Objective The presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is strongly associated with stroke and cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between MetS and the localization of atherosclerosis at various sites remains uncertain. In this study, in order to reveal the relevance of MetS to atherosclerosis at several sites, we investigated the relationships among vascular risk factors, asymptomatic cerebral infarction and atherosclerosis in the aorta and carotid and coronary arteries in adults without overtly symptomatic cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease. Methods The subjects in this study included 2,759 Japanese participants (1,845 men and 914 women, mean age: 52 years) with no history of stroke or cardiovascular events. The diagnosis of MetS was made based on modifications to criteria obtained from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel. In all subjects, the presence of cerebral infarction in the extra-cranial carotid, coronary and aortic arteries was investigated using MRI, B-mode ultrasonography and CT. Results Of the 2,759 subjects, 796 (28.9%) fulfilled the criteria for MetS. The presence of MetS increased the odds ratio (OR) to 1.89 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.65, p-value <0.0001) for asymptomatic cerebral infarction, 1.70 (95% CI: 1.37-2.10, p-value <0.0001) for carotid arteriosclerosis, 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.27, p-value <0.0001) for coronary calcification and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.33-2.09, p-value<0.0001) for aortic calcification. Conclusion The presence of MetS was found to be significantly correlated with arteriosclerosis in all regions, including the cerebral small-vessels, extra-cranial carotid arteries, coronary arteries and abdominal aorta. MetS might be a predictor for small and large vessel disease throughout the body.
Objective Stroke awareness among the general public is considered beneficial for improving stroke prevention and rapid responses to stroke onset. Methods An internet-based questionnaire survey designed to assess the degree of understanding of strokes was administered to over 10,000 people ≥20 years of age from across Japan between November 8 to 11, 2010. Results Valid responses were obtained from 11,121 persons aged 44.8±13.1 years. Only 10.3% of the respondents answered that they had a good understanding of what sort of disease stroke is, and only 33.8% responded that they had access to information on strokes; these proportions increased with age. The information sources included television (85.2%) and newspapers (34.1%), with newspaper use increasing with age. Among the respondents, 95.5% recognized speech disturbance and 89.5% recognized hemiplegia as symptoms of stroke; however, only 2.3% stated that they could confidently identify stroke occurrence. For responses to stroke onset, 67.0% of the responders stated that they would call an ambulance, compared to only 22.4% for transient ischemic attacks. In both cases, the proportions were higher among older respondents. A logistic regression analysis showed that the factors contributing to recommending early transportation by ambulance were knowledge of stroke symptoms (odds ratio (OR): 1.579; p=0.00), knowledge of stroke risk factors (OR: 1.294; p=0.00) and experience of living with stroke patients (OR: 1.374; p=0.00). Conclusion Although the survey was conducted over the internet and the respondents may have tended to be relatively young, knowledge of strokes and understanding of the correct actions to take were higher among the older respondents. Overall, the knowledge of strokes was considered to be insufficient.
Objective To investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of anxiety and depression in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to examine the relationship between anxiety and depression and the quality of life (QOL). Methods One hundred and seventeen patients with PD completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition (BDI-II), Starkstein's Apathy Scale (AS) and QOL battery. Hoehn and Yahr (HY) staging, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered on the same day. Results Anxiety (STAI score ≥41 for men or ≥42 for women) was diagnosed in 55% of the patients and depression (BDI-II score ≥14) was diagnosed in 56% of the patients. Anxiety coexisted with depression in 41% of the patients, while depression without anxiety was observed in 15% of the patients and anxiety without depression was observed in 14% of the patients. The STAI score was found to be significantly correlated with the UPDRS (I, IVC) and AS scores, whereas the BDI-II score was found to correlate with the HY stage and the UPDRS (I, III, IVB, C) and AS scores. Both the STAI and BDI-II scores were found to negatively correlate with QOL. A multivariate analysis revealed that depression and anxiety are similarly associated with the PD specific QOL (PDQ-39), while motor severity, as judged by the HY stage and UPDRS III score, is not. Conclusion These findings indicate that recognizing anxiety and depression in patients with PD is important, since both conditions are commonly observed in patients with PD and are similarly associated with the QOL, independent of motor severity.
The coexistence of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and active ulcerative colitis (UC) has been reported. We herein report a rare case of UC accompanied by ITP and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. A female UC patient was diagnosed with ITP. At that time, the UC was almost in remission and we suspected that the ITP was caused by some factor other than UC. Accordingly, we found H. pylori infection and administered H. pylori eradication therapy. Consequently, the patient's serum platelet count recovered dramatically. Our report demonstrates the importance of conducting examinations for H. pylori infection in ITP patients, even those with UC.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and inflammatory pseudotumor of the liver (IPL) are often difficult to differentiate before surgery. To date, colocalization of IPL and HCC has not been reported. We experienced a case of necrotic HCC surrounded by IPL-like tissue. The raised levels of alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II declined to within the normal ranges after resection of the tumor. The IPL-like nodule most likely developed as a process of an inflammatory reaction such as abscess formation after the spontaneous destruction of the HCC. Our case is a warning that the presence of a 'pseudotumor' does not rule out the possible simultaneous presence of carcinoma.
The patient was a 60-year-old man with encephalopathy without liver cirrhosis. CT angiography revealed a patent ductus venosus between the anterior segmental branch of the portal vein and the middle hepatic vein. Coils were framed in the patent ductus venosus and then used to fill in the frame. After treatment, transarterial portography showed that the shunt flow of the ductus venosus had decreased significantly. After one day, the patient's disturbance of consciousness disappeared. Our case involved the adult-onset of a patent ductus venosus, which is extremely rare. This case is the first in which coil embolization was successfully achieved in a noncirrhotic elderly patient with a patent ductus venosus.
A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with swelling of the right leg. After surgery, leiomyosarcoma of the right leg was diagnosed. Computed tomography showed two hypovascular masses in the pancreatic body and tail that were heterogeneously enhanced compared with the pancreatic parenchyma. On endoscopic ultrasonography, the tumors in the pancreatic body and tail both exhibited regular margins and were visualized as well-circumscribed masses with uneven interiors. Distal pancreatectomy was performed under a presumptive diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic leiomyosarcoma diagnosed based on the findings of EUS-FNA. On laparotomy, peritoneal washing cytology yielded negative results, and no dissemination was observed. Ultimately, metastatic pancreatic leiomyosarcoma was histologically diagnosed.
Although coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is a frequent cause of prosthetic valve endocarditis, native valve endocarditis (NVE) caused by CoNS is not commonly seen. Its high mortality is well known; however, there are no systematic reports published in Japan. We herein report the cases of two Japanese patients with CoNS NVE who were admitted to our hospital located in Tokyo and conduct literature searches on CoNS NVE in Japan from 1983 to March 2012 using PubMed and ICHUSHI WEB (Japan Medical Abstract Society). We also summarize the features of 22 Japanese patients with CoNS NVE, including our patients.
A 34-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with diabetic ketoacidosis due to fulminant type 1 diabetes. The patient's pancreatic exocrine and endocrine functions were as follows: the bentiromide (PABA) test value on day 14 was 33.9%, thus indicating exocrine dysfunction. One year and a half later, the PABA test value had improved to 71.0%. On the other hand, the serum C-peptide level after meal ingestion was under the detection limit. The mechanisms underlying pancreatic exocrine abnormalities seem to be different from those underlying accelerated pancreatic beta-cell failure in patients with fulminant type 1 diabetes.
We herein report the case of a 53-year-old man with severe coronary ischemia who underwent successful coronary artery bypass surgery. Of note, he had hypercholesterolemia and presented with multiple large tendinous xanthomas and thickened Achilles tendons that had been present for more than two decades. Together with a family history of dyslipidemia, the patient was diagnosed as having familial hypercholesterolemia. Irrespective of an extensive search for possible mutations in the genes presumably involved in the patient's pathophysiology, including low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) and apolipoprotein B (APOB), we were not able to identify the gene mutations responsible for the phenotype observed in the present case.
We herein present the case of a 41-year-old man who was misdiagnosed with a recurrent right shoulder tumor and underwent surgery twice. The pathological diagnosis was calcinosis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was confirmed on further examination and the patient was therefore treated with two sessions of percutaneous ultrasonographically-guided radiofrequency tissue ablation. During the 20-month follow-up, the patient underwent four-hour hemodialysis three times a week. The calcinosis nearly completely resolved, and the PTH level was mildly elevated without the administration of any further medical therapy. Percutaneous ultrasonographically-guided radiofrequency tissue ablation is a feasible, safe and effective nonsurgical alternative treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Drug-induced vessel vasculitis is a rare complication of chemotherapy. In particular, few reports have investigated drug-induced large vessel vasculitis. We herein report the case of a 57-year-old woman with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who developed perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplastic antibodies (p-ANCA)-positive periaortitis induced by bevacizumab combination chemotherapy. With the increasing use of combination therapy with bevacizumab, the incidence of vascular complications will potentially increase. A noninfectious fever occurring during chemotherapy might be a sign of vasculitis; therefore, we must ensure that possible periaortitis is not overlooked.
A 66-year-old man who suffered from an acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia developed a cavitary lesion after taking immunosuppressive drugs. He was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. CMV was not thought to be the underlying cause of the cavitary lung lesions, as only six cases have been described thus far. However, this case clearly demonstrates that the development of cavitary lung lesions can be caused by CMV. Following CMV pneumonia, cavitary lesions again occurred in the patient's lungs that were thought to be the first case of cavitary lesions caused by Nocardia asiatica infection.
Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Skin rashes and diarrhea are frequent side effects of erlotinib therapy. When these toxicities become intolerable, dose reduction is commonly performed. However, dose reduction may not maintain the effective dose levels in some specific situations, such as in cases of wild-type EGFR tumors or central nervous system metastases. We speculate that intermittent administration is better than dose reduction to simultaneously maintain the effective dose levels and reduce toxicities in such situations. We herein present four cases of patients who successfully received intermittent administration of erlotinib.
A 49-year-old man with dyspnea was found to have reticular opacities and ground-glass attenuation with traction bronchiectasis or bronchiolectasis on computed tomography. The patient met the criteria for lung-dominant connective tissue disease (LD-CTD) and histopathologically exhibited a chronic fibrotic interstitial pneumonia illustrating framework of a usual interstitial pneumonia-like pattern. Due to worsening of the disease, therapy was initiated with corticosteroids in combination with cyclosporine A. However, treatment with these drugs was ineffective. Pirfenidone and intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy also proved ineffective. The cyclosporine A was therefore switched to tacrolimus, and the patient's disease improved, allowing for a reduction in the dose of the corticosteroids. Our experience in this case suggests that treatment with tacrolimus might be useful for treating refractory LD-CTD even when histopathologically chronic fibrotic interstitial pneumonia is evident.
We herein report the case of a 77-year-old woman who developed acute thrombocytopenia during the 23rd cycle of modified FOLFOX therapy. She developed a hypersensitivity reaction with nasal bleeding. The chemotherapy infusion was immediately discontinued. The patient's symptoms resolved with discontinuation of chemotherapy and the administration of supportive therapy. A complete blood count showed severe thrombocytopenia, and oxaliplatin-induced thrombocytopenia was diagnosed. The patient was admitted to the hospital, and the thrombocytopenia was corrected with a platelet transfusion followed by prednisolone. She was discharged after one week without requiring additional platelet transfusions. With the widespread use of oxaliplatin, the risk of oxaliplatin-induced acute thrombocytopenia should be considered an acute onset hematological emergency.
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is common in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. RBD occurring in a patient with brainstem lymphoma has not yet been reported. A 30-year-old man had an eleven-month history of violent motor and vocal behavior during sleep. Brain magnetic resonance imaging disclosed hypointensity T1 and hyperintensity T2 signals in the pontomesencephalic junction and at the upper/mid pons level. A stereotactic biopsy demonstrated the presence of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. On polysomnography, there was enhanced submental and limb electromyographic tone and increased muscular activity during REM sleep. Chemotherapy diminished the dream-enacting behaviors. This case provides evidence that treatment aimed at the primary disease can partially improve the frequency of RBD.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a disease characterized by tumorous lesions consisting of myofibroblastic spindle cells and inflammatory cells that occur primarily in the soft tissues and viscera of children and young adults. Total excision is the most effective therapy. Steroids have been used to treat unresectable lesions with some success. We herein report a case of IMT involving the frontal bone accompanied by pachymeningitis. The tumor was characterized by an aggressive clinical course that was refractory to prednisolone. Performing total excision seemed difficult. Celecoxib and methotrexate were effective treatments. Our experience suggests the efficacy of celecoxib and methotrexate as alternatives for treating unresectable IMT.
Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is an unrecognized complication occurring in the acute stage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that is seldom reported in the literature. We herein present a case of HPS that occurred during the seroconversion stage of HIV infection. In this case, pancytopenia and liver dysfunction related to HPS recovered after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This report indicates the importance of early recognition of HPS and suggests that prompt initiation of ART has the potential to control HPS in the acute stage of HIV infection.