Objective Antithrombotic drugs are being used increasingly frequently to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Few studies have evaluated small bowel mucosal injury induced by dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate small bowel mucosal injury induced by DAPT compared with other antithrombotics using video capsule endoscopy (VCE).
Methods The study included chronic users of antithrombotics who underwent VCE for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding between January 2007 and July 2018. We evaluated the instances of small bowel injury classified into erosions and ulcers.
Results Overall, 183 patients (114 men and 69 women; mean age, 73.6 years old) were enrolled, and the study groups comprised 49 patients taking low-dose aspirin (LDA) only, 50 taking anticoagulants only, 37 being treated with DAPT, 33 on combined LDA and anticoagulants, and 14 taking P2Y12 inhibitors. Small bowel erosions and ulcers were most frequently observed in the DAPT group, with frequencies of 78.4% and 37.8%, respectively. Exacerbating factors of small bowel ulcers were DAPT [odds ratio (OR) 3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-7.7] and age over 80 years old (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.4).
Conclusion P2Y12 inhibitors seem to exacerbate LDA-induced small bowel injury. Preventive strategies for small bowel injury induced by LDA, especially DAPT, are urgently required.
Objective Recent studies have found higher rates of autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis, in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) than in the general population. This study investigated the concomitant rate of autoimmune disease among Japanese patients with EoE and evaluated the clinicopathological characteristics of EoE patients with autoimmune disease.
Methods The medical records of patients diagnosed with EoE between April 1, 2016, and June 30, 2020, were reviewed. We analyzed the concomitant rate of autoimmune diseases in patients with EoE and compared the clinical and histological differences between patients with and without autoimmune disease.
Results Sixty-four patients with EoE were enrolled. Of them, 1 had ulcerative colitis (1.6%), 1 had autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (1.6%), and 6 had endometriosis (28.5% of women, 44.4% of reproductive-aged women). No significant differences in the clinical course or histological findings were found between EoE patients with and without autoimmune diseases. No complications, including stenosis, were seen in EoE with autoimmune disease, and most patients with EoE and autoimmune diseases were responsive to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs).
Conclusion In this study, 8 out of 64 patients with EoE had an autoimmune-related disease, including ulcerative colitis (n=1, 1.6%), autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (n=1, 1.6%), or endometriosis (n=6, 44.4% of women of reproductive age), which is higher than that previously reported in the general population. Further investigations are required to clarify the relationship between EoE and autoimmune diseases.
Objective In the present study, we prospectively examined the efficacy of levocarnitine in relieving symptoms of fatigue in patients with cirrhosis but without overt hepatic encephalopathy.
Methods Twenty-one cirrhotic patients who were able to undergo fatigue symptom evaluations at our institution were enrolled. A total of 12 cirrhotic patients underwent levocarnitine treatment (1,200-1,800 mg/day), while 9 did not undergo levocarnitine treatment. As primary endpoints, we investigated whether or not levocarnitine treatment exerted any beneficial effects by assessing the symptoms of fatigue [8-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-8) and Fisk Fatigue Severity Score (FFSS)] at baseline and three months after treatment. Furthermore, as exploratory secondary endpoints, we investigated whether or not levocarnitine treatment exerted ameliorative effects on oxidative stress by assessing the serum thioredoxin (TRX) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels.
Results The median age of the patients was 73 years old. Three men and 18 women were categorized by their Child-Pugh class (A and B in 14 and 7 patients, respectively). There were no significant differences in the clinical laboratory values between the two groups. The FFSS and SF-8 scores were significantly improved in the patients with cirrhosis who underwent levocarnitine treatment (p<0.01) but not in those who did not undergo levocarnitine treatment. Furthermore, three months after levocarnitine treatment, the serum carnitine concentrations were significantly increased, and the serum thioredoxin levels were decreased in the patients with cirrhosis who underwent levocarnitine treatment (p<0.05).
Conclusion These results suggest that levocarnitine treatment may relieve symptoms of fatigue in cirrhotic patients by reducing oxidative stress.
Objectve To assess the impact of glycemic variability on blood pressure in hospitalized patients with cardiac disease.
Methods In 40 patients with cardiovascular disease, the glucose levels were monitored by flash continuous glucose monitoring (FGM; Free-Style Libre™ or Free-Style Libre Pro; Abbott, Witney, UK) and self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) for 14 days. Blood pressure measurements were performed twice daily (morning and evening) at the same time as the glucose level measurement using SMBG.
Results The detection rate of hypoglycemia using the FGM method was significantly higher than that with the 5-point SMBG method (77.5% vs. 5.0%, p<0.001). Changes in the systolic blood pressure from evening to the next morning [morning - evening (ME) difference] were significantly correlated with night glucose variability (r=0.63, P<0.001). A multiple regression analysis showed that night glucose variability using FGM was more closely correlated with the ME difference [r=0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.019-0.051); p<0.001] than with the age, body mass index, or smoking history. Night glucose variability was also more closely associated with the ME difference in patients with unstable angina pectoris (UAP) than in those with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart failure (HF) (r=0.83, p=0.058).
Conclusion Night glucose variability is associated with the ME blood pressure difference, and FGM is more accurate than the 5-point SMBG approach for detecting such variability.
Objective Whether or not adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) is effective in preventing arrhythmias in patients with heart failure (HF) due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) is unclear. This study estimated the effects of ASV therapy on arrhythmias in patients with HF due to IHD.
Methods One hundred and forty-one consecutive hospitalized patients with HF due to IHD (mean age: 74.9±11.9 years old) were retrospectively assessed in this study. Of the 141 patients, 75 were treated with ASV (ASV group), and 66 were treated without ASV (Non-ASV group). We estimated the incidence of arrhythmias, including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT), during one-year follow-up in both groups using multivariable logistic regression models.
Results Men accounted for 55.3% of the study population. There were no significant differences in the baseline clinical characteristic data between the ASV and Non-ASV groups with respect to age, sex, heart rate, risk factors, oral medication, or laboratory data, including the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), brain natriuretic peptide, and left ventricular ejection fraction. ASV therapy was associated with a reduced incidence of arrhythmia after adjusting for demographic and cardiovascular disease risk factors (odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.11 to 0.63; p<0.01; compared to the Non-ASV group). In addition, at the 1-year follow-up, an improvement (increase) in the eGFR was found in the ASV group but not in the Non-ASV group.
Conclusion ASV therapy was able to prevent arrhythmias, including PAF and VT, with short-term improvements in the renal function in patients with HF due to IHD.
Objective Various neurological manifestations have been increasingly reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We determined the neurological features and long-term sequelae in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Methods We retrospectively studied 95 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 between March 1 and May 13, 2020. Acute neurological presentations (within two weeks of the symptom onset of COVID-19) were compared between 60 non-severe and 35 severely infected patients who required high-flow oxygen. In the 12 ventilated patients (the most severe group), we evaluated neurological complications during admission, subacute neurological presentations, and neurological sequelae (51 and 137 days from the onset [median], respectively).
Results Of the 95 patients (mean age 53 years old; 40% women), 63% had acute neurological presentations, with an increased prevalence in cases of severe infections (83% vs. 52%, p<0.001). Impaired consciousness and limb weakness were more frequent in severe patients than in non-severe ones (0% vs. 49%; p<0.001, and 0% vs. 54%; p<0.001, respectively). In the most severe group (mean age 72 years old; 42% women), 83% of patients had neurological complications [cerebrovascular disease (17%), encephalopathy (82%), and neuropathy (55%)], and 92% had subacute neurological presentations [impaired consciousness (17%), higher brain dysfunction (82%), limb weakness (75%), and tremor (58%)]. Neurological sequelae were found in 83% of cases, including higher brain dysfunction (73%), limb weakness (50%), and tremor (58%).
Conclusions Neurological manifestations are common in COVID-19, with the possibility of long-lasting sequelae.
Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy carries a potential risk of inducing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation. However, the HBV kinetics during and after DAA therapy in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV remain unknown. We retrospectively evaluated the HBV kinetics during and after sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy in four HBV inactive carriers co-infected with HCV. HCV was eradicated in all patients. Changes in HBV-DNA levels during treatment differed among patients. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels uniformly decreased (mean -0.530 logIU/mL) by the end of treatment and returned to near the baseline in all patients. Sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy thus demonstrated a suppressive effect on HBsAg.
Subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is a disorder of the thyroid gland and difficult to diagnose. It is probably triggered by a viral infection. Recently, several articles have reported SAT after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, reports describing SAT after SARS-CoV-2 in Japan are lacking. We herein report the first case of SAT after SARS-CoV-2 infection in Japan. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, some patients can develop not only pneumonia but also SAT. Thus, a careful follow-up is recommended for patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on thyroid dysfunction should not be ignored.
We herein report a 70-year-old man with malaise and muscle weakness that had developed within a month. The patient also had abdominal fullness due to polycystic kidney disease. Severe proximal skeletal muscle weakness and mild elevation of creatinine kinase to 301 IU/L were noted. A muscle biopsy of the right bicep showed polymyositis. Computed tomography showed a right renal mass, and an analysis after right nephrectomy identified clear cell carcinoma. The muscle weakness subsided one month after nephrectomy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Therefore, we suspect that the development of polymyositis in this patient was closely related to renal cell carcinoma.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) sometimes develops in people working in specific environments. We herein report a case of occupation-related HP in a citrus farmer in Japan. A 66-year-old man developed a fever, dyspnea, and general malaise in March after working near a trash dump filled with moldy tangerines. He presented with leukocytosis, bilateral lung opacities on chest radiographs, and intra-alveolar and interstitial lymphocytic inflammation with fibrotic change on a lung biopsy. His symptoms disappeared after admission and recurred on a revisit to the workplace. Fungal culture and a mycobiome analysis using next-generation sequencing suggested an association with exposure to Penicillium digitatum.
A 67-year-old man with primary lung adenocarcinoma was hospitalized due to massive bilateral pleural effusion and pericardial effusion after 94 cycles of nivolumab therapy. We were unable to identify the cause of these effusions using blood tests, cytology tests, or bacterial culture of pleural effusion and thoracoscopy. Finally, we administrated corticosteroids, which immediately improved the fluid accumulation. This case may support the introduction of corticosteroids for late-onset pleural and pericardial effusion during immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. However, the safety of rechallenge of ICIs after the improvement of fluid accumulation is controversial.
Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (AE-IIP) is associated with invasive procedures and respiratory infections. However, there have been no reports of AE-IIP triggered by catheter ablation. We herein report a case of AE-IIP after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in an 82-year-old man who was diagnosed with IIP. Cardiac ablation has become an increasingly common procedure for managing patients with arrhythmias. Considering that catheter ablation causes AE-IIP, a detailed clinical interview, physical examination, and chest radiography are necessary before catheter ablation. We should additionally consider AE-IIP as a differential diagnosis of respiratory failure after catheter ablation.
A 58-year-old man was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma with a tumor proportion score of 10%. After six cycles of second-line chemotherapy with nivolumab, he achieved a complete response (CR) but developed uveitis and sensorineural hearing disorder, which were consistent with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH)-like syndrome. Simultaneously, pituitary adrenocortical insufficiency was identified. Nivolumab discontinuation and systemic corticosteroid administration resolved these immune-related adverse events (irAEs). The patient has maintained a CR without any chemotherapy for approximately two years. We herein report a patient with a long-term progression-free survival despite chemotherapy discontinuation due to irAEs, including VKH-like syndrome, which were appropriately managed.
Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is a rare disease comprising the clinical triad of yellow nail discoloration, pleural effusion, and lower limb lymphedema. We encountered a difficult-to-treat case of YNS in which the diagnosis was finally made based on intranodal lymphangiography. An 84-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with pleural effusion and yellow-green discoloration of the nails, accompanied by onychomycosis and limb lymphedema. Intranodal lymphangiography revealed a slow contrast flow and narrowing of the thoracic duct, suggesting lymphatic duct dysplasia and leading to the diagnosis of YNS.
An elderly patient with multiple myeloma (MM) was being treated with several regimens and developed a severe drug eruption, necessitating the use of atovaquone instead of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis. For progressive MM, treatment with isatuximab, an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody, was started. During the treatment, he developed Listeria monocytogenes bacteremia and recovered quickly with ampicillin administration. CD38 is closely related to the innate immune response against L. monocytogenes, and isatuximab may increase the risk of infection. Therefore, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole may be useful in the prevention of not only PCP but also L. monocytogenes infection.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with BCR-ABL1, also termed Philadelphia chromosome-positive AML (Ph+ AML), is a rare leukemia subtype classified by the World Health Organization in 2016. The characteristics of Ph+ AML have not been fully identified yet. We herein report a patient with Ph+ AML who phenotypically exhibited megakaryoblastic characteristics, FAB:M7 and harbored a subclone expressing BCR-ABL1 gene fusion products. This case suggests that BCR-ABL1 was acquired as a subclone due to a secondary event that might have occurred late during leukemia evolution. Our findings may aid in deciphering the mechanism underlying Ph+ AML development in future studies.
A 70-year-old man with multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) was admitted to our hospital with jaundice and ascites. Elevations in his bilirubin and interleukin-6 levels were noted, and computed tomography revealed hepatic atrophy and portal vein and bile duct disorders. Steroid therapy was started for MCD, but he died of hepatic failure. An autopsy revealed that the MCD activity was mild, but advanced fibrosis and cholestasis were observed in the liver. Mild infiltration of interleukin-6-positive plasma cells was noted in the highly fibrotic area of the liver. Although rare, liver and biliary tract damage may be also considered organ disorders of MCD.
A 20-year-old man with drug-resistant generalized epilepsy (GE) was admitted for video electroencephalography (vEEG) monitoring under treatment with multiple antiepileptic drugs, including levetiracetam (3,000 mg/day), valproic acid (800 mg/day), and lacosamide (LCM) (100 mg/day). No seizures were noted after the withdrawal of levetiracetam. However, after the withdrawal of LCM, atypical absence seizures with a 2- to 2.5-Hz generalized spike and wave complex frequently appeared, followed by subsequent generalized-onset tonic-clonic seizures. After re-administration of LCM, the seizures and epileptic discharges clearly disappeared. Subsequent LCM titration was successful in achieving a seizure-free status. Our vEEG results suggest that LCM may be a worthwhile antiepileptic drug adjunct in refractory GE patients without a risk of worsening absence seizures.
We herein report a case of multiple myeloma and polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, myeloma protein, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome. The patient experienced exacerbated gait disturbance due to weakness and numbness in the lower limbs. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extramedullary tumor with spinal compression that required surgical resection. Plasmacytoma was diagnosed based on a biopsy. Radiation, betamethasone, and chemotherapy were therefore administered. Surgical removal of extramedullary tumors improved his symptoms, motor conduction velocity, and amplitude of the muscle action potential in the peroneal and tibial nerves, as shown by the nerve conduction study. Surgery also decreased the serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The patient required additional chemotherapy due to multiple myeloma and showed better outcomes nine months after discharge. The benefits of some treatments remain controversial due to the small number of patients. However, our findings reveal that an early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment may result in better outcomes in such patients.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is an anti-neutrophilic cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis characterized by asthma and eosinophilia. Although EGPA involves multiple organs, ocular involvement is infrequent and often carries a poor visual prognosis. We herein report a rare case of EGPA presenting with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in which visual loss developed during treatment with anti-interleukin (IL)-5 receptor monoclonal antibody, and improvement in visual outcomes was attained after treatment combining high-dose oral corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and an anticoagulant. Physicians should consider CRAO as an ophthalmic manifestation of EGPA in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.
We previously reported a 39-year-old man who presented with pulmonary and cerebral Cryptococcus gattii (genotype VGIIa) infection and was successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B and flucytosine induction therapy. Following induction therapy, oral fluconazole treatment was initiated as consolidation therapy. However, the patient complained of progressively worsening headache, presenting an elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the CSF isolate were 8 and 0.12 μg/mL for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively. The oral administration of voriconazole for more than 18 months alleviated his symptoms. Voriconazole might be useful for controlling refractory cases of C. gattii infection.
Drug-induced thrombocytopenia occurs through immune-mediated platelet destruction, and its management is challenging during tuberculosis treatment. Although rifampicin is the most common drug causing thrombocytopenia, isoniazid can also cause thrombocytopenia. We herein report a 75-year-old man who developed thrombocytopenia during tuberculosis treatment. Platelet-associated immunoglobulin G and a drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test for isoniazid were positive; no other causes of thrombocytopenia were identified. The patient was diagnosed with isoniazid-induced immune thrombocytopenia, and the platelet count normalized after isoniazid discontinuation. We describe the immunological mechanism of thrombocytosis due to isoniazid, an uncommon cause of thrombocytopenia that physicians should be aware exists.
Nuclear protein of the testis (NUT) midline carcinoma (NMC) is a rare malignant tumor expressing NUT with BRD4/3 rearrangements and is sometimes misdiagnosed as germinoma, especially in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-elevated cases. A 28-year-old man had a mediastinal tumor with multiple bone metastases and elevated AFP levels. Imaging/laboratory findings led to a pathological diagnosis of extragonadal germinoma. After unsuccessful treatment with etoposide-cisplatin, he was re-diagnosed with sarcoma due to vimentin-positive findings. He was treated with adriamycin-ifosfamide, which resulted in disease-control. A posthumous examination clarified the NUT rearrangement. Even in cases with characteristic findings, such as elevated AFP levels and vimentin positivity, NMC should be considered as a differential diagnosis. We note, however, that adriamycin-ifosfamide has some efficacy in such cases.