Sacerdote reported that there was a decrease in the adrenal ascorbic acid content and an increase in the blood ascorbic acid content of guinea pigs exposed to a gradual reduction in O2 tension (10.5 to 3.5%) . Teppermann et a1. and Aschan observed the depletion of ascorbic acid in the adrenal cortex of rats exposed to anoxic hypoxia. Furthermore, Wachholder and Podesta, Ratsimamanga and Giroud, Namyslowski, Arai, and Ottowicz et al. observed a highly significant depletion of the adrenal ascorbic acid in rats subjected to experimental muscular exercise. These reports suggest that ascorbic acid plays an important role in the metabolism of an organism during hypoxia and exercise. Sayers concluded in his review that, in general, increased adrenocortical activity was associated with a reduction in the concentration of adrenal ascorbic acid. A number of physiological studies suggest that ascorbic acid plays an important role in adrenal cortex activity. However, the physiological role of ascorbic acid in the metabolic processes of the organ tissues during hypoxia and exercise is unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to determine the relations between the changes in ascorbic acid concentration in various organs under hypoxic conditions as well as during muscular exercise. Vitamin C (total ascorbic acid : T-AsA) consists of ascorbic acid (C6H8O6 ; AsA) and dehydroascorbic acid (C6H6O6; DHA) . The major purpose of this study was to elucidate the changes in the ratios of AsA and DHA to T-AsA in different organs during hypoxia and exercise.
The oxygen consumption during physical exercise is necessarily dependent upon the load on the muscle and also on the mass of muscles at work. In the present study maximal work has been performed by legs and arms plus legs in pedaling bicycle ergometer. Thirteen healty male students were studied. Group A consisted of eight Judoists, aged 18-21 years. Mean maximal oxygen uptake and max O2 uptake/kg for this group were obtained 3.41/min and 44.7 ml/kg/min respectively in legs bicycle exercise. Group B consisted of five long distance runners, aged 19 years, with mean max. O2-uptake of 3.31/min and max. O2-uptake/kg of 57.2 ml/kg/min. In arms plus legs bicycle exercise, max. VO2 and max. VO2/kg were an average value of 3.81/min and 49.8 ml/kg/min respectively for group A. For group B max. VO2 and max. VO2/kg averaged 3.61/min and 62.6 ml/kg/min respectively. Group A 12% significantly higher values for max. VO2 was attained in arms plus legs cycling (P<0.01), but group B 9% higher max. VO2 when arms plus legs cycling than when legs cycling was actually not a regular finding in the group. Max. VO2/kg in legs cycling was an average 9-11% lower than that on arms plus legs cycling. The differences were statistically significant for group A and group B. Only in group A was max. VO2 a little higher than in group B for legs cycling, but the differences was not statistically significant. Max. VO2/kg was statistically significantly higher in arms plus legs cycling with both group. In group A max. heart rate, tidal volume and O2-pulse were higher in arms plus legs cycling. Then max. heart rate and tidal volume were significantly higher in group A than on group B.
Sumo the Japanese traditional form of wrestling is a unique and very popular sport, and particularly among the professionals the ancient ceremonial rites are still in practice. The wrestlers are of gigantic stature and consist mostly of men of the pyknic type and are considered to possess great strength. Actually, the Shindeshi or novices are selected from boys under 18 years of age and having a body height of over 170 cm and weighing over 70 kg. The present paper deals with a study on the physique and physical fitness of 103 Shindeshi who entered the professional Sumo world in 1970 and 1971. The results of the investigation were as follows: 1) The average age and body measurements of the experimental subjects are shown in Table 1. The average body height and average body weight of 174.5 com and 90.9 kg, respectively, of the Shindeshi when compared to those of the average 16 year old male, are remarkably great. Of particular interest are the girth measurements which showed remarkable development: chest, 103.4 cm, waist, 93.0cm and hip, 105.0cm. 2) As a result, Rohrer's index was found to 171.8 and the average of the total skinfold thickness (upper arm, back, abdomen) was 81.3 mm indicating a remarkably pyknic type. Consequently, it is only natural that high correlation values of 0.927 and 0.937, respectively, for the waist and outstretched upper arm are established. 3) Body density computed by Nagamine and Suzuki's equation was found to be 1.034 and body fat calculated by Keys and Brozek's equation was found to be 25.3%, both indicating values twice as high as those of the average male of comparable age, proving that the Shindeshi belong to the ultra-pyknic type. 4) Results of measurements of muscle strength and motor capacity are shown in Table 4 and in Fig. 1 these measurements are compared to the average male of comparable age. The average back strength was 152.9 kg and the average grip strength, 52.0 kg, indicating remarkably higher values than the average youth. However, it is noteworthy that according to the results of physical fitness tests provided by the Ministry of Education including forward flexibilit, backward flexibility, vertical jump, and step test, the Shindeshi were found to have inferior motor capacity than the average youths of comparable age. 5) And, as shown in Table 4 a significant inverse relation was found between motor capacity and skinf old thickness Rohrer's index and body fat. 6) Three groups totalling 12 Shindeshi were formed according to the degree of skinfold thickness in order to determine their work capacity. The bicycle ergometer was used and the maximal oxygen uptake of the experimental subjects was measured (Table 6) . Proportionate to their large physique, the maximal oxygen uptake was comparatively high (3.6-3.91), however, when converted into the uptake per kilogram of body weight, it was found that although higher than the average youths of comparable age, the uptake (46.9ml/kg-32.0m1/kg) was lower than that of sportsmen in other field of sport. From the foregoing, it may be inferred that the Shindeshi, although large in physique lack endurance as attested by a compartively low oxygen uptake. It is also interesting to note that from the special characteristics of Sumo this capacity to endure is not necessarily required.