison with eumenorrheic water polo playes. Serum estradiol level showed a positive correlation with both total body BMD (r=0, 78, p<0.01) and lumbar spine BMD (r=0.71, p<0.01) .
  • 相馬 りか, 八田 秀雄, 跡見 順子, 宮下 充正
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 206-212
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of aerobic training on lactate oxidative capacity during aerobic exercise using [U-14C] lactate. Male ddY mice were trained by means of treadmill running 5 days a week for 6 weeks. [U-14C] lactate was injected after the first 5 min of running at a speed of 30m⋅min-1. The mice then continued to run for another 25 min at the same speed. Expired gas was collected to estimate the amount of 14CO2 expired during the exercise. The amount of [14C] lactate expired as 14CO2 during the first 10 min after injection of [14C] lactate was significantly higher in the trained group (T) than in the control group (C) . The blood lactate concentration, and muscle lactate concentration in the soleus immediately after exercise were significantly lower in T than in C. The muscle glycogen and blood glucose concentrations were higher in T than in C. It is concluded that aerobic training in mice decreases the blood lactate concentration during exercise, and also enhances oxidative removal of lactate.
  • 矢野 博己, 矢野 里佐, 渡辺 雅之
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 213-219
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study was carried out to elucidete whether the accumulation of triglyceride (TG) in rat liver during fasting was stimulated by swimming. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups; C: control, 24 F: 24 hour-fasted and 48 F: 48 hour-fasted. These animals were required to swim for 120 min.
    In rats with both 24F and 48F, the liver glycogen contents did not change during swimming. The level of TG in rat liver was higher in 24 F and 48 F rats than the control group, and the exercise significantly affected the liver TG in each group. There was significant correlation betweem the level of TG in rat liver and the plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration (r=0.681, p<0.01) . However, although plasma TG did not change during exercise in each group, the TG secretion rate (TGSR) of the 48 F group was significantly lower than that of the C and 24F groups (p<0.01) .
    These results provide evidence that exercise may result in the accumulation of TG in liver during fasting and suggest that the process not only depends on the surplus supply of FFA, but also inhibits very low density lipoprotein-TG secretion from liver.
  • 種田 行男, 江橋 博, 一木 昭男, 渡邊 悟
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 220-232
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    小児の視覚による姿勢制御系の発達過程を検討するために, 7~12歳の小児の男女84名を対象に重心動揺計を用いて開眼, 視野15度および閉眼時の直立姿勢保持の際の重心動揺の軌跡長, RMSおよびパワースペクトルを観察し, 次のような結果を得た.
    1.視覚からの情報量が少なくなるに従って, 重心動揺の軌跡長およびRMSは増加した.
    2.開眼時における重心動揺の軌跡長およびRMSは, 男子では高年齢になるにつれて減少したが, 女子では変わらなかった.また低年齢の女子における軌跡長およびRMSは男子より少なかった.
    3.重心動揺のパワースペクトル解析によって閉眼および視野15度時には開眼時に比べ, 特に0.4~0.7Hzあたりの周波数帯のパワーが増大した.
    4.この周波数帯におけるパワーの増大は, 女子ではいずれの年齢群においても認められたものの, 低年齢の男子ではその増大のピークはあまり明確ではなく11歳群においてのみ観察された.
    5.視覚入力の減少によって, 重心動揺の0.4~0.7Hzのパワーが増大する年齢群では重心動揺軌跡長あるいはRMSは減少することが認められ, 両者の関連性が示唆された.
    以上の結果から, 重心動揺のパワースペクトルにおいて, 視覚系が反映していると考えられている特定の周波数帯のパワーの変動は, 小児の視覚による姿勢制御系の発達を表す有効な指標となりうる可能性が示唆された.
  • 石田 良恵, 金久 博昭, 福永 哲夫
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 233-240
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では, スポーツ競技選手を対象に, 超音波Bモード法で筋厚を測定し, それらにおける性差について検討した.測定の対象となった種目は, 短距離走, 中長距離走, 投てき, 競泳, 体操, パレーボール, バスケットボール, 漕艇の8種目であった.測定部位は前腕前部, 上腕前部および後部, 肩甲骨下部, 腹部, 大腿前部および後部, 下腿後部の8ケ所であった.その主な結果は, 以下の通りであった.
    1) 上肢 (前腕前部+上腕前部+上腕後部) , 体幹 (肩甲骨下部+腹部) および下肢 (大腿前部+大腿後部+下腿後部) の筋厚は, 中長距離走の体幹およびバレーボールの下肢をのぞき, すべての種目で男子が女子より有意に高い値を示した.また身長当たりの筋厚は, 上肢および体幹で中長距離走を除くすべての種目において男子が女子より有意に高い値を示したが, 下肢のそれに有意な男女差が認められたのは体操のみであった.
    2) 筋厚における男子に対する女子の比率は.上肢が59~84%, 体幹が68~89%, 下肢が84~09%また身長当たりの筋厚のそれは, 上肢が66~94%, 体幹が72~99%, 下肢が89~100%であり, 性差は上肢および体幹において顕著に表れた.
    3) 筋厚の下肢に対する上肢の比は, 短距離走および中長距離走を除くすべての種目で, 男子が女子より有意に高い値を示した.一方, 体幹に対する上肢の比は, バレーボールにのみ有意な男女差が認められ, 体幹に対する下肢の比は中長距離走および体操を除くすべての種目において, 女子が男子より有意に高い値を示した.
    以上の結果から, 筋厚における性差は, 上肢および体幹において顕著に表れると結論した.その要因について本研究では明確にえることができないが, トレーニングの影響および先天的要因, あるいはそれらのいずれかによると考察した.
    本研究における筋厚の測定は日本体育協会がアジア大会(1986年)の日本代表選手を対象に実施した体力測定の一環として行われたものである. 測定に際して多大のご配慮をいただいた日本体育協会スポーツ科学研究所のスタッフの方々に深く感謝致します.
  • 本部 正樹, 佐々木 純一, 鍋島 雄一, 目崎 登, 浅野 勝己, 江田 昌佑
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 241-245
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Athletic women often exhibit menstrual disorders such as luteal insufficiency, oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea are often seen. It has been suggested that such disorders are related to prolactin release caused by physical activity. To investigate the mechanism by which the disorders are promoted, prolactin secretion was studied in 10 athletic women (5 with normal ovulatory periods, and 5 with short luteal periods) and 6 non-athletic controls. Blood samples were obtained during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle through an indwelling venous catheter at 15-minute intervals for 4 hours. The concentration of prolactin was measured by radioimmunoassay.
    The mean prolactin concentration in the athletic group was lower than that in the control group (p<0.001), and pulse frequency in the athletic group was higher than that of the control group (p<0.01) . Pulse amplitude in the athletic women with short luteal periods was higher than that of those with normal ovulation. Pulse duration in the athletic women with short luteal periods was significantly longer than that of those with normal ovulation (p<0.01) .
    These findings suggest that prolactin is one of the most important factors in menstrual disorders in athletic women.
  • 中村 好男, 恩田 悦守, 村岡 功
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 246-254
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    A study was conducted to ascertain the relationship between oxygen uptake (Vo2) and vertical velocity using a pedal-stepping stair simulator. Ten healthy volunteers performed fbur kinds of graded exercise using a stair simulator (SS), whose pitches were set at 80, 100, and 120 beat⋅min-1, and also an electrically braked bicycle ergometer (BE) . Work rate on the SS was detemined on the basis of the vertical pedal velocity, in accord with the climbingvelocity for stairs. The incremental rate was set at 0.34 W⋅kg-1 every 3 min. Heart rate and Vo2 were measured during the final minute of every stage. Both heart rate and Vo2 during SS were significantly lower than those on BE at the same level of work intensity. Regression equations between Vo2 (ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1) and velocity (v: m⋅s-1) were as follows;
    pitch 80: Vo2=1.00×v+0.06
    pitch 100: Vo2=0.88×v+1.58
    pitch 120: Vo2=0.84×v+2.13
    These equations give a lower value of Vo2 than the previous equation based on stair-climbingvelocity reported by the American College of Sports Medicine. Although the individual relationship between Vo2 and heart rate was closely linear, there was a significant effect ofexercise mode and stepping pitch. These results indicate that the work intensity of pedalstepping exercise with a stair simulator is overestimated if it is calculated based on theprevious equation for stair-climbing.
  • 丹羽 健市
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 255-260
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    浸水安静時における体温調節反応の日周変動を明らかにするために, 健康な男子大学生を対象に, 体温上昇期と下降期に一定水温 (21℃) 下で安静状態を保持し, その際の体温調節反応を観察すると, ともに, 熱平衡の側面から体温調節系の動作様式に検討を加えた.得られた結果は以下の通りである.
    1.熱産生量は体温上昇期に大で, dryの熱放散量は体温日周変動の各時刻に差異は認められなかった.
    2.ふるえは体温日周変動の各時刻ともに時間経過に伴って増大し, 特に, その傾向は体温上昇期に著明に認められた.
    3.貯熱量は体温日周変動の各時刻ともに負の値を示し, 体温下降期に大であった.
    4.平均体温に対するふるえ持続時間の関係では, ふるえ発現閾値平均体温は体温日周変動の各時刻間に差異は認められないが, 同一平均体温に対するふるえの感度は体温上昇期に大であった.
  • YOSHIHIKO YAMAZAKI, MASATAKA SUZUKI, TADAAKI MANO
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 261-272
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effects of an arm lifting movement (ALM) on maximum vertical jumps with all but the ankle joints fixed (propelled only by plantar flexion) were studied in five subjects. ALM increased flight time, but did not alter maximum angular velocity of the ankle before takeoff. Holding 4kg dumbbells in their hands enhanced the effect of ALM on flight time. ALM increased the maximum force and the force at the onset of plantar flexion. Elbow angle recordings showed that both arms were accelerated before or around plantar flexion onset, and decelerated mainly after takeoff. In another series of experiments, we measured the vertical component of head and hand acceleration with accelerometers. ALM produced positive acceleration of the head after takeoff, which was related to negative acceleration of the hand. The results suggest that ALM increased flight time by enhancing plantar flexion torque under suppression of ankle angular velocity before takeoff. We discussed the relationship between this suppression and different acceleration between the arms and the body except the arms.
  • 服部 正明, 鈴木 直樹
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 273-275
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 飯倉 洋治
    1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 276-278
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1992 年 41 巻 2 号 p. 279-292
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2010/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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