Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible interaction between warfarin and linezolid in patients with a left ventricular assist system (LVAS) for the treatment of severe heart failure. Methods Patients with LVAS who were treated with linezolid for the treatment of infections from January 2003 to March 2013 were identified from medical records. The impact of linezolid on the clotting function, as well as the dose of warfarin during the first 10 days of linezolid therapy, was investigated. The mean prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) and mean doses of warfarin during 7 days before and 10 days after the initiation of linezolid therapy were calculated for individual patients. The PT-INR per mg of WF dose on the previous day (X) was calculated. The warfarin dose, PT-INR, and warfarin sensitivity index (WSI) value before and after the initiation of linezolid were compared to evaluate the impact of linezolid on the effect of warfarin. Results Sixteen patients were enrolled in the study. Although the mean PT-INR increased from 3.74 to 4.06, no significant difference was observed (p=0.05). A significant difference was observed in the mean dose of warfarin before and after the initiation of linezolid administration, with a decrease from 3.23 to 2.69 mg/day (p=0.001). In contrast, the mean WSI value significantly increased from 1.37 to 1.82 (p=0.014). After 10 days of linezolid administration, the mean X values increased over the baseline value by 31.7%. Conclusion These findings suggest that co-administration of linezolid results in increased PT-INR in patients with LVAS treated with warfarin.
Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous morphine infusion for dyspnea in patients with acute exacerbation (AE) of end-stage interstitial pneumonia (IP). Methods We conducted a retrospective study. Based on the subjective clinical effectiveness ratings of "good," "moderate," "poor," or "unknown," the efficacy of continuous morphine infusion treatment was evaluated as defined as symptom relief that was "good" or "moderate." Patients This study included 22 consecutive opioid-naïve patients who received continuous morphine infusion in the palliative treatment of dyspnea resulting from AE-IP. Results Of 22 patients, nine achieved good dyspnea relief, eight had moderate relief, four had a poor response and one response was "unknown" within 24 hours of starting morphine infusion. Using an operational definition of dyspnea relief that was rated "good" or "moderate," the efficacy rate of morphine was 77% (n=17). There was a significant change in the respiratory rate (25 respirations per minute at baseline vs. 17 respirations per minute after 12 hours, p=0.02), however, none of the patients studied had fewer than eight respirations per minute. Conclusion We conclude that continuous morphine infusion is an effective and safe therapy for severe dyspnea in terminal AE-IP patients without any serious adverse events.
Objective Presently, the predominant subtypes of influenza viruses in the world, except for those in local epidemics, include influenza pandemic H1N1 2009 (pH1N1), H3N2, and B viruses. There are few reports on the differences in the clinical features, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes of influenza virus-associated pneumonia among these three viral subtypes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the clinical features, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcomes differ among the viral subtypes. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 96 patients with influenza virus-associated pneumonia whose viral subtypes were clarified. Results Patients with pH1N1 virus-associated pneumonia tended to be young. The frequency of primary viral pneumonia differed among the virus-associated pneumonia subtypes (pH1N1, 80%; H3N2, 26.5%; and B, 31%). Patients with pH1N1 virus-associated pneumonia more frequently showed bilateral ground-glass opacities (GGOs), which affected more lobes than in patients with H3N2 and B virus-associated pneumonia. However, patients with H3N2 virus-associated pneumonia showed a higher frequency of consolidation and diffuse bronchial wall thickening than did the patients with pH1N1 virus-associated pneumonia. The severity and mortality did not differ among the three pneumonia subtypes. Conclusion In the patients who developed influenza virus-associated pneumonia, those with pH1N1 virus-associated pneumonia frequently developed primary viral pneumonia resulting in bilateral and broad areas of GGOs on imaging, whereas patients with H3N2 virus-associated pneumonia frequently showed consolidation and diffuse bronchial wall thickening on pulmonary imaging.
Objective To clarify the characteristics of post-travel consultation services in Japan, particularly in the provinces, we analyzed our post-travel patients in the travel clinic of Kurume University Hospital located in Kurume City (a regional hub City in southwestern Japan). Methods Sixty post-travel patients visited our clinic between April 2008 and October 2014 and participated in this study: 55 were Japanese and five were foreign. We summarized and compared the characteristics of the patients after dividing the Japanese participants into long-term travelers (>14 days) and short-term travelers (≤14 days). The foreign travelers were described in a separate analysis. Results Of the 55 Japanese travelers, the mean age (± standard deviation) was 37.3 ± 16.3 years, and 36 patients (65%) were men. Southeast Asia was the major destination (30/55, 55%), and business was stated as the major reason for travel (16/55, 29%). Post-exposure rabies prophylaxis (16/55, 29%) was the most common purpose for the consultations. There were 34 participants (62%) who were classified as short-term travelers. Fewer of the short-term travelers stated receiving pre-travel consultations compared with long-term travelers (11% vs. 79%, p=0.0002). The five foreign travelers included one dengue fever patient and two malaria patients. Conclusion Most post-travel Japanese patients visited our clinic were short-term travelers who had not received any pre-travel consultation. One of the most common complaints, post-exposure rabies prophylaxis, could have been avoided to some extent by appropriate pre-travel consultations. The results of this study suggest that pre-travel consultations should therefore be encouraged for both long- and short-term travelers.
Early gastric cancer, especially cancer confined to the mucosa (stage T1a), is known to have a high cure rate with rare recurrence. We herein report the case of a 40-year-old female who initially presented with biliary tract dilatation, pancreatic duct dilatation and intestinal wall thickening 3 years after curative resection of pT1aN0 stage gastric cancer. The intestinal resection specimen revealed tumor cells spreading through the subserosa to the submucosa sparing mucosal membrane, which made exploratory laparotomy the only approach to confirm the diagnosis. It is always important to be aware of malignancy recurrence and clinicians should not hesitate to choose exploratory laparotomy to avoid any delay in the diagnosis and treatment.
A 74-year-old man, who had a history of a mitral valve replacement for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) 30 years previously, was admitted with progressive heart failure. Massive calcification was observed around the left atrium on multidetector CT, in addition to a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)-positive layer adjacently outside of the calcification on MRI. He underwent a second mitral valve replacement for the prosthetic valve failure. Pathohistological analyses of a tissue section of the left atrial wall from a surgical specimen revealed lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration that coincided with the LGE-positive layer on MRI, suggesting the existence of sustained active inflammation even after the long period of RHD.
An autopsy of a 70-year-old man with multiple bone metastases from a malignancy of unknown origin (MUO) and renovascular hypertension revealed an aortic intimal sarcoma (AIS) in the right renal artery accompanied by atherosclerotic changes. AIS appeared as aggregated mutton fat-like translucent particles arising from the intima of the branching portion of the right renal artery and was composed of undifferentiated, fine spindle cells with thicket-like proliferation. AIS was confirmed by immunohistopathology, showing the loss of the lumen lined by CD31-positive endothelium and the expression of CD31, keratin, and vimentin in the viable part of the tumor. In patients with MUO presenting with both bone metastases and an acute or sub-acute onset of renovascular hypertension, AIS in the renal artery may be responsible.
Adrenal insufficiency may occur in patients with liver cirrhosis. The assessment of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function is important in such patients, but there is no consensus as to how it should be performed. We herein report the results of our evaluation of the adrenal function in two patients with hypocortisolism accompanied by liver cirrhosis. The patients lacked the typical features of hypocortisolism. One was diagnosed with hypocortisolism accompanied by liver cirrhosis while the other had secondary adrenal insufficiency caused by a hypothalamic disorder. Hypocortisolism accompanied by liver cirrhosis should be evaluated by endocrine tests to determine its pathogenesis. A low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test may be appropriate for non-critically ill cirrhotic patients.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a major cause of secondary hypertension, divided into two subtypes: unilateral and bilateral. Unilateral PA (u-PA) is surgically-curable. Medical treatment with mineralocorticoid receptors antagonists is recommended as a second-line treatment when the patients are not candidate for surgical treatment. The present case was a 39-year-old woman with u-PA, who had refused surgery, had suffered from adverse effects of medical treatment. She was treated with transcatheter adrenal arterial embolization (TAAE). Her blood pressure had been well controlled without progression of cardiorenovascular damage for 12 years. TAAE can be the third treatment option for u-PA patients.
A 72-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was brought to the ER with metformin-associated lactic acidosis. She received continuous hemofiltration and hemodialysis, but the laboratory analyses showed no improvement. She died 11 hours after admission. Metformin is minimally bound to proteins and is readily dialyzable, but a prolonged period of dialysis is required, because metformin has a very large distribution volume and is distributed to multiple compartments. The peak blood metformin level was 432 mg/L in this case, which is one of the highest metformin concentrations ever reported, and eight hours of hemodialysis were not sufficient to reduce the serum level.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon, fatal neoplasm induced by asbestos exposure. Brain metastases from MPM are extremely rare, with most such cases diagnosed only at the time of autopsy. This report describes what we believe to be the first case of MPM metastasizing to the brain after a subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well as the subsequent surgical removal of the brain metastasis.
An 83-year-old man, who was a former smoker, with anti-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibody-positive combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema presented with a cough and dyspnea. A chest radiograph showed bilateral pleural effusions. His laboratory data showed proteinuria and elevated levels of anti-nuclear antibodies, anti-double strand DNA antibodies, and CA125, with decreased serum complement levels. Thoracentesis showed an exudative pleural effusion with an increased lymphocyte count and elevated CA125 levels. A thoracoscopic biopsy specimen showed proliferation of CA125-positive mesothelial cells. Systemic lupus erythematosus was diagnosed. His symptoms and pleural effusion resolved after the initiation of systemic corticosteroid therapy. The detection of anti-RNP antibody and CA125 levels are helpful in the diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.
Mycobacterium shinjukuense lung disease was diagnosed in 3 men and 3 women [mean age: 77.0±12.2 (57-93) years]. On imaging, 3 patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis exhibited a fibrocavitary pattern, while the other 3 patients showed nodular bronchiectasis. A test with a tuberculosis rRNA identification kit (TRC Rapid® M. TB) was falsely positive for M. tuberculosis due to DNA sequence similarity in 16SrRNA. M. shinjukuense was identified by the gene sequences of rpoB, 16S rRNA, and hsp65. The symptoms and imaging findings of most of the patients have improved with chemotherapy with low minimum inhibitory concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs.
Previous reports of combined allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) are limited; however, among 41 cases of ABPM and 18 cases of EGPA treated at our hospital, we experienced three cases of combined ABPM and EGPA. In two of these cases, the diagnosis of EGPA preceded that of ABPM, however, one of the two cases had already shown findings suggestive of ABPM, such as mucous plugs and central bronchiectasis, at the time of the diagnosis of EGPA. In six previously reported cases of combined ABPM and EGPA, ABPM preceded EGPA in four cases. In the other two cases in which EGPA was diagnosed before or simultaneously with ABPM, findings suggestive of ABPM had been detected when EGPA was diagnosed, which suggests that sensitization to fungi resulting in ABPM may play an important role in the development of EGPA. Careful attention should therefore be paid to the possibility that these diseases may coexist during the course of either disease.
Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the thymus is reported to have characteristic features that distinguish it from MALT lymphoma of other organs; it is proposed to be a distinct clinicopathological subgroup of MALT lymphoma. We herein present a case of thymic MALT lymphoma accompanied by Sjögren's syndrome, involving the first report of a thymic MALT lymphoma patient carrying a chromosomal abnormality of 8q24. No c-myc gene translocation or c-Myc protein overexpression was observed, suggesting that c-myc was not involved in lymphomagenesis or progression. Although we did not examine the mechanisms by which the lymphoma developed, this chromosomal structural change in 8q24 may be associated with the pathogenesis in our case.
Scrub typhus is associated with various clinical symptoms. However, the pathogenesis of scrub typhus infection remains to be elucidated. A 73-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with consciousness disturbance and suspected meningoencephalitis. The patient's laboratory data showed deterioration and were indicative of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). A whole body examination to detect the trigger disease revealed an eschar, which is a characteristic of scrub typhus, on his back. His symptoms showed dramatic improvement after the administration of minocycline (MINO). This case report highlights that the clinical course of a case of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis that was cured with MINO.
We herein describe the case of an 18-year-old girl who presented with dizziness and headache in 2012. In 2013, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple intracerebral small lesions and intracerebral hydrocephalus. She was diagnosed with neurosarcoidosis following a brain biopsy. Although prednisolone, methotrexate, and azathioprine were administered, her hydrocephalus worsened and her granulomatous lesions were observed to increase in number on MRI. The patient's hydrocephalus showed no improvement despite her undergoing one ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure, one septum pellucidum fenestration, and three ventriculoatrial shunt procedures. Infliximab therapy was then initiated, which resulted in a reduction in the size of the granulomatous lesions and the improvement of the patient's clinical symptoms. Infliximab may be a viable therapeutic option for treating intractable neurosarcoidosis.
A 79-year-old man presented with a slowly progressive gait disturbance. Brain MRI demonstrated ventriculomegaly and the hummingbird sign. A lumbar puncture showed no abnormalities of the cerebrospinal fluid. The improvement of the gait disturbance after the ventriculoperitoneal shunt led to a diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Interestingly, postoperative brain MRI demonstrated the disappearance of not only ventriculomegaly, but also the hummingbird sign. The disappearance of the hummingbird sign suggests that an increase in the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral and third ventricles could cause the compression of the superior surface of the midbrain tegmentum, which manifests as the hummingbird sign.
A 65-year-old man with a 20-year history of rheumatoid arthritis was transferred to our hospital due to a second episode of intestinal obstruction, a fever, and joint pain within the previous 6 months. He had an extremely high rheumatoid factor level and decreased complement levels. Abdominal computed tomography, a small bowel series, and small intestinal endoscopy revealed severe ileal stenosis. Resection of the stenotic lesion was performed, and a histopathological examination revealed vasculitis. Rheumatoid vasculitis was diagnosed, and the patient began treatment with prednisolone and methotrexate, which improved his condition. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare, but possible cause of recurrent bowel obstruction.
We herein report the case of an 84-year-old who developed pneumonia after drowning in a rice field. Besides Aspergillus fumigatus, many pathogens previously not reported in drowning-associated pneumonia (such as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Nocardia niigatensis, and Cunninghamella sp.) were isolated from his sputum. He received sulbactam/ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, voriconazole, levofloxacin and liposomal amphotericin B, but died due to respiratory failure. Because the patient had drowned in a contaminated stagnant rice field and had multiple lung cavities, zygomycosis was suspected. This report provides invaluable information for the consideration of zygomycosis after an individual drowning in a rice field, even in an immunocompetent patient.
As of June 2014, among six patients who had severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) at our hospital, an 83-year-old man died despite receiving appropriate critical care. An autopsy revealed extensive ischemic damage of the intra-abdominal organs, including the liver, spleen, stomach and gut, due to severe celiac atherosclerotic stenosis and superior mesenteric arterial thrombosis. Many SFTS virus nucleoprotein antigen-immunoreactive cells were detected in a paraaortic node, where necrotizing lymphadenitis was seen, and in the spleen. Fewer such cells were seen in the liver, bone marrow and adrenals. Conclusion: Atherosclerosis, in addition to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome, can be lethal in elderly SFTS patients.
A 61-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the complaints of dizziness, severe nausea and abdominal discomfort after consuming approximately 50 g of the flowers of Rhododendron japonicum. On admission, hypotension and sinus bradycardia were evident. Symptoms including hypotension and bradycardia completely recovered within 12 hours following normal saline infusion and intravenous atropine. The ingestion of certain types of Rhododendron species can cause intoxication, referred to as "mad honey poisoning", due to the action of grayanotoxins. This is the first local case of acute intoxication caused by Rhododendron japonicum.