It has been demonstrated that excellent athletes usually have, not only a higher exercise capacity but also higher ability to maintain equilibrium which is important for assuming the various body postures required in different sports. It is thought that a method of training which enhances the sense of equilibrium will also increase the ability to perform certain of sports. Many sensory organs and the central nervous system, which integrates these organs, are integrated to the maintenance of equilibrium. To maintain equilibrium, vestibular, visual and bathyesthetic inputs are integrated centrally (in the brainstem, cerebellum, etc.) and necessary commands are other tissues. A series of studies which we performed demonstrated that the ability to maintain equilibrium was lower in individuals with imbalanced occlusion than in individuals with normal occlusion. Imbalanced occlusion can be corrected by the appropriate use of rejin sprints. We recently examined the effects of such sprints on the equilibrium of athletes with imbalanced occlusion, using a gravity fluctuation analyzer. In this study, we raised the bite only within the amount of existing free way spce. From these results, gravity fluctuation in athletes with imbalanced occlusion was greater than that in individuals with normal occlusion.However, when imbalanced occlusion was corrected by the use of rejin sprints, gravity fluctuation tended to decrease. It these findings from the present study are combined with the knowledge that the exercise capacity of athletes has a positive correlation with their equilibrium maintenance ability. It appears that correction of imbalanced occlusion and the appropriate use of mouth protectors would contri-bute to improving the performance of athletes.
We have developed a mouth guard which has revolutionized the shape and material of the conventional mouth piece. The H shape mouth guard has the unique shape like that of an H. Even with the new shape of the mouth piece it does not hinder the performance of the wearer. The following are the fundamental data collected by our group. In this study we examined its influences on leg power, the carry (the distance a golf ball is hit) and the motion of the club head during a tee off. The results are as follows: 1) By wearing or setting the mouth guard, the variation of leg power, measured with a Sybex II, showed an increase at selected angular verocity. The rate of increase averaged aproximately 15%. 2) The amount of work in anaerodush, an intensive, but short exercise, increased significantly by 1.25 seconds. 3) As for golf, all four of the test subjects joint performance increased their carries by 5.2 to 11.6 yards, using a 1st wood. 4) Also the fluctuation of the head of the club decreased from 7.3 cm to 3.6 cm on average. Our group have found that the new H shaped mouth guard can absorb shock as well as not hinder the performance of the individual who is wearing it. Thus, the H shape mouth guard can be worn during sports to enhance the participant's performance.
We studied the effects of exercise on the blood fluidity. The subjects were 18 healthy males (21.6±0.8 yr, control : 5, soccer : 9, gymnastics : 4) . We measured the filtration time of whole blood by the Nuclepore filtration method as an index of blood fluidity. The filtration time at rest in the control group, soccer group, and gymnastics group was 59.8±11.9s, 42.5±15.1 s, 28.6±6.7s, respec tively. The filtration time at rest in the soccer group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (p<0.001) . There were no significant differences in filtration time at rest between the control and gymnastics groups, and between the soccer and gymnastics groups. The filtration time after single aerobic exercise was significantly prolonged compared with that before (p<0.001) . The filtration time before and after anaerobic exercise and muscular exercise was not significantly changed. The degree of filtration time prolongation was significantly lower in groups who drank water compared to groups who did not (p<0.001) . The effect of taking a sauna on filtration time was not significant. These results indicates the effect of aerobic exercise on blood fluidity, and the importance of water intake during exercise.
We investigated biochemical and morphological changes in electrically stimulated gastrocnemius muscle of rats fed normal (20% casein) and low-protein (5% casein) diets. Tissue weight and protein content per tissue weight of gastrocnemius muscle were significantly decreased in rats fed 5% casein diet than in rats fed 20% casein diet. Immunohistochemically, cathepsin B antigen was detected in inflammatory cells, and injured sites determined immunological intensity of anti-cathepsin B were lower in 5% casein diet group than 20% casein diet group. Electron microscopically, there was delayed repairment of muscle components (sarcometric units) in 5% casein diet as compared with that in 20% casein diet group.
A study was performed to clarify the relationships between oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics on recovery from incremental maximal exercise and blood lactate, glucose and alanine metabolism. Eight healthy males aged 21.6±3.3 years were studied. The incremental exercise test was performed using a modified version of Bruce's protocol until 30 min after exhaustion. The VO2 responses on recovery were fitted by a two-component exponential model. Blood lactate concentration in the recovery phase was fitted by a bi-exponential time function to assess the velocity constant of the slowly decreasing component (γ2) expressing the rate of blood lactate removal. Both blood lactate and plasma alanine concentration were significantly increased from rest to maximal exercise, and were significantly decreased thereafter, but remained above resting values for 30 min after the maximal stage. Blood glucose concentration was significantly decreased following maximal exercise and returned to the pre-exercise value by 30 min after the maximal stage. Concentrations of plasma branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine and isoleucine) were significantly decreased from the maximal stage until 30 min after exhaustion. The time constant of the slow component on recovery VO2 [τVO2 (s) ] was correlated with neither γ2 nor the degree of change in blood lactate from the maximal stage until 30 min after exhaustion (Δlactate) . However, τVO2 (s) was significantly correlated with both Δ blood glucose and Δ alanine. In addition, Δ alanine was significantly correlated with Δ blood glucose. From these results, we conclude that oxygen uptake kinetics after exhaustive maximal exercise is related to glucose resynthesis through alanine metabolism, as compared with that from lactate metabolism.
It is generally accepted that visually impaired individuals generally have a low aerobic capacity, which may be partly attributed to a lack of physical activity, and have hypothesized that their response to exercise may differ from that of normal-sighted people. In this study, we investigated the effect of exercise on local immunity in the oral cavity in 24 visually impaired males (n=8 ; totally blind group, n=16 ; partially sighted group) and 8 normal-sighted males. The subjects performed submaximal graded bicycle ergometer exercise to an intensity of 75% heart rate max for 12 min. Before and immediately after exercise, we collected timed saliva samples and measured secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) . The totally blind group had lower levels of aerobic capacity and a lower sIgA secretion rate compared to the partially sighted and sighted groups. Immediately after exercise, the sIgA secretion rate tended to increase in the totally blind group. It is suggested that the exercise-induced response of local immunity in the totally blind group differed from that in the other groups.