Objective We explored the clinicopathological characteristics and disease frequency of oxyntic gland neoplasms (OGNs).
Methods We retrospectively evaluated the data of patients pathologically diagnosed with OGN at an internal medicine clinic.
Patients A total of 13,240 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed on 7,488 patients between December 1, 2017, and March 31, 2021.
Results We identified 27 patients with 30 histopathologically confirmed OGNs, yielding a disease frequency of 0.36% (27/7,488). Furthermore, multiple simultaneous lesions were found in 3 of 27 patients (11%). One (3.3%) of the 30 lesions was present in the antrum, whereas the remaining lesions occurred in the body of the stomach. Nine (33%) of the 27 patients had no history of Helicobacter pylori infection, whereas the remaining 18 (67%) were either currently or had been previously infected. Nevertheless, 27/30 lesions (90%) still occurred in non-atrophied regions. After endoscopic treatment, a histopathological examination of the resected specimens revealed submucosal infiltration in 8 (44%) of the 18 lesions; however, none of the lesions showed submucosal desmoplasia. For all patients with submucosal involvement, only observation was performed. There were no recurrent lesions found on follow-up.
Conclusion The period prevalence of OGN was 0.36%, which is much higher than previously reported. The discovery of a small submucosal appearing lesion with a faded yellow or white color and dilated microvasculature, especially in a non-atrophic area of the stomach, should raise suspicion for an OGN, which can be endoscopically managed.
Objective This study was performed to clarify the prevalence of raspberry-type gastric foveolar-type tumors, along with the time-course changes in the size and clinical course.
Methods The subjects were 10,663 consecutive patients who underwent a medical checkup between April 2016 and March 2022, including an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examination and determination of Helicobacter pylori infection status (uninfected, positive, post-eradication). The presence of characteristic reddish polypoid lesions in the stomach was investigated, and a diagnosis of raspberry-type gastric foveolar-type tumor was made based on histological findings.
Results Thirty-eight cases had gastric polyps with a raspberry-like appearance on endoscopy, with 29 lesions in 28 cases endoscopically and histologically diagnosed as a raspberry-type gastric foveolar-type tumor. All of the affected subjects were determined to be H. pylori-uninfected. The prevalence of this type of lesion in all subjects was 0.26%, while that in the 6,635 H. pylori-uninfected subjects was 0.42%. An older age and the presence of a fundic gland polyp were found to be significant risk factors associated with the occurrence of the tumor. The mean size was 3.8±1.9 (range: 2-10) mm, and the location was in a fundic gland area in all affected subjects. Furthermore, examinations of previous EGD images revealed that two-thirds of the lesions had not changed in size, while follow-up EGD findings showed that lesions ≤5 mm in size had disappeared after a biopsy procedure.
Conclusion The prevalence of raspberry-type gastric foveolar-type tumors was 0.42% in H. pylori-uninfected subjects. More than half of the lesions were too small to be removed by an endoscopic biopsy.
Objective The effect of sarcopenia on the prognosis of patients undergoing chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma remains largely unexplored. In this retrospective study, we investigated the relationship between sarcopenia and the prognosis of patients receiving first-line nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel plus gemcitabine for unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Methods We enrolled 251 patients with unresectable metastatic or locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who had received chemotherapy between January 2015 and December 2020 at Kitasato University Hospital. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the stratified Cox proportional hazards model to determine variables significantly associated with the progression-free and overall survival. Propensity score matching was performed to mitigate selection bias effects.
Results In the propensity score-matched cohort, the progression-free and overall survival were not significantly different between the sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups (p=0.335, and 0.679 respectively). The skeletal muscle index decreased by 4.4% and 6.5% in the sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups, respectively, during the early treatment phase (p=0.084). There were no significant differences between groups with regard to major adverse events or drug toxicity occurrences. Both the progression-free and overall survival were significantly shorter in the skeletal muscle index loss group than in the non-skeletal muscle index loss group (p=0.026 and 0.045, respectively).
Conclusion Skeletal muscle index loss during the initial treatment phase may be an early marker for the long-term prognosis of patients receiving nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as first-line treatment for unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Objective A positive hemoculture in acute cholangitis is serious, but a blood culture result cannot be obtained at the initial diagnosis and so cannot be used for the severity assessment and decision-making concerning urgent/early biliary drainage. Accordingly, a predictor for bacteremia at the initial diagnosis of acute cholangitis would be particularly useful. We investigated the association between neutrophil proportions in white blood cell counts (%Neutro) and bacteremic acute cholangitis.
Methods Of 166 patients with acute cholangitis who were diagnosed with the Tokyo Guidelines 2018/2013 from April 2015 to March 2017, a total of 94 underwent blood culture assessments and were divided into those with a positive hemoculture (n=48) and a negative hemoculture (n=46) and then compared. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive ability of %Neutro and other inflammatory markers.
Results The %Neutro values were significantly higher in the positive hemoculture group than in the negative hemoculture group (91.7±4.0% vs. 82.5±9.0%, p<0.0001). A cut-off %Neutro value of 89.7% was strongly associated with bacteremia (area under the curve 0.86, sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 80.4%). A %Neutro of ≥89.7% was a predictor of a positive hemoculture in univariate (p<0.0001) and multivariate analyses (p<0.001). Patients with a %Neutro ≥89.7% needed early biliary drainage more frequently than others (30/46, 65.2% vs. 18/48, 37.5%, p=0.0063).
Conclusion %Neutro is an independent predictor of bacteremia in patients with acute cholangitis and may contribute to decision-making concerning early biliary drainage.
Objective Allergic reactions are a severe complication of plasma exchange (PEx). Few reports have analyzed allergic reactions during PEx using fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) as a replacement solution. We therefore clarified the relationship between risk and exacerbation factors that lead to the onset of PEx-related allergic reactions, particularly PEx, using FFP, and examined whether or not allergic reactions were predictable.
Methods This retrospective study included 88 consecutive patients who underwent PEx with FFP as a replacement solution at Kitasato University Hospital. The patients were grouped according to the presence of allergic reactions and compared. Data were analyzed using the χ2 test, Mann-Whitney U test, and a binomial logistic analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using EZR software program, version 1.54, with p<0.05 considered statistically significant.
Results There were 44 allergic reaction cases. The average time to the onset of an allergic reactions was 63.5 (45-93) minutes. The allergic reaction-onset group had significantly higher average albumin (Alb) levels than did the non-allergic reaction-onset group. The binomial logistic analysis identified Alb levels as independent risk factors for allergic reactions. The receiver operating characteristic analysis identified an Alb level ≥3.4 g/dL as a risk factor for allergic reactions (area under the curve: 0.731; 95% confidence interval: 0.622-0.84).
Conclusion Allergic reaction onset occurred approximately one hour after PEx initiation in the critical period. A serum Alb level ≥3.4 g/dL was identified as a risk factor for predicting allergic reactions. Patients with Alb levels ≥3.4 g/dL at the first PEx should be monitored for allergic reaction symptoms.
Objective In recent decades, living conditions have changed drastically. However, there are few data regarding the interaction between living conditions and the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults. The present study explored the association between living conditions or marital status and the risk factors, etiology, and outcome of IS in young adults.
Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with incident IS who were 20-49 years old from 37 clinical stroke centers. We collected the demographic data, living conditions, marital status, vascular risk factors, disease etiology, treatment, and outcomes at discharge. A comparison group was established using the official statistics of Japan. We categorized patients into the two groups based on living conditions: solitary group and cohabiting group. Clinical characteristics were then compared between living conditions.
Results In total, 303 patients were enrolled (224 men; median age at the onset: 44 years old). Significant factors associated with the incidence of IS were as follows: solitary status, body mass index >30 kg/m2, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, in the solitary group, the proportions of men, unmarried individuals, and current smokers were significantly higher than in the cohabiting group. In addition, poor outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≥4) of IS were more common in the solitary group than in the cohabiting group.
Conclusion Our study showed that not only conventional vascular risk factors but also living conditions, especially living alone while unmarried, were independent risk factors for IS in young adults.
Objectives This study investigated factors associated with tooth loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods A total of 429 patients with RA were enrolled in the study. We examined tooth loss and clinical data. Patients were classified into two groups: a group with tooth loss (tooth loss-positive group), and a group without tooth loss (tooth loss-negative group). Patients were included in the tooth loss-positive group if they had fewer remaining teeth than the number defined by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan to be the normal number teeth for that age and sex. Factors associated with tooth loss were analyzed by comparing the tooth loss-positive and loss-negative groups.
Results The frequency of patients with tooth loss was 39.6%. The factors associated with tooth loss were smoking [odds ratio (OR) 1.638; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.165-2.302], serum levels of albumin (OR 0.325; 95% CI 0.149-0.707) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (OR 0.947; 95% CI 0.915-0.980), and total hip T score (OR 0.713; 95% CI 0.535-0.950).
Conclusion This study revealed that tooth loss is associated with smoking, serum levels of albumin and 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and the total hip T score in patients with RA. Our findings may help prevent tooth loss in patients with RA.
Objective In routine practice, central venous ports without blood return (CVPWBRs) are common. However, very few studies have reported on the viable period of CVPWBR use. We therefore investigated this period by retrospectively analyzing the venographic images of CVPWBRs.
Methods We examined patients' venography through the CVPs at the point when they became CVPWBRs for the first time and analyzed the reasons for becoming CVPWBRs. For patients with minor complications of CVPs or normal venographic findings, we used the Kaplan-Meier method to evaluate the period for which such CVPWBRs could be used.
Patients Eighty-four patients with malignancy whose CVPs became CVPWBRs for the first time between July 31, 2015, and March 12, 2020, were included.
Results Nine (10.7%) patients had major complications that made the CVPs unusable. Thirty-three (39.3%) patients had minor complications, and the remaining 42 (50.0%) had normal venographic findings. For the 75 patients with minor complications or normal venographic findings who continued to use their CVPWBRs, the Kaplan-Meier method estimated that 25% of complications that might make it unusable would occur within 1,273 days.
Conclusion There are two learning points in our study. First, venography is needed when the CVP becomes a CVPWBR for the first time due to the high risk, and second, CVPWBRs can be used for a relatively long period in patients without major complications. It is necessary to develop an appropriate follow-up management method for CVPWBRs in prospective studies.
A 70-year-old Japanese man with a submucosal gastric mass that continued to increase in size underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection using the pocket creation method. Histologically, some epithelial cell nuclei were enlarged, but there was little atypia overall and no sign of malignancy, suggesting a diagnosis of submucosal heterotopic gastric gland (SHGG). SHGG that enlarges over time has been associated with gastric cancer, but a preoperative diagnosis is difficult. This case was very valuable, as it enabled us to follow the course of SHGG over a period of about nine years, from the onset to enlargement.
Left-sided portal hypertension (LSPH) is a condition of extrahepatic portal hypertension that often results in bleeding from isolated gastric varices (GVs). LSPH is sometimes caused by myeloproliferative diseases, such as essential thrombocythemia (ET). We herein report two cases of GVs with LSPH due to ET that were successfully controlled by gastric devascularization (GDS) or partial splenic embolization (PSE). Since each patient with LSPH due to ET has a different pathology, optimal treatment should be performed depending on the patient's condition, such as platelet counts, hemodynamics, or the prognosis. We believe that these cases will serve as a reference for future cases.
A 74-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of slightly elevated tumor marker levels. Computed tomography revealed a well-demarcated tumor, approximately 15 mm in diameter, in the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration findings suggested poorly differentiated cancer. The tumor was surgically resected, but postoperative pathologic confirmation was not possible. After one year without treatment and no recurrence, an evaluation by a specialized facility was requested for a definitive diagnosis. Adenomatoid tumor was deemed most likely based on the histopathology and immunostaining findings; however, a definitive diagnosis was difficult because of atypical findings. The patient was recurrence-free for 36 months at the last follow-up.
A 76-year-old man undergoing hemodialysis complained of pain and discoloration of his right finger. The hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula was in the right upper extremity. Ultrasonography showed right subclavian artery occlusion. The lesion could not be approached from the lower extremity and olecranon artery. Thus, we performed the procedure after exposing the proximal brachial artery. We were able to recanalize the subclavian artery and restore blood flow to the right upper extremity. When the lesion is on the side of the arteriovenous fistula and approaching from the lower extremity is difficult, exposure of the proximal brachial artery can be considered.
A 59-year-old man developed diabetes at 24 years old and underwent hemodialysis at 42 years old. At 54 years old, cardiac dysfunction with left ventricular hypertrophy was detected, followed by complete atrioventricular block at 57 years old. The patient was diagnosed with mitochondrial disease based on a myocardial biopsy and the presence of a mitochondrial DNA mutation (3243A>G). He died of septic shock at 59 years old, and an autopsy confirmed mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. If progressive cardiac hypertrophy and conduction disturbances are observed in patients with diabetes mellitus on long-term hemodialysis, mitochondrial disease needs to be considered.
Myoglobin is a well-known cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) due to rhabdomyolysis. However, whether or not removing serum myoglobin by on-line hemodiafiltration (OHDF) improves the kidney function remains unclear. We herein report a patient with a history of methamphetamine abuse who developed AKI due to rhabdomyolysis. A urinalysis and blood collection results obtained before and after OHDF demonstrated that OHDF improved the kidney function by removing a large amount of serum myoglobin rather than via urinary excretion. In conclusion, OHDF may prevent AKI progression effectively when the urine volume is insufficient.
Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a severe urinary tract infection common in patients with diabetes. Nephrectomy is recommended when the Huang classification is ≥3B. We herein report a case in which nephrectomy was avoided using antimicrobial agents and percutaneous drainage (PCD). A 59-year-old man was diagnosed with EPN (Huang classification 3B). The causative bacteria were Escherichia coli. Despite high-risk factors, EPN was cured with kidney preservation and PCD because the emphysema and abscess were not extensive. Thus, PCD should be considered in patients with Huang Class 3B EPN and high-risk factors if emphysema and abscess are not extensive.
Primary tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (TACC) is a rare malignancy without an established treatment. Central airway obstruction due to TACC often decreases the quality of life and has life-threatening consequences. A 19-year-old man with unresectable TACC and central airway obstruction suffered from progressive cough and dyspnea after exercise. Proton beam therapy (PBT) was selected as the preferred treatment over systemic anti-cancer chemotherapy for TACC. PBT led to complete remission of TACC and the almost complete disappearance of the respiratory symptoms without adverse events. PBT is a useful and safe treatment for unresectable primary TACC.
Desminopathy is a cardiac and skeletal myopathy caused by disease-causing variants in the desmin (DES) gene and represents a subgroup of myofibrillar myopathies, where cytoplasmic desmin-postive immunoreactivity is the pathological hallmark. We herein report a 28-year-old Japanese man who was initially diagnosed with sporadic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with atrioventricular block at 9 years old and developed weakness in the soft palate and extremities. The myocardial tissue dissected during implantation of the ventricular-assisted device showed a dilated phase of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and intracellular accumulation of proteinase K-resistant desmin aggregates. Genetic testing confirmed a de novo mutation of DES, which has already been linked to desminopathy. As the molecular diagnosis of desminopathy is challenging, particularly if patients show predominantly cardiac signs and a routine skeletal muscle biopsy is unavailable, these characteristic pathological findings of endomyocardial proteinase K-resistant desmin aggregates might aid in clinical practice.
An 80-year-old woman presented with impaired consciousness after malignant melanoma resection. Magnetic resonance angiography showed basilar artery occlusion, which was subjected to mechanical thrombectomy for recanalization. A pathological analysis of the retrieved embolus revealed that it was derived from a metastasis of malignant melanoma. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography showed multiple pulmonary metastases, one of which was in the right upper lobe and invaded the pulmonary vein. To our knowledge, this is the first case of white embolus-induced cerebral embolism due to pulmonary vein invasion of a metastasis of a pathologically diagnosed malignant melanoma.
A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with numbness in her lower extremities and hypereosinophilia. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). On admission, she was suspected of being complicated with pneumonia and sepsis; therefore, treatment with mepolizumab monotherapy was begun, resulting in partial improvement. After the possibility of a complicating infection was ruled out, corticosteroids were initiated, followed by intravenous gamma globulin therapy. Although the induction of remission of EGPA with mepolizumab monotherapy is not usually recommended, induction with mepolizumab monotherapy may be an option in terms of safety and clinical efficacy in some cases.
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is characterized by high spiking fever, evanescent rash, and arthritis. However, AOSD rarely presents with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). We herein present the case of a 56-year-old woman with new-onset AOSD who rapidly developed AKI. A physical examination and laboratory data revealed spiking fever, evanescent rash, thrombocytopenia, hyperferritinemia, and azotemia. The patient was diagnosed with AOSD complicated by AKI and macrophage activation syndrome. Treatment with high-dose steroids, hemodialysis, and plasma exchange successfully resolved her AKI. In this report, we review previously published reports on AOSD accompanied by AKI and discuss this rare complication in AOSD.
The development of allergic diseases is common in the young but rare in the elderly. We encountered an elderly patient with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA). An 82-year-old man was rushed to the hospital for symptoms of anaphylaxis. Because the symptoms occurred after ingestion of wheat products and exercise, we made a diagnosis of FDEIA based on a high ω5-gliadin IgE level and a positive exercise test. Based on our review of the existing literature, this was the oldest patient to ever be diagnosed with FDEIA in Japan. This case suggests that physicians should keep in mind that older adults can develop FDEIA.
A 53-year-old immunocompetent man was admitted to our hospital because of paroxysmal cough with a low fever for more than 5 months. On admission, chest computed tomography showed multiple plaques and nodules, some with small central cavities, in both lungs and cystic and columnar bronchiectasis of the right middle bronchus. Treatment with various antibiotics was ineffective. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed Nocardia terpenica, and this organism was cultured from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, resulting in a diagnosis of pulmonary nocardiosis. After administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 5 weeks, chest computed tomography showed a significant reduction in the lung lesions that had been detected on admission. Immunosuppressed patients are particularly prone to nocardiosis infection, which is usually severe. N. terpenica has rarely been detected in clinical samples, and its characteristics require further study with the accumulation of more clinical cases.
We herein report a case of peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis caused by Lysinibacillus sphaericus in a 40s-year-old patient. Treatment was initiated with intermittent intraperitoneal cefazolin and ceftazidime. Later, both peritoneal dialysate and blood cultures detected L. sphaericus, so the antibiotic was changed to ampicillin (ABPC). The patient was treated with a combination of intraperitoneal intermittent and intravenous ABPC for 7 days, followed by 14 days of amoxicillin. The patient experienced no adverse events and no recurrence for 30 days. The patient had four dogs, and the infection was deemed likely to have been caused by environmental contamination and inadequate catheter replacement.