In an attempt to study the effect of a moderate work load on the concentration of serum erythropoietin and hemoglobin in young women, 8 female university students with a high hemoglobin content (group H), 7 female university students with a low hemoglobin content (group L) and 7 female university students with a tendency to be anemic (group A) were subjected to moderate work for 7 successive days in summer. Each subject pedalled at a constant work load of 1.25kp at a cycling rate of 50rpm for 60min every day. Blood samples were drawn from the cubital vein under basal conditions on the day before training, the fourth day of training and the day after the training period. The results obtained were as follows; Group H showed a significantly higher erythropoietin concentration before training than groups L and A. The concentration of erythropoietin in group H decreased slightly during the training period, whereas those in groups L and A increased, although the differences were not statistically significant. The concentration of serum iron in group H was significantly higher than that in group L before training. The former decreased significantly during the training period, whereas the latter was maintained at a lower level. The differences in blood constituents found among the three groups before training lessened after one week's moderate exercise. The increase in Hb concentration in the subjects in groups L and A after training might have been induced by the augmented secretion of erythropoietin due to training for 7 successive days.
Twenty-eight skinfold measurements taken from 223 Japanese females, ranging in age from 16 to 26 years, were analyzed to study the anatomical distribution and total mass of subcutaneous fat on the trunk and limbs. The measured thicknesses of subcutaneous fat varied on average from 5.8 to 22.7mm. The thicker skinfolds were obtained from the abdomen, waist, and thigh. The calculated total mass of subcutaneous fat on the trunk and limbs was 13.7±3.78kg, corresponding to 23.3±3.87% of total body weight. The slopes of the regression lines between the total mass of subcutaneous fat and skinfolds ranged from 0.22 to 2.19. The slopes obtained for the abdomen, greater trochanter and thigh were steeper than those for other regions. It is suggested that the Japanese females have greater skinfolds at the abdomen, waist and thigh than at other regions, and that differences exist among various regions in subcutaneous fat accumulation.
The effects of physical training and acute exercise (mechanical treadmill running) on the level of lipid peroxide in skeletal muscle of rats fed vitamin E-deficient or -supplemented diet were studied. 1. The level of lipid peroxide in skeletal muscle of untrained rats was significantly increased immediately after acute exercise (p<0.05), but physical training suppressed of increase in the level of lipid peroxide and an increase in the activity of superoxide dismutase. These findings were strongly shown in soleus muscle among the muscles examined in this experiment. 2. The level of lipid peroxide in soleus muscle was significantly increased in vitamin Edeficient rats compared to that of control rats (p<0.05) . Conversely, the level of lipid peroxide in muscles was significantly depressed by feeding vitamin E -supplemented diet (p<0.05) . 3. Dietary vitamin E -supplementation did result in a increase in superoxide dismutase activity of muscle.