Objective Accumulating evidence suggests that the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients, although the results are inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether PPI use is associated with SBP in Japan, where the administration of PPIs is strictly regulated. Methods In this single-center retrospective study, we reviewed 65 patients with liver cirrhosis who were admitted between January 2008 and January 2013 due to ascites. The administration of any PPI for at least one week prior to admission was regarded as PPI use. Results Eighteen cirrhotic patients with SBP and 47 without SBP were identified. Both the serum bilirubin levels and international normalized ratio (INR) values were significantly elevated in the patients with SBP (p=0.007, 0.002). The model for end-stage liver disease scores (mean±SD) were 16.1±9.9 and 12.5±9.3 in those with and without SBP (p=0.009), respectively. PPIs were used in 16 out 18 in patients with SBP and 27 of 47 patients without SBP (p=0.002). A multivariate analysis identified INR (odds ratio (OR)=15.3, 95% CI 2.96-76.9, p=0.001) and PPI use (OR=6.41, 95% CI=1.16-35.7, p=0.033) to be independent risk factors for SBP. Conclusion The use of PPIs in cirrhotic patients with ascites is independently associated with SBP in the Japanese clinical setting.
An 88-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital for abdominal pain with a raised inflammatory reaction. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and computed tomography (CT) showed a duodenal ulcer punching a liver cyst. Since neither ascites nor free air were detected on CT and her family did not wish for aggressive medical treatment, the patient received clinical observation and conservative management. Antibiotic and proton-pump inhibitor therapy was effective, and she exhibited an uneventful recovery. A reexamination of EGD and CT confirmed that the fistulous tract between the liver cyst and duodenum was blockaded.
A 69-year-old man underwent endoscopic mucosal resection of a solitary polyp located in the cecum. After the procedure, a fecal mass and appendiceal orifice appeared under the cut surface. A diagnosis of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia was made based on the results of an immunostaining analysis, which revealed a segregated population of T cells and B cells in multiple lymphoid follicles. The aggregation of adipocytes forming a lipomatous area and granulation tissue was also observed. We speculate that the compaction of the fecal mass in the appendix triggered mucosal inflammation, resulting in the formation of the polyp, which concealed both the feces and appendiceal orifice.
Adenocarcinomas arising from the ectopic pancreas in the gastrointestinal wall are rarely described in the literature. In addition, obtaining an accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult in most cases because these adenocarcinomas occur primarily in the submucosal layer and form submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration and endoscopic mucosal resection with a transparent plastic cap-fitted panendoscope followed by a biopsy are useful for histological typing and making the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, malignant lymphoma or other. These procedures represent the first step toward diagnosing ectopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We herein report two such cases with a review of the pertinent literature.
Isolated left ventricular noncompaction (IVNC) is a rare congenital form of cardiomyopathy. Verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia is a rare arrhythmogenic condition characterized by a right bundle-branch block pattern and left-axis deviation with a relatively narrow QRS complex. We herein present the case of a patient with IVNC who presented with verapamil-sensitive fascicular ventricular tachycardia.
The rupture of spontaneous dissecting coronary artery pseudoaneurysms is rare, and no standard therapy has yet been established for this condition. This report describes a case of a ruptured spontaneous dissecting coronary artery pseudoaneurysm in a patient with cardiac tamponade that was successfully treated with emergent implantation of a covered stent.
Various unmeasured anions other than lactate appear in the blood of septic patients, including ketones. However, the occurrence of sepsis-induced ketoacidosis without diabetes mellitus has not been reported to date. We herein describe severe ketoacidosis in a patient with septic shock despite the absence of diabetes, alcohol and starvation. A 76-year-old woman presented with septic shock due to acute obstructive cholangitis. She exhibited ketoacidosis and a remarkably strong ion gap, except for ketones. Sepsis alone may lead to ketoacidosis in patients without diabetes under specific conditions. The accumulation of ketones and other strong anions can occur in cases involving a decreased metabolic function. There may be a pathological condition called septic ketoacidosis.
A 53-year-old woman was admitted with right massive transudative pleural effusion and acute renal failure. The amount of pleural fluid reduced in response to treatment with hydration and diuretics; however, the effusion recurred one month later. We suspected the presence of a right pleuroperitoneal communication allowing pleural fluid to accumulate from an origin of ascites triggered by renal failure. Chest computed tomography following pleural drainage revealed a small nodule in the right upper lobe of the lung. A diagnosis of T1aN0M0 lung adenocarcinoma was made based on the results of various examinations, including bronchoscopy. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed, and the presence of a small hole communicating between the pleural and peritoneal cavities was confirmed in the right diaphragm during the surgery.
We experienced two patients with chronic coughs whose symptoms persisted after initial treatment under a diagnosis of suspected upper airway cough syndrome or cough variant asthma. Neither patient exhibited daytime somnolence, although both were subsequently found to have severe obstructive sleep apnea. Following the administration of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the cough symptoms rapidly improved in both cases. These cases represent the first reports of obstructive sleep apnea-induced chronic cough in Japan.
Acquired coagulation factor deficiency is a rare disorder that occurs in patients with drug reactions, malignancy and collagen diseases as well as during pregnancy. Most cases are caused by factor VIII inhibitors. We herein describe the case of a 61-year-old Japanese man with acquired factor V inhibitor who developed symptoms 11 days after lung surgery for empyema. The patient required mechanical ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure due to severe pulmonary hemorrhage. He responded poorly to steroid pulse therapy; however, treatment with rituximab was successful.
Zygomycosis is a lethal and invasive mold infection that is often associated with hematological malignancies. The keys for successful treatment include making a rapid diagnosis and appropriately administering antifungal agents. We herein report the early diagnosis of a case of zygomycosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia using a deoxyribonucleic acid sequence analysis. We successfully performed allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with the use of high-dose liposomal amphotericin B and granulocyte transfusion.
Recently, we encountered three patients infected with an avian influenza A virus (H7N9) who exhibited upper respiratory catarrh symptoms, pharyngalgia, a high fever and hypodynamia in the early stages of the disease. Their conditions deteriorated rapidly, and one-sided pneumonia progressed to two-sided pneumonia. The patients developed respiratory failure and even acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). One patient experienced numbness of the lower limbs, urinary retention and fecal incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spinal cord indicated edema at the thoracic level, and the patient was diagnosed with acute myelitis. This report details the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with H7N9-induced pneumonia associated with acute myelitis.