Background Coronary flow velocity (CFV) can be used to assess short-term left ventricular function recovery and the clinical prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated CFV as a predictor of long-term left ventricular function recovery and cardiac events in patients with anterior wall AMI. Methods and Results CFV pattern of the distal left anterior descending (LAD), wall motion score index (WMSI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were recorded at the points of time within 24 hours, 3 days, 6 months, and 3 years after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 50 consecutive patients with anterior wall AMI. The clinical data were collected. Patients were divided into two groups based on diastolic deceleration time (DDT) 3 days after PCI. Compared with 3 days, LVEF and WMSI in group A (DDT>600 ms, n=20) improved in 6 months and 3 years (p<0.01), but they were unchanged in group B (DDT≤600 ms, n=30). The incidence of cardiac events was higher in group B than in group A during 6 months (p<0.01).With a 3-year follow up, the incidence of chronic heart failure was higher in group B than in group A (p=0.009). Conclusion CFV could be used as a predictor of long-term left ventricular function recovery and cardiac events in patients with anterior wall AMI.
Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and adenosine triphosphate stress cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (ATP-SPECT) in evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients scheduled for non-cardiac surgery. Patients and Methods We routinely performed echocardiography and exercise stress electrocardiography as preoperative cardiac screening examinations for patients scheduled for non-cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Of 848 consecutive preoperative patients (Non-invasive Group), 49 patients with abnormalities of these screening examinations had MDCT and ATP-SPECT. Of 809 consecutive preoperative patients studied at an earlier time (Invasive Group), 58 patients with abnormalities of these screening examinations had cardiac catheterization as an additional cardiac examination. Results The number of patients in the non-invasive and invasive subgroups having additional screening examinations was comparable, and there was no significant difference in perioperative cardiac events between the two subgroups. Based on results of the additional tests in the two subgroups, preoperative prophylactic invasive treatment for CAD was carried out in a small number of patients, again with no significant differences between the groups. However, total medical expenses for the additional cardiac examinations were significantly reduced in the non-invasive subgroup compared with the invasive subgroup (140,030±34,800 vs. 187,170±26,120 yen, respectively, p=0.0002). Conclusion Non-invasive examination prior to noncardiac surgery using MDCT and ATP-SPECT in a subgroup of patients suspected of having CAD appears to be a useful screening procedure. Compared with invasive cardiac catheterization, CT testing has comparable diagnostic utility without an increase in perioperative cardiac events, and in addition, it has an improved cost-benefit profile.
Objective Adjusted-dose warfarin therapy can prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, the quality of the warfarin control may be considered to be important for elderly patients. Methods We followed 188 patients (age ≥70 years) with atrial fibrillation (warfarin, 120 patients; non-warfarin, 68 patients) for 2 years. Their warfarin control was assessed by time in therapeutic range (TTR) for an international normalized ratio of prothrombin time of 1.6-2.6, based on the Japanese guidelines of anticoagulation for elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Results Stroke occurred in 23 patients (12.2%). In warfarin-treated patients, receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves suggested that patients with TTR >68% had anticoagulation benefit. In the ROC curves for prediction of stroke, the area under the curve of TTR was 0.709 (95% confidence interval, 0.585 to 0.834; p=0.02). The sensitivity and specificity of TTR ≤68% were 91.7% and 54.0%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the event-free ratio of stroke was significantly higher in patients who achieved this cut-off of TTR. Conclusion The results suggest that the quality of warfarin control is directly associated with the incidence of stroke in elderly patients.
Objective To evaluate the effects of one year of treatment with sibutramine plus L-carnitine compared to sibutramine on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin resistance state in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Two hundred and fifty-four patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >8.0%] in therapy with different oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin were enrolled in this study and randomised to take sibutramine 10 mg plus L-carnitine 2 g or sibutramine 10 mg in monotherapy. We evaluated at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months these parameters: body weight, body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (Tg), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP-4), resistin, visfatin, high sensitivity-C reactive protein (Hs-CRP). Results There was a decrease in body weight, BMI, HbA1c, FPI, HOMA-IR, and RBP-4 in both groups, even when the values obtained with sibutramine plus L-carnitine were lower than the values obtained in sibutramine group. There was a faster decrease of FPG, PPG, TC, LDL-C, resistin and Hs-CRP with sibutramine plus L-carnitine even when no differences between the two groups were obtained. Furthermore, only sibutramine plus L-carnitine improved Tg, and visfatin. Conclusion Sibutramine plus L-carnitine gave a faster improvement of lipid profile, insulin resistance parameters, glycemic control, and body weight compared to sibutramine.
Objective Patients with cardioembolic stroke (CE) caused by paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (Paf) sometimes show normal sinus rhythm on admission, which makes it difficult to diagnose them as having CE. The present study examined the differences in echocardiographic findings between patients with CE caused by Paf (the Paf-CE group) and those with non-cardiogenic embolic ischemic stroke (the Non-CE group). Methods We examined thirty-two patients with embolic ischemic stroke presenting with a normal sinus rhythm upon admission to our hospital; 13 patients in the Paf-CE group and 19 patients in the Non-CE group. During admission, all patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at a normal sinus rhythm. The left atrial dimension, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension and left ventricular ejection fraction were measured using TTE. The left atrial appendage peak flow velocity (LAAPV), spontaneous echo-contrast in the left atrium (LASEC) and thrombus in the left atrium were evaluated using TEE. Results Among the clinical background characteristics, hypertension was significantly more frequent in the Non-CE group than in the Paf-CE group (p<0.01). Congestive heart failure was significantly more frequent in the Paf-CE group than in the Non-CE group (p<0.05). LAAPV was significantly lower in the Paf-CE group than in the Non-CE group (34.7 cm/s vs. 64.0 cm/s, p<0.01), and the LASEC grade was significantly higher in the Paf-CE group than in the Non-CE group (p<0.01). A thrombus in the left atrium was detected in two patients in the Paf-CE group, but no thrombi were detected in any of the patients in the Non-CE group. Conclusion Echocardiographic evaluation is useful, as the above data indicate that the left atrial function is apparently impaired in patients with CE caused by Paf, even in a patient with an apparently normal sinus rhythm.
Background We encountered 15 cases of Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi) infection between March and July 2008. Patient, Method, and Result The underlying diseases were hematological malignancies in a majority of cases, many of which received chemotherapy. All patients had a fever. The fever was followed by cellulitis in three, a skin rash in six, pain in the lower limbs in three, and diarrhea in three cases. We analyzed the bacterial 23S rRNA genes. The fifteen strains were divided according to base sequence into Groups A, B, and C, respectively. All four cases in Group A were women and all ten in Group C were men, indicating that the gender of the patient corresponded precisely to the genotypes of the separated bacilli in these two groups. These findings also suggested the strong possibility of nosocomial spread. Conclusion It is highly likely that H. cinaedi infections have been overlooked due to the difficulties encountered in culturing the bacterium. The possibility of septicemia caused by H. cinaedi should be suspected especially in immunocompromised patients such as those undergoing chemotherapy, with symptoms such as fever, rash, arthritis, cellulitis, leg pain, and other systemic or local symptoms.
A 54-year-old female with chronic hepatitis C developed severe thrombocytopenia after a single administration of Peg-IFN alpha 2a subsequent to 48 weeks of Peg-IFN alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy. The platelet count decreased from 11.3×104 /mm3 to 1.6×104 /mm3. Blood test and bone marrow aspiration examination indicated that an immunological mechanism was considered for the etiology of platelet decrease. Fifty mg of prednisolone was administered and the platelet count gradually increased to the normal range. This case is very instructive since severe thrombocytopenia did not occur during 48 weeks of Peg-IFN alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy, but occurred after a single subcutaneous administration of Peg-IFN alpha-2a during a subsequent course.
Multiple primary cancers are defined as multiple occurrences of malignant neoplasm of different histologic origin in the same individual. The synchronous occurrence of triple distinct cancers in the same patient is very rare. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of synchronous triple primary cancers of the rectum, thyroid gland and uterine cervix; all were detected during the work-up for hematochezia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report in the medical literature.
A 53-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for management of gastric varices that ran transversely across the greater curvature of the gastric body, detected during routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. CT identified a low-density calcified mass near the tail of the pancreas and the splenic hilum. Based on the results of radiographic and pathological investigations, the tumor was diagnosed as solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN), and the gastric varices were considered to have developed secondary to occlusion of the splenic vein by the tumor mass. This is a rare case of SPN associated with splenic vein occlusion and left-sided extrahepatic portal hypertension.
Here, we report an adult patient with IgA-related enteropathy complicated with massive intestinal bleeding and acute renal failure, but without skin lesions. Surgical resection of the small intestine and steroid pulse therapy was performed. Histopathology revealed significant deposition of IgA and C3 in the small vessels of the intestine and the kidney mesangium. Although skin purpura was absent, the histopathology and clinical manifestations suggested that the pathophysiology was similar to Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), implying IgA-related enteropathy as a subclass of HSP. Retrospective analysis indicates that terminal ileum lesions may be a poor prognostic indicator.
Restrictive cardiomyophthy is an extremely rare cause of massive chylous ascites and chylothorax. We report a 56-year-old man patient who presented with chylous ascites and bilateral chylothorax; 12-lead electrocardiography and echocardiography revealed restrictive cardiomyopathy. Endomyocardial biopsy disclosed amyloidosis.
Although the prognosis for patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) is relatively good, some patients with this syndrome develop torsades de pointes, which can be fatal. The present report describes a patient with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and torsades de pointes induced by premature atrial contraction associated with QT interval prolongation, hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia.
We present a 78-year-old woman with prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) 3 years after mitral valve replacement. Administration of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was effective; however, it was discontinued because of side effects, which led to failure of antibiotic therapy. Complications of multiple cerebral infarction and paravalvular abscess developed. Although the prosthetic valve was removed 50 days after admission, she died 4 months after surgery. S. maltophilia has been increasingly being considered as a serious nosocomial pathogen. S. maltophilia endocarditis is rare; however, it should be recognized as a possible life-threatening disease in patients with prosthetic valve.
We report a case of a 63-year-old woman who developed acute right heart failure and an achalasia-like syndrome with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) and primary biliary cirrhosis. Intravenous administration of diuretics improved her acute heart failure. Anti-centromere antibodies and anti-mitochondria antibodies were present. A coronary angiogram and a Swan-Ganz catheter revealed no abnormalities. Thallium-201 scan at rest demonstrated mild perfusion defects in both the apex and the anteroseptal and the inferior myocardium. A cine-esophagram revealed an achalasia-like syndrome. Though rare, physicians should be aware that some patients with lcSSc may develop acute right heart failure or achalasia-like syndrome.
A hemodialysis patient with tuberculous peritonitis with hypercalcemia and high serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and CA-125 levels is reported. An 82-year-old woman who had been on hemodialysis therapy for 6 years was admitted to our hospital for evaluation and treatment of hypercalcemia. Laboratory examination and radiologic studies revealed markedly increased serum sIL-2R and CA-125 levels and exudative ascites, with high levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and CA-125, which was suggestive of malignancy or tuberculosis. She was finally diagnosed as having tuberculous peritonitis based on positivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in ascitic fluid. The ascites subsided with normalization of hypercalcemia and a marked decrease in serum sIL-2R and CA-125 levels in response to anti-tuberculosis treatment. This case indicates that serum sIL-2R and CA-125 levels can rise to levels suggestive of malignancy in tuberculous peritonitis, and that they can be used to monitor the response to anti-tuberculosis treatment.
Type Ιa glycogen storage disease (GSD Ιa) is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase activity, which results in metabolic disorder and organ failure, including renal failure. GSD Ιa patients are generally diagnosed at a median age of 6 months. However, we report a 20-year-old Japanese female with newly diagnosed GSD Ιa. The renal disorder of GSD Ιa is considered to be produced by glomerular hyperfiltration, TGF-β expression which is induced by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) and uric acid, and the increase in both small dense LDL and modified LDL which is characteristic of GSD Ιa as well as hypertriglyceridemia. With the administration of intensive therapies, including angiotensin type 1-receptor blocker and some lipid lowering drugs, along with traditional dietary therapy, daily proteinuria of the patient improved from 2.1 g to 0.78 g. Although the patients of GSD Ιa should receive an early and accurate diagnosis and effective therapies before the age of 1 year, the combination of traditional dietary therapies and intensive therapies may have therapeutic potential for the complications of adult patients. In this report, we describe the management of renal disease and the characteristic features of this metabolic disorder.
A 58-year-old woman with an 18-year history of primary biliary cirrhosis was admitted because of pneumococcal pneumonia. She was treated with antibiotics and mechanical ventilation. After the pneumonia improved, she developed severe watery diarrhea. Although vancomycin was administered enterally, the diarrhea persisted. She died of multiple organ failure within 16 days of the onset of diarrhea. An autopsy showed intracapillary cryptococci in the systemic organs, especially in the intestinal tract. The cause of diarrhea was considered to be extensive intestinal mucosal necrosis due to disseminated cryptococcosis. This is a rare case of cryptococcal infection manifesting as acute diarrhea.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV (EDS type IV), vascular type, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation of the type III procollagen gene (COL3A1) is the most severe form of EDS and often presents with aortic hemorrhage or organ perforation. This report discusses a male patient with EDS type IV with dyspnea due to hemopneumothorax. He had thin skin and hypermobile joints and was clinically confirmed as having EDS type IV. The diagnosis was genetically confirmed by a mutation c.2528 G>A (p.Gly843Glu) in the COL3A1 gene. The position of the mutation has never been reported.
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a very rare and recently-described subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A maxillary tumor in an 84-year-old HIV-negative Japanese-man was referred. The biopsied specimen showed a diffuse proliferation of mature plasma cells, expressing CD3 (+), CD4 (+), CD20 (-), CD138 (+) and EBER (+) by immunohistochemistry. He was diagnosed as a plasmablastic lymphoma; radiation therapy (RT) was started, but the response to the RT was only a partial response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with PBL expressing CD3 and CD4.
We report two patients with acute hyponatremic encephalopathy which developed after massive water ingestion for pelvic ultrasound and emphasize the findings of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Both subjects had completely recovered within 24 hours following fluid restriction and salt replacement. MR imaging revealed cortical sulcal narrowing, restricted diffusion and sulcal T2 hyperintensity along with diffuse pial enhancement suggesting diffuse cerebral cortical cytotoxic edema and blood-brain barrier breakdown. In addition to the first illustration of multimodality MR imaging features of water-intoxication, these two cases also highlight the need for standardized practice on the quantity of water intake recommended to distend the bladder for pelvic ultrasound, especially in patients at risk for serum inappropriate ADH syndrome-related hyponatremia.
A 73-year-old woman developed subacute meningitis-retention syndrome (MRS), dermatitis, and latent pneumonitis likely due to the herbal medicines Shinbu-Tou and Rikkunshi-Tou. The responsible site of lesions for urinary retention seemed to be the spinal micturition pathways and, to a lesser extent, the sacral spinal cord. All of her clinical manifestations were successfully ameliorated within three weeks of discontinuation of the herbal remedies.
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)-infected patients who have started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is well known to be one scenario of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We encountered the first case in Japan of an HIV-infected patient with pulmonary Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum infection as IRIS. A 34 year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lymphadenopathy was observed at the left pulmonary hilum. IRIS was suspected and thoracoscopic surgery was performed to diagnose the cause of lymphadenopathy. Granulomas were observed histologically, and M. parascrofulaceum was cultured. This organism was susceptible to Clarithromycin, rifampicin and levofloxacin. After the operation and without treatment, recurrence of M. parascrofulaceum infection was not observed. M. parascrofulaceum was isolated from several clinical specimens for the first time in 2004. To date, only five cases have been reported.
It is believed that viral infections and the hyperimmune reaction due to these infections are involved in the etiology of Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease (KFD), a rare cause of fever of unknown origin. Axillary lymphadenopathy and neurologic involvement are rare in KFD. We present a patient diagnosed with KFD histopathologically during an investigation of the origin of fever and axillary lymphadenopathy. Subsequently, incidental sinus aspergilloma was diagnosed radiologically in the patient and acute disseminated encephalitis developed during follow-up. This report aims to draw attention to the co-existence of KFD and Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, two diseases of which the origins are not clear.
We report a 38-year-old mestizo man with the sudden onset of left upper abdominal pain while climbing Mt. Fuji, which is the highest mountain in Japan. Enhanced computed tomography showed splenic infarction. Although his peripheral blood smear was normal, a hemoglobin S level of 40% established the diagnosis of sickle cell trait (SCT). This trait is common worldwide, but is not well recognized by doctors in Japan because no Japanese patients with SCT have been reported. However, in Japan it is important to consider SCT when assessing foreign patients with splenic infarction.