1) 非酵素的糖付加反応によって修飾されたウシ血清アルブミンはEx max 350nm, Em max 430nmの蛍光特性を示した。 2) ヒトの新鮮血液から分離したアルブミンはEx max 346nm, Em max 450nmの蛍光特性を示した。この血漿にグルコースを加えてインキュベーションすると糖濃度に依存して蛍光強度は増加し, 同時にEm maは450nmから430nmへ, シフトした。これらの蛍光はMaillard反応の後期段階の生成物によるものと思われる。 3) ヒト血清アルブミンのmg当りの蛍光強度 (Ex 346nm, Em 450nm) は糖尿病患者群 (n=18) では健常者群 (n=10) に比べて有意 (p<0.01) に高い値を示した。
To assess loss of the minerals; Na, K, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu during cooking, their contents in food were determined before and after cooking. The results obtained were as follows. 1) The mineral contents in cooked food were on average about 75% of those in raw or uncooked food. 2) Among various cooking methods, loss of minerals was largest for squeezing after boiling and for soaking in water after thin slicing, followed by parching, frying and stewing. 3) Cooking losses were almost the same for both large-scale and home cooking. 4) Measures for preventing cooking loss are (1) eating with soup after boiling, (2) addition of a small amount of salt (about 1% NaCl) when boiling, (3) avoidance of excessive boiling, and (4) selection of a cooking method causing less mineral loss (stewing, frying or parching).
The effect of dietary intake of selenium-rich food (bread, meat, eggs and fish) on plasma, erythrocytes and urinary selenium concentration was studied. plasma, erythrocytes and urinary selenium levels in healthy male (n=25) and female (n=13) subjects were determined fluorometrically and the weekly intake of seleniumrich foods was assessed using a simplified questionnaire. Geometrical mean values of selenium levels were as follows: plasma (ng/ml), 122 (male) and 118 (female); erythrocytes (ng/ml), 233 (male) and 175 (female); urine (μg/g creatinine), 25 (male) and 30 (female). Erythrocyte selenium concentrations were significantly correlated with weekly fish intake (r=0.411, p<0.05 (female+male) or r=0.453, p<0.05 (male)). Neither plasma nor urinary selenium concentrations were correlated with weekly intake of selenium-rich foad. Intake of seleniumrich food at breakfast on the day of blood or urine sampling and at supper on the preceding day were also assessed by the questionnaire. Subjects who consumed two or more selenium-rich foods at these two meals showed higher urinary selenium excretion than other subjects. These results indicate that the dietary habit of fish consumption is the main factor influencing the erythrocyte selenium concentration in Japanese, and that urinary selenium excretion is altered by intake of selenium-rich food before urine sampling.