Objective Gender differences, including differences in the prevalence, subtypes and the effectiveness of treatment, are generally recognized in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although serotonin type 3 receptor (5-HT3R) antagonists appear to be more effective in women with diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D) than they are in men, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. The aim of the present was to investigate the gender differences in 5-HT signaling.
Methods The subjects were selected from outpatients with IBS-D and healthy controls. Their rectal mucosal S100A, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and 5-HT transporter (5-HTT, SERT, SLC6A4) mRNA expression levels were measured. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS).
Results The study population of 100 subjects included 47 IBS-D patients and 53 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The S100A9 (5.20 vs. 1.90, p=0.001) and SLC6A4 (2.00 vs. 1.00, p=0.019) mRNA levels in the rectal mucosa of women with IBS-D were significantly higher than those in men. Among the healthy controls, the S100A10 expression levels in men were higher than those in women (1.33 vs. 0.82, p=0.005). The S100A8 and S100A10 expression levels in women with IBS-D were positively correlated with their diarrhea scores (r=0.55 and 0.58, p<0.05).
Conclusion 5-HT signaling might be a major contributor to the symptoms of IBS in men, and the differences may be associated with the effectiveness of 5-HT3R antagonists.
Objective Radiofrequency ablation has been used widely for the local ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly in its early stages. The study aim was to identify significant prognostic factors and develop a predictive nomogram for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have undergone radiofrequency ablation. We also developed the formula to predict the probability of 3- and 5-year overall survival based on clinical variables.
Methods We retrospectively studied 96 consecutive patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had undergone radiofrequency ablation as a first-line treatment. Independent and significant factors affecting the overall survival were selected using a Cox proportional hazards model, and a prognostic nomogram was developed based on these factors. The predictive accuracy of the nomogram was determined by Harrell's concordance index and compared with the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score and Japan Integrated Staging score.
Results A multivariate analysis revealed that age, indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate, and log (des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin) level were independent and significant factors influencing the overall survival. The nomogram was based on these three factors. The mean concordance index of the nomogram was 0.74±0.08, which was significantly better than that of conventional staging systems using the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program score (0.54±0.03) and Japan Integrated Staging score (0.59±0.07).
Conclusion This study suggested that the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate and age at radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) are good predictors of the prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after radiofrequency ablation. We successfully developed a nomogram using obtainable variables before treatment.
Objective IgG4-related disease is a recently characterized condition presenting with high blood IgG4 levels, swelling of organs, and hypertrophic lesions. This disease is associated with thyroid disease, Hashimoto's disease, and Riedel's thyroiditis. However, there is little information on the association between IgG4-related disease and Basedow's disease. We herein defined the clinical features of patients with Basedow's disease and high IgG4 levels.
Methods We compared two groups of patients with Basedow's disease (n=72) who had either normal IgG4 levels (<135 mg/dL; n=67) or high IgG4 levels (≥135 mg/dL; n=5 [6.9%], mean IgG4: 206±116 mg/dL, IgG4/IgG ratio: 10.6%±3.3%).
Patients Seventy-two newly diagnosed, untreated patients with Basedow's disease.
Results Compared to the normal IgG4 group, patients in the high IgG4 group were predominantly male and showed a significantly higher thyroid low-echo score (1.8±0.4 vs. 1.2±0.5) and eosinophil count (363±354/mm2 vs. 136±122/mm2). Five patients had high IgG4 levels: one had a pancreatic lesion, and four had thyroid lesions.
Conclusion Patients with Basedow's disease and high IgG4 levels may represent a new subtype of Basedow's disease. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed.
Objective Periodontal disease may predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with severe periodontitis, increases the risk of CVD mortality. However, the outcomes of periodontal therapy vary among the different treatment modalities. We aim to investigate whether periodontal treatment could influence the occurrence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes and periodontal problems.
Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on a dataset released by Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI). The dataset was composed of randomly sampled, newly diagnosed diabetic patients who received insurance benefits from 1999 to 2001; patients who were younger than 18 years of age or who already had CVD before 1999 were excluded. The NHI code was used to identify the treatments, including subgingival curettage and flap operations. The patients' demographic variables were matched using a 1:4 propensity score. All of the subjects were followed up until the onset of CVD, or December 31, 2011. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of periodontal treatment on the rates of myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke.
Results Three thousand thirty-nine and 12,156 diabetic subjects were classified into the advanced periodontal treatment group and the non-advanced periodontal treatment group, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that although the overall incidence of CVD was not significantly improved (Hazard ratio, HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-1.01), advanced periodontal treatment reduced the rates of myocardial infarction (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99) and heart failure (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.45-0.80). There was no significance difference in the incidence of stroke (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.85-1.06).
Conclusion Advanced periodontal therapy lowers the rate of CVD, especially myocardial infarction and heart failure. Dental management has a beneficial effect on the health of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Objective Environmental and climatic changes have been occurring throughout the past 20 years in Japan. Correspondingly, the antigens that cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis might be changing. In an epidemiological survey of Japan in the 1980s, summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis (SHP) accounted for 74.4% of the cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The epidemiological characteristics of this disease have not been reported since then. We investigated the annual changes in the number of cases of SHP and the factors affecting the results.
Methods Cases that were diagnosed as SHP were retrieved from the medical records of our institute between 1990 and 2015. The diagnostic criteria proposed by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in 1990 were applied to obtain the definite diagnosis.
Patients The study population included 25 diagnosed patients, including one intrafamilial case. The subjects were predominantly non-smoking women in their 50s and all lived in wooden houses that had been constructed more than 10 years previously.
Results The number of cases that were diagnosed as SHP tended to decrease during the study period. However, temporal increases tended to occur in years with increased rainfall and decreased daylight hours. No relationship appeared to exist between the number of cases and high temperatures or humidity levels.
Conclusion The incidence of SHP currently appears to be decreasing; however, the weather conditions in any given year might cause a temporal increase in the incidence rate.
A duodenal polyp was found during a health check of a 71-year-old asymptomatic man. Duodenoscopy demonstrated a pedunculated, smooth-surfaced tumor of 18 mm in size, protruding from the minor papilla. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated a homogeneously low-echoic submucosal tumor. Enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-enhanced duodenal tumor without obvious metastasis. A tumor biopsy revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor, and laparotomic transduodenal polypectomy with regional lymph node dissection was performed. The histology of the surgical specimen revealed gangliocytic paraganglioma consisting of three cell types: endocrine, ganglion, and spindle cells. There has been no recurrence in >5 years after surgery.
The patient was a 62-year-old woman with a history of severe acute pancreatitis complicated by walled-off necrosis (WON), who developed obstructive jaundice during the recovery phase from WON. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed the complete obstruction of the distal bile duct, and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed thickening of the duct wall, with a uniform distribution, and a relatively well-preserved layered structure. A cytopathological examination using ERCP showed no malignancy. The underlying etiology of this case may have been the formation of a cicatricial stricture during the resolution of WON, in addition to fibrosis caused by the spreading of inflammation from pancreatitis.
Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is widely used to treat isolated gastric varices (IGVs) in Japan. However, BRTO is difficult to perform for IGVs with many small collateral veins, and no secondary treatment has been established. We herein report a rare case of IGVs refractory to BRTO successfully treated by shunt-occluded endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (SO-EIS), which is a combination therapy of major shunt occlusion by a balloon catheter and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy. Since SO-EIS can be performed regardless of the IGVs' anatomical configuration, it may be a promising alternative treatment for IGVs refractory to BRTO.
We performed endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) on a patient presenting with an asymptomatic peripancreatic mass-like lesion. The aspiration cytologic finding was class II. On positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), there were hot spots in the left supra-clavicular lymph node and the peripancreatic lesion. A whole biopsy of the left supra-clavicular lymph node revealed tuberculous lymphadenitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using tissue obtained via EUS-FNA showed that the peripancreatic mass-like lesion was also positive for tuberculosis. We made a diagnosis of peripancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis. In patients with enlarged lymph nodes, including those in the abdominal area, tuberculous lymphadenitis is a potential diagnosis.
A 45-year-old man complained of swelling of the left side of his neck and left upper limb. Ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed thrombosis of the left internal jugular, subclavian, and brachiocephalic vein. Based on various examinations, the patient was diagnosed with idiopathic venous thrombosis early in his clinical course. There were no findings to suggest malignancy or abnormal coagulability. However, two months after the start of treatment, the patient was diagnosed with gastric cancer. Despite the presence of Trousseau syndrome, treatment with edoxaban (an oral anticoagulant), reduced the swelling dramatically without any bleeding complications.
A 50-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using a cryoballoon. During the PVI procedure, a circular diagnostic catheter (CDC) was wedged deeply into the right PV (RPV). The lung tissues seemed to be tightening around the CDC. After various attempts to resolve the situation, the shaft of the CDC was completely torn, and the circular part remained in the RPV. At a follow-up of three months, the patient showed neither atrial fibrillation events nor clinical symptoms. We herein report a broken CDC shaft during PVI with a cryoballoon, which has not yet been reported.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is known to develop as a consequence of multiple genetic and/or non-genetic factors. A 27-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection developed severe PAH after interferon (IFN) therapy. Although most of the reported clinical courses of IFN-induced PAH are poor despite the discontinuation of IFN, the present patient was successfully treated with a triple combination therapy. In this report, we discuss the crosstalk among chronic HCV infection, IFN therapy, autoimmune disorders, and portal hypertension in the pathogenesis and development of PAH.
Intramyocardial dissecting hematoma is a rare but potentially fatal complication of myocardial infarction. The decision to adopt a surgical or conservative strategy may depend on the clinical and hemodynamic stability of patients. Regardless, the precise and temporal assessment of the structure of hematoma is imperative. We herein report the first case of a patient with early spontaneous remission of intramyocardial dissecting hematoma successfully managed by a conservative approach with multimodality imaging.
A 27 year-old severely obese man (BMI, 35.1) had hyperuricemia and multiple gouty tophi with bone erosion and destruction, resulting in gait disturbance for 6 years after the early onset of gout at 21 years of age. His hyperuricemia was associated with hyperinsulinemia in obesity and a genetic variant of the ABCG2 gene. In addition, multiple gouty tophi with bone erosion and destruction might have been caused by hypoadiponectinemia and the elevation of the patient' s pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β) level with the accumulation of visceral fat. In this case, bone and Ga-67 scintigraphy were useful for detecting the location and magnitude of gouty tophi.
Anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) agents increase the risk of tuberculosis (TB), but cases are rarely fatal. This report concerns a patient who was undergoing treatment with infliximab and presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to miliary TB without a miliary shadow. The findings of a pathological autopsy revealed innumerable granulomas in the organs, and the miliary nodules in the lung consisted of more unstructured granulomas. Anti-TNFα agents are unusual in the presentation of TB. It is important, particularly for patients receiving anti-TNFα agents, to constantly consider the possibility of TB and to prepare for appropriate management.
We experienced a favorable outcome in an adult case of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) after long-term eculizumab treatment. A 38-year-old Japanese man with a history of central retinal vein occlusion was admitted to our hospital with progressive dyspnea. He was found to have non-immune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure two weeks after an episode of the common cold. Plasma exchange was ineffective; therefore, we initiated eculizumab after we excluded other thrombotic microangiopathies. Although long-term peritoneal dialysis was required, we successfully discontinued dialysis 18 months after the onset of aHUS with eculizumab.
We report the case of a mother and two children who shared a mitochondrial DNA A3243G mutation. The mother had diabetes mellitus, neurogenic bladder, bradykinesia, dystonia, and slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. Her two daughters were diagnosed with mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes at adolescence. They all presented with gastrointestinal symptoms at an advanced clinical stage. They were diagnosed with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and they were resistant to therapy. The mother and her youngest daughter died from aspiration pneumonia because of vomiting. The determination of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an important prognostic factor in patients with the mitochondrial DNA A3243G variant.
A 59-year-old man presented with multiple dark red erythemas with induration, anemia, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. A skin biopsy revealed the infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells and he was initially diagnosed with multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Glucocorticoid treatment was only partially effective. Four years later, the patient's bilateral lacrimal glands gradually became enlarged and a biopsy revealed dense lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltration with an IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio of 70%. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-related disease (RD). Rituximab only had a slight effect. This case demonstrates that overlapping features of IgG4-RD and MCD may present in a single patient, which suggests a shared pathogenesis.
Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a rare disease that involves the presence of gas in the intestinal wall. Connective tissue disease (CTD) is a major cause of secondary PCI. In addition to the nature of CTDs, the use of prednisolone and some immunosuppressants, and the presence of complicating diseases such as diabetes mellitus, constipation and pulmonary diseases are involved in the development of PCI. This report describes four cases of PCI with different CTDs (granulomatosis with polyangiitis, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, and overlap syndrome) and discusses the background of each patient and common risk factors for the occurrence of PCI.
A 79-year-old Japanese man who had undergone thoracic aortic replacement 10 years prior presented with a 3-day history of sore throat. He was initially diagnosed with pharyngitis; however, multiple emboli in the vessels of the left side of the body were recognized. He was diagnosed with thoracic aortic graft infection caused by Candida albicans, with multiple embolisms. Anti-fungal therapy was initiated, but surgical removal of the graft was not performed because of the high risk associated with the operation, and he eventually died. Inappropriate use of antibiotics might have led to a severe fungal infection. As such, the inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents should be avoided.