Objective Nocturia is a common reason for interrupted sleep in post-stroke patients. These patients often have neurogenic bladder overactivity. However, little is known about the possible contribution of nocturnal polyuria in the patients. Methods We measured the number of nocturia, the circadian plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level and urinary excretion in 4 patients with stroke. Results All patients had nocturnal urinary frequency (three times in one and twice in 3). All patients were revealed to have nocturnal polyuria, and the ratio of nocturnal urinary output to 24 hour volume ranged from 36% to 63%. Measurement of daily plasma AVP variation showed that all patients lost normal nocturnal rise of the plasma AVP concentration. Two patients were successfully treated with 5 μg of intranasal desmopressin once a night, a potent analogue of AVP, without hypertension particularly in the night, signs of congestive cardiac failure or any electrolyte abnormality such as hyponatremia. Conclusion Our post-stroke patients had nocturnal polyuria with abnormal circadian rhythm of plasma AVP secretion. Desmopressin reduced nocturnal waking in urination. It also ameliorated nocturnal dehydration that might trigger a stroke recurrence in the patients.
The HFE, H ferritin, TFR2, and ferroportin 1 genes of a Japanese patient diagnosed as having hemochromatosis were amplified by PCR and sequenced. A novel mutation in the ferroportin 1 was found in the patient. It was located in the noncoding region of the ferroportin 1; nucleotide 117 adenine was changed to guanine, 7 nucleotides downstream the iron responsive element (IRE) region. This mutation was not found in the patient's son or daughter, or in 50 healthy individuals. It was suggested that the mutation in the ferroportin 1 may be related to hemochromatosis of this patient.
We describe a rare case of hemoperitoneum secondary to spontaneous rupture of hepatic metastasis from lung cancer. A 72-year-old man with non-small cell lung cancer was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of right upper abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock. Laboratory tests showed severe anemia. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed massive ascites and multiple liver metastases. Rupture of a metastatic liver tumor was suspected. Only palliative therapy was performed. The patient’s general condition gradually worsened, and he died 2 months after admission. Autopsy examination revealed hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured metastatic liver tumor originating from pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma.
A 45-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of chronic hepatitis C and a large liver tumor accompanied by increased serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), the tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. Endoscopic examination revealed advanced gastric cancer. Biopsy specimens of the stomach and liver showed gastric adenocarcinoma and its metastasis to the liver. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that adenocarcinoma cells both of the stomach and liver, were positive for the antibodies against AFP as well as DCP. Expression of AFP mRNA was shown in the cancer cells of the stomach. Accordingly, we diagnosed this patient with AFP- and DCP-producing adenocarcinoma of the stomach together with liver metastasis.
A 61-year-old man admitted in July 1998 had suffered from thirst, polydipsia and polyuria for three years. Diet and transient insulin therapy had induced good blood glucose control which was maintained by metformin hydrochloride for a year. Although it worsened, conventional insulin treatment re-implemented good blood glucose control. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Ab) had been negative up to this point. After 8 months, blood glucose levels became elevated. To date, the GAD-Ab has been positive (112-120 U/ml), and the serum and urine C-peptide levels are decreased. Seroconversion of GAD-Ab should be noted in patients initially diagnosed as having GAD-Ab negative type 2 diabetes mellitus.
An increased prevalence of the association between autoimmune thyroid diseases and ulcerative colitis has been suggested, however, not with Crohn’s disease, as only 7 cases of thyroid disease coexisting with Crohn’s disease have been reported. Herein, we describe 2 patients with Crohn’s disease complicated with Graves’ disease or autoimmune thyroiditis, and also review other cases with those complications. Some immunological processes are suggested to be implicated in the pathogenesis of this association, however, the exact mechanism remains unclear.
We herein report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with acromegaly. Although serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased after the resection of a pituitary adenoma, levels of serum 1á, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D] decreased but remained above the normal upper limit. After resection of a parathyroid adenoma, serum PTH, 1, 25(OH)2D, calcium (Ca), and phosphate were all normalized. Since serum 1, 25(OH)2D levels decreased in spite of the increase in serum PTH levels after normalization of levels of growth hormone (GH), GH may have contributed to the elevation of serum 1, 25(OH)2D. It is therefore suggested that the mechanism by which elevation of serum 1, 25(OH)2D occurred in the present case may involve an increase in serum GH distinct from the PTH-mediated pathway.
We report an 83-year-old Japanese male with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), which was marked by unusually enlarged kidneys, and in whom ileus occurred after administration of procainamide. The bowels became swollen and ruptured the skin and appeared on the outside of the skin. Even after the ileus state was resolved, the projected intestinal tract was not restored due to a large defect of the skin, and ostomy was performed. Abdominal hernia including lateral ventral hernia due to enlarged kidneys may result in perforation of the abdominal wall as well as intestinal wall.
A 51-year-old woman developed small cell lung cancer (SCLC). She was a non-smoker and had interstitial pneumonia associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Sixteen additional cases obtained from the literature describing patients with SCLC associated with SSc are reviewed. The majority of patients were women with underlying interstitial pneumonia. In 3 patients who were non-smokers, interstitial pneumonia was complicated and cancer had developed in the peripheral lung field but not in the central lung field. Since SCLC is very rare in non-smokers, these findings suggest a positive association between SCLC and interstitial pneumonia associated with SSc.
We report a case of a patient with anti PL-12 antibody accompanied by interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary hypertension. At first presentation, hyperkeratotic skin lesions were found, although the diagnosis of CVD was not conclusive. Lung histology showed diffuse fibrosing interstitial pneumonia predominantly in the subpleural regions. During the seven-year follow-up period, severe pulmonary hypertension developed, although the progression of lung fibrosis was relatively limited. Anti-PL12 antibody was detected, and therefore the patient was diagnosed as having antisynthetase syndrome. Lung histology and pulmonary arteriogram suggested that vascular involvement of the disease contributed to the development of severe pulmonary hypertension.
We report a case of a 53-year-old man with Behçet’s disease (BD) and paradoxical stroke. This patient suddenly developed sensory aphasia, right oculomotor palsy, nystagmus, and left ataxic hemiparesis. MR images showed fresh embolic infarcts in the midbrain and the left parietotemporal lobe. He presented with uveitis, oral aphthous ulcers and genital ulcers. An electrocardiogram revealed no abnormalities, and a transesophageal echocardiogram disclosed a patent foramen ovale. Since venous involvement is common in BD, we suspected the presence of smaller thrombi probable in this patient. We conclude that embolic stroke is a notable complication of BD with right-to-left shunting.
A mother and a child with maternally inherited diabetes and deafness (MIDD) showing atrophy of the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were reported. The proband had slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and her son had depression. Mitochondrial DNA purified from their leucocytes had the heteroplasmic point mutation at position 3243 (A→G). Involvement of the central nervous system should be considered in MIDD as well as in other mitochondrial diseases.
Here we report the first case of spontaneous occurrence of Haemophilus influenzae type B meningoventriculitis. A 47-year-old man suffered from fever and headache. He had neck stiffness, and his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was turbid and yellowish. Gram staining and latex agglutination test of his CSF indicated that Haemophilus influenzae type B was the causative organism. Cranial CT and MRI revealed right ventricular debris accumulation, periventricular hyperintense signal, and periventricular ependymal enhancement. He was treated with intravenous administration of antibiotics, and his clinical condition and MRI findings gradually improved. Six weeks after onset, he was discharged without sequelae.
A 68-year-old woman with Felty’s syndrome was admitted to our hospital due to breathlessness. She was diagnosed as having rheumatoid arthritis at age 59 years. Abdominal computed tomography indicated ascites, splenomegaly and liver atrophy. She had no antigens or antibodies for hepatitis virus, or antibodies for mitochondria with the exception of antinuclear antibody. According to the International Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) scoring system, she was diagnosed as having chronic hepatitis, compatible with AIH. The association of Felty’s syndrome with AIH is very rare and the most difficult problem to overcome is whether or not steroid therapy is necessary in patients with Felty’s syndrome complicated by AIH.
During the epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome in 2003, a 27-year- old Japanese woman presented a high fever and acute respiratory distress with pulmonary infiltrates after traveling to a high-risk area. An alternative diagnosis was made as Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, based on the proliferation of macrophages with hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow and Epstein-Barr viral marker profiles. Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome in an international traveler should be included in the differential diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome.
We describe a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) complicated with retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a 56-year-old man. After administration of vancomycin and lavage of the retropharyngeal space with gentamicin, complete resolution of the RPA was observed. Despite their lower frequency, deep neck infections are associated with high mortality rates. The possibility of RPA should be considered in patients who present with fever, dysphagia and limitation of neck extension. Lavage of the retropharyngeal abscess with gentamicin may be optimal in cases of large RPA.
A case of Lemierre’s syndrome is reported in which metastatic abscesses resulted from septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein secondary to bacterial pharyngitis. A 32-year-old male suffering from a painful left-sided neck mass, sore throat, and fever was admitted to our hospital. Computed tomography revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein, septic pulmonary emboli, and a liver abscess. Blood culture showed Porphyromonas asaccharolytica. Although empyema occurred transiently during the treatment, the patient recovered following prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Although Fusobacterium species are a well-known cause of Lemierre’s syndrome, cases in whom Porphyromonas species was isolated have scarcely been reported. Moreover, case reports from Japan have been few.