Objective Based on both endoscopic findings and serum auto-antibody levels, we determined the prevalence of autoimmune gastritis (AIG), which has not been previously reported, in individuals who underwent health checkup examinations in Japan.
Methods At total of 6,739 subjects (4,288 males, 2,451 females; mean age 52.1 years) underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination as part of an annual medical checkup. Those suspected to have AIG based on endoscopic evidence of proximal-predominant gastric mucosal atrophy were further examined for the presence of anti-parietal cells and anti-intrinsic factor antibodies, with a final diagnosis of AIG made in cases found to be positive for either or both of those factors.
Results Of the 6,739 examined subjects, 46 were suspected to have AIG based on the endoscopic findings, of whom 33 were finally diagnosed with AIG, for an overall prevalence 0.49% (females 0.65%, males 0.40%). Seven with AIG also had thyroid disease, including Hashimoto's and Basedow disease, while none with AIG showed anemia in blood test findings. The prevalence of AIG was not different regardless of the H. pylori infection status (negative, positive, post-eradicated).
Conclusion In individuals who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination as part of an annual checkup in Japan, the prevalence of AIG was 0.49%. We concluded that it is not uncommon for asymptomatic and healthy individuals to have AIG, and propose that additional studies are needed to clarify its prevalence as well as to establish the criteria used for diagnosis.
Objective This study aimed to investigate the current state of the activities performed by hepatitis medical care coordinators, categorize coordinators according to the activities they perform, and determine the backgrounds of these coordinators.
Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 414 coordinators. The surveyed items included gender, occupation, activity items performed, and barriers that inhibited the performance of these activities. A hierarchical cluster analysis was applied, and cases were classified based on the contents of the activities in question.
Results The coordinators were classified into four groups (A-D). Group A, consisting primarily of public health nurses, was classified as "the type that conducted activities aimed at providing information and recommendations." Group B, which included registered dieticians and clerks, was classified as "the type that uses multidisciplinary collaboration to perform their tasks." Group C, which included clinical nurses, was classified as "the type that was more likely to perform activities as leaders in an organization." Group D, consisting primarily of pharmacists, was classified as "the type that promoted activities centered on providing instructions regarding medication dosage and administration."
Conclusion Our study showed that coordinators' professional skills and abilities are reflected in the contents of the activities they conduct, and that, to adequately perform their roles, they must acquire skills in addition to those required in their original occupations. To implement high-quality hepatitis countermeasures, there is a need to foster an environment that facilitates cooperation between coordinators, as well as relationship-building.
Objective The purpose of this multicenter retrospective study was to investigate the impact of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) on the survival of Japanese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with sorafenib.
Methods A total of 178 HCC patients from May 2009 to December 2015 at our affiliated hospitals was included in this study. The PNI was calculated as follows: 10×serum albumin (g/dL) +0.005×total lymphocyte count (per mm3). The patients were divided into two groups according to the cut-off value of the PNI and as calculated by a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
Results The optimum cut-off value of the PNI was set at 46.8. We defined the 33 patients with a PNI≥46.8 as the PNI-high group and the 145 patients with a PNI<46.8 as the PNI-low group. The response rate was 20.0% in the PNI-high group and 8.1% in the PNI-low group, without any statistically significance (p=0.09). The duration of sorafenib therapy and the overall survival in the PNI-high group were significantly better than those in the PNI-low group. The PNI-high group was thus found to be a predictive factor associated with the duration of sorafenib therapy [hazard ratio (HR) 0.58; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.87, p=0.008] and overall survival (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.39-0.99, p=0.046) in a multivariate analysis.
Conclusion The PNI is a simple and useful marker for predicting the survival of patients with HCC treated with sorafenib.
Objective Oral anticoagulants (OACs), which include direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and warfarin, are widely used for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Cancer is associated with a prothrombotic state as well as an increased bleeding risk. Few data are available on the efficacy and safety of OACs in Japanese cancer patients with AF. We sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of OACs in this population.
Methods This retrospective cohort study included active cancer patients in whom AF was recorded by electrocardiography in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2016 and who were treated with DOACs or warfarin. Patients were followed for 1 year. The study outcomes were stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding.
Result A total of 224 patients with AF and active cancer were treated with OACs (DOACs, n=127; warfarin, n=97). Overall, stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding occurred in seven (3.8%/year) and eight (4.9%/year) patients, respectively. Stroke or systemic embolism occurred in three patients in the DOAC group (2.8%/year) and four patients in the warfarin group (5.4%/year). Major bleeding occurred in four patients in the DOAC group (4.0%/year) and four patients in the warfarin group (6.5%/year).
Conclusion The rates of stroke or systemic embolism and major bleeding events were not negligible among Japanese cancer patients with AF receiving OACs. Further investigations on the optimal management of Japanese patients with AF and cancer are needed.
Objective Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of the upper and lower motor neurons that progresses to paralysis of almost all skeletal muscles of the extremities, bulbar, and respiratory system. Although most ALS cases are sporadic, about 10% are dominantly inherited. We herein report an atypical phenotype of familial ALS (fALS). To elucidate the phenotype-genotype correlation of this atypical phenotype of fALS, clinical and genetic investigations were performed.
Methods and Patients Five sibling patients (three men, two women) from a Japanese family and one healthy sibling (a woman) were clinically interviewed and examined. Genetic analyses, including genome-wide linkage analyses and whole-exome sequencing, were performed using genomic DNA extracted from the peripheral blood samples of these siblings.
Results The clinical features of fALS are characterized by slow progression (mean duration of the disease±standard deviation [SD]: 19.6±3.9 years) and lower extremities-predominant late-onset muscular weakness (mean onset of muscular weakness±SD: 52.8±2.6 years). Genetic analyses revealed novel heterozygous missense mutations of c.2668C>T, p.R890C in the PLEC gene and c.421G>C, p.V141L in the ST3GAL6 gene in all affected siblings.
Conclusion A new atypical fALS family with a benign clinical course is herein reported. We identified two candidate gene mutations of PLEC and ST3GAL6 linked to this phenotype.
Objective To describe the clinical research support systems in Japanese board certification programs of internal medicine and to assess the relationship between these support systems and the scholarly activities of residents.
Methods In 2018, a 26-item web questionnaire was mailed to 542 points of contact of hospitals listed as certified residency programs of internal medicine in order to obtain information about the presence of a research support system and scholarly activity from 2016. We used hospital characteristic data from the Japanese Diagnostic Procedure Combination database, a national inpatient database, and the annual report of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine.
Results A total of 228 hospitals (42%) responded to the survey. There were regular research lectures in 129 hospitals (57%), protected time (time to perform research during working hours) in 53 hospitals (23%), research consultations in 175 hospitals (77%), regular journal clubs in 213 hospitals (77%), regular research conferences in 151 hospitals (66%), data warehouses in 139 hospitals (61%), and financial research support from the hospital budget in 140 hospitals (61%). A multivariate analysis showed that none of the research support systems were related to the number of conference presentations. In contrast, protected time [odds ratio (OR) 3.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-9.39] and regular research conferences (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.14-4.23) were related to the presence of clinical research presentations in scientific conferences hosted by residents.
Conclusion Protected time and regular research conferences were related to the scholarly activity of residents in Japanese teaching hospitals.
An unconscious 55-year-old man with a history of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was transported to the emergency department and was diagnosed with acute renal failure owing to a large bladder tumor. A submucosal tumor was also identified in the duodenum. The patient was diagnosed with a primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the bladder and duodenum. After six cycles of regorafenib therapy, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in the duodenal GIST on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) showed a partial metabolic response. Currently, no standard drug therapy for unresectable or relapsed NF1-associated GIST has been established. Regorafenib may thus be considered as and appropriate initial therapy.
A 51-year-old woman had been taking proton pump inhibitor since August 2008. In May, 2016, endoscopic findings showed no atrophy and no intestinal metaplasia in the stomach, and multiple fundic gland polyps were identified in the stomach. A biopsy of a pedunculated polyp measuring 10 millimeters in diameter at the greater curvature of the middle gastric body demonstrated well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma. In July 2016, we treated this lesion and two other semipedunculated polyps located near the first polyp and also measuring 10 mm in diameter by endoscopic mucosal resection. The final diagnosis of all lesions was a fundic gland polyp with low grade dysplasia and the cutting end was negative.
A 60-year-old man was referred for the investigation of giant gastric folds, life-threatening anemia and hypoproteinemia. A combination of multiple endoscopic procedures derived a clinical diagnosis of protein-losing gastropathy with two gastric adenomas. After two months of alimentary therapy, the patient received total gastrectomy and fully recovered. The final pathological diagnosis was hypertrophic gastropathy of unknown origin with concomitant adenocarcinoma arising from a gastric type adenoma.
Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) frequently involves the hepatobiliary system, but its clinical course and pathophysiology are still not fully known. We herein describe a case of IVLBCL mimicking acute hepatobiliary infection. An 85-year-old woman was admitted because of fever and epigastric pain, and she was diagnosed to have acute acalculous cholecystitis based on gallbladder wall thickening with fluid collection. The gallbladder swelling regressed within several days, and areas of intrahepatic hypoperfusion appeared. Inflammation continued despite treatment with antibiotics, and she died within 21 days. An autopsy examination revealed IVLBCL. IVLBCL can present as acute cholecystitis with an improvement in the imaging findings and the presence of a subsequent liver mass.
Adult-onset type II citrullinemia (CTLN2) is a urea cycle disease characterized by neurological and psychiatric abnormalities associated with hyperammonemia. One of the pathological features of CTLN2 is the presence of hepatocyte steatosis. The condition progresses in almost all CTLN2 patients to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We herein report a 74-year-old woman who developed CTLN2 without hepatocyte steatosis. The diagnosis was based on clinical and laboratory findings and confirmed by two liver biopsies conducted within 7 years, as well as by a DNA analysis, which demonstrated mutations in the SLC25A13 gene. We describe a rare CTLN2 case without hepatocyte steatosis in an elderly woman who responded well to a low-carbohydrate diet.
We experienced a young woman with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by renovascular hypertension (RVH) and subsequent hypertensive heart disease. She underwent tumor resection and intraoperative radiation therapy because of neuroblastoma at age 2. She was diagnosed with RVH and hypertensive heart disease due to radiation-induced renal artery stenosis at age 12. Thereafter, she was hospitalized with CHF caused by uncontrolled RVH at age 19, and renal autotransplantation with extraction of left kidney was performed after the recovery of CHF. Her blood pressure has been well controlled without CHF readmission during four years of follow-up after the operation.
We report a case with the simultaneous occurrence of pseudo-aneurysm of the left ventricle and ventricular septal rupture, which was successfully surgically repaired. A 77-year-old woman with a history of aortic valve replacement and coronary bypass graft presented to our clinic due to chest pain. She was diagnosed with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) based on an electrocardiogram. Echocardiography revealed pseudo-aneurysm of the left ventricle and ventricular septal rupture. Coronary angiography revealed 99% stenosis with delayed contrast filling in the mid left anterior descending artery. Surgical repair with a bovine pericardium patch was performed, and the postoperative course was uneventful.
A 45-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital with chest and back pain with a duration of two days. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a large calcified lesion in the inferior vena cava (IVC), thrombus with calcification in the pulmonary arteries of the left lower lobe, and an infiltrative shadow in the left lower lobe. He was diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) and pneumonia. Calcification in the IVC was not evident on any CT images obtained six and eight years earlier. This patient was identified to be an extremely rare case of PE associated with IVC calcification that developed during adulthood.
The patient was a 71-year-old woman with aquaporin-4-antibody positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO), with no history of diabetes. On admission, although she showed an extremely elevated plasma glucose level (1,080 mg/dL), her hemoglobin A1c level was low (7.1%), which indicated the rapid progression of diabetes. She also showed ketoacidosis and had a human leukocyte antigen haplotype, DRB1*09:01-DQB1*03:03 associated with Fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D). Based on these results, the patient was diagnosed with FT1D. We herein describe the first reported case of a patient with FT1D with NMO, which raises the possibility that T-cell-mediated autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of both FT1D and NMO.
Recent large clinical trials failed to show clear benefits of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) as compared with medical therapy on patients with renal artery stenosis. It was also reported that proteinuria is an adverse prognostic factor after PTRA, and PTRA is less effective in patients with overt proteinuria. From the renoprotective point of view, to reduce proteinuria after PTRA is an important therapeutic goal in patients with renal artery stenosis with overt proteinuria. We hereby describe two patients successfully treated by combination therapy with PTRA and administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor for bilateral renal artery disease with overt proteinuria.
Thrombophilia is a serious unpredictable complication caused by gene mutations, resulting in anticoagulant deficiencies. We herein report a single-family case series of protein C (PC) deficiency. Case 1 involved a Japanese man whose PC deficiency resulted in severe systemic thrombosis. The patients in cases 2 and 3 were his daughters who were diagnosed with PC deficiency via carrier screening in 2001 and later both became pregnant. Owing to appropriate treatments during pregnancy, they did not develop thrombosis and safely gave birth to healthy infants. This family case series suggests that appropriate knowledge concerning thrombophilia helps prevent future emergencies.
Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare condition in which spontaneous, progressive resorption of bone occurs. There are no previous reports of patients with fatal progression of GSD with skull base osteomyelitis (SBO) and lateral medullary syndrome (LMS). We present the case of a 27-year-old man diagnosed with GSD with involvement of the maxillofacial bones and skull base. The patient developed SBO; LMS resulted from progressive osteolysis, and the patient died of associated brainstem stroke. Careful follow-up with special emphasis on the early detection of intracranial complications is critical in patients presenting with progressive GSD with involvement of the skull base.
We herein report the case of a 38-year-old man who developed parkinsonism 4 years after ingesting glyphosate. The patient presented with right-sided bradykinesia and cogwheel rigidity without autonomic symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and [123I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy were normal. A drastic response to levodopa and the presence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia without strong non-motor symptoms were seen in this patient. We considered that young-onset atypical parkinsonism was associated with a history of sublethal glyphosate ingestion. Epidemiologic investigations have shown that exposure to pesticides is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Our findings support the notion that glyphosate exposure might be related to the onset of PD.
A 77-year-old woman who had taken a single oral dose of duloxetine subsequently developed a headache and nausea. On the first day, her serum sodium level was 135 mEq/L. She became confused on the third day. Her serum sodium level was 119 mEq/L and her antidiuretic hormone level was 1.9 IU. We diagnosed her with acute hyponatremia from duloxetine-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This case suggests that we must not rule out SIADH on the basis of normal serum sodium levels when a patient who has started serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) treatment presents with symptoms similar to hyponatremia.
A 19-year-old previously healthy man presented with convulsions, fever, headache, diarrhea, and vomiting. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebral hemorrhaging in the right parietal lobe and thrombotic occlusion of the right great cerebral vein. Blood cultures were positive for nontyphoidal Salmonella. The patient was successfully treated with antibiotics and anticoagulants. Nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia can cause cerebral venous thrombosis and physicians therefore need to consider nontyphoidal Salmonella bacteremia as a potential cause of cerebral venous thrombosis.
A 64-year-old man previously diagnosed with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia presented to our hospital with confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed diffuse meningeal enhancement. The patient was diagnosed with Bing-Neel syndrome (BNS) based on an elevated IgM index and the presence of monoclonal IgM protein, as detected by immunofixation electrophoresis of the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient underwent intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy but ultimately died of pneumonia. An autopsy revealed extensive meningeal and perivascular infiltration by malignant cells throughout the brain and spine. Thus, BNS may cause more extensive malignant infiltration into the central nervous system than is revealed by MRI.
An 83-year-old man with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibited a sudden increase in urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and protein excretion, suggesting aggravated kidney damage. Simultaneously, he lost diabetic control, requiring up to 54 units of insulin daily. A detailed examination revealed the presence of renal cell carcinoma, which was surgically resected and confirmed to be interleukin-6-positive by immunohistochemistry. Postoperatively, his uni-nephrectomy necessitated hemodialysis, but the patient's insulin resistance was ameliorated; no medication was required to control diabetes, suggesting that the tumor had caused the insulin resistance. This report describes a case of a tumor secreting interleukin-6, which affects both the control of diabetes and CKD progression.
A 41-year-old woman presented with recurrent dizziness. After an attack of dizziness, she felt edematous sensations in her hands. However, according to photographs taken during the attack, the edema on the back of the patient's hands and fingers appeared mild. Laboratory examinations revealed a low C4 and C1 inhibitor (INH) activity. A direct sequencing analysis of C1INH revealed a pathogenic gene mutation. Based on these results, she was diagnosed with hereditary angioedema (HAE) type 1. These findings indicate that HAE can cause recurrent dizziness, and it should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with recurrent neurologic symptoms, even in the absence of severe edema.