Objective Pseudoaneurysm rupture associated with unresected pancreatic cancer can cause rare but fatal hemobilia and gastrointestinal bleeding. This study aimed to identify factors predicting pseudoaneurysm rupture.
Methods We conducted a single-center case-control study of unresected pancreatic cancer patients treated at Shizuoka General Hospital between January 2011 and July 2020 using a retrospective cancer registry database. Included in the study were 611 consecutive patients with unresected pancreatic cancer, of whom 55 developed overt upper gastrointestinal bleeding or hemobilia. Twenty patients were excluded, as they had not undergone contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or angiography. Patients were classified into pseudoaneurysm and non-pseudoaneurysm groups. One patient with arterial bleeding but without obvious pseudoaneurysm was included in the pseudoaneurysm group. Factors predicting pseudoaneurysm rupture at the onset of overt gastrointestinal bleeding were investigated using a logistic regression analysis. CT findings revealing air bubbles inside the tumor were described as intratumoral air bubbles.
Results Thirty-five patients were included (15 in the pseudoaneurysm group, 20 in the non-pseudoaneurysm group). In the multivariate analysis, intratumoral air bubbles [odds ratio (OR), 12.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.14-77.9; p=0.005] and hematemesis (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 1.03-38.6; p=0.047) were independent predictors of pseudoaneurysm rupture. In addition, patients who experienced successful hemostasis and were re-administered chemotherapy survived more than six months.
Conclusion This study reveals that intratumoral air bubbles and hematemesis may predict pseudoaneurysm rupture at the onset of overt gastrointestinal bleeding. For patients presenting these findings, an examination with conventional or CT angiography may lead to an early diagnosis and improve the patient prognosis.
Objective Anamorelin, a novel selective ghrelin receptor agonist, was approved in Japan for the treatment of cachexia in pancreatic cancer (PC), albeit with limited evidence. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of anamorelin in PC and examined the impact of the extent of weight loss on the efficacy of anamorelin.
Methods We retrospectively investigated consecutive PC patients with cachexia who received anamorelin at our institution between June 2021 and January 2022. Patients were divided into two groups: moderate-weight-loss group (5-10%) and severe-weight-loss group (>10%). The primary outcome was changes in body weight. The secondary outcomes were changes in appetite and laboratory measures as well as treatment-related severe adverse events.
Results A total of 24 patients were included (moderate/severe weight loss: 8/16). The moderate-weight-loss group showed significantly more weight gain than the severe-weight-loss group. Improvements in appetite were consistently observed in each weight-loss group. Changes in laboratory markers were not significantly different between groups. Hyperglycemia (four patients) was the most common cause of severe adverse events, followed by abdominal distension, nausea, elevated liver function tests, and bulimia.
Conclusion The efficacy of anamorelin was associated with the extent of weight loss. Although anamorelin improved appetite in each weight-loss group, it increased body weight only in the moderate-weight-loss group. Anamorelin was well-tolerated among advanced PC patients, although caution must be practiced when it is used in patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus.
Object Exclusively dopamine-producing pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL) is an extremely rare subtype. In this condition, intratumoral dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), which controls the conversion of norepinephrine from dopamine, is impaired, resulting in suppressed norepinephrine and epinephrine production. However, the rarity of this type of PPGL hampers the understanding of its pathophysiology. We therefore conducted genetic and immunohistological analyses of a patient with an exclusively dopamine-producing paraganglioma.
Methods Paraganglioma samples from a 52-year-old woman who presented with a 29.6- and 41.5-fold increase in plasma and 24-h urinary dopamine, respectively, but only a minor elevation in the plasma norepinephrine level was subjected to immunohistological and gene expression analyses of catecholamine synthases. Three tumors carrying known somatic PPGL-related gene variants (HRAS, EPAS1) were used as controls. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was also performed using the patient's blood and tumor tissue.
Results Surprisingly, the protein expression of DBH was not suppressed, and its mRNA expression was clearly higher in the patient than in the controls. Furthermore, dopa decarboxylase (DDC), which governs the conversion of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA) to dopamine, was downregulated at the protein and gene levels. In addition, melanin, which is synthesized by L-DOPA, accumulated in the tumor. WES revealed no PPGL-associated pathogenic germline variants, but a missense somatic variant (c.1798G>T) in CSDE1 was identified.
Conclusion Although pre-operative plasma L-DOPA was not measured, our histological and gene expression analyses suggest that L-DOPA, rather than dopamine, might have been overproduced in the tumor. This raises the possibility of pathophysiological heterogeneity in exclusively dopamine-producing PPGL.
Objective Rapid eye movement (REM) obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by apnea and hypopnea events due to airway collapse occurring predominantly or exclusively during REM sleep. OSA is a potential risk factor for metabolic dysfunction. However, the association between REM OSA and risk of adverse health outcomes remains unclear. The present study investigated the association between REM OSA and metabolic syndrome (MetS), including the MetS components of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, in the Japanese population.
Methods In total, 836 Japanese patients with mild to moderate OSA were enrolled in this study. We compared the prevalence of MetS, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, between REM OSA and non-REM OSA via univariate analyses of descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses.
Results The prevalence of hypertension was 68.3% in the REM OSA group and 56.6% in the non-REM OSA group (p<0.05). In addition, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher (37.0%) in the REM OSA group than in the non-REM-OSA group (25.2%). Logistic regression analyses showed that the prevalence of hypertension and MetS was significantly greater in the REM OSA group than in the non-REM-OSA group.
Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients with REM OSA, regardless of age, sex, and body mass index, are at a higher risk of developing hypertension and MetS than patients with non-REM OSA.
Objective Both renal hypouricemia (RHU) and gout are associated with renal dysfunction and urolithiasis. The difference in renal complications associated with RHU and gout, however, has not been studied. We characterized the urate metabolism and complications of patients with RHU and compared them with patients with gout.
Methods Eighteen patients with RHU who had a serum uric acid (SUA) level <2 mg/dL (10 men and 8 women), 44 patients with gout (44 men) and 16 normouricemic patients (4 men and 12 women) were included. The blood and urinary biochemical data were evaluated. A genetic analysis of uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) was also conducted in 15 cases with RHU.
Results The SUA level of RHU was 0.9±0.5/mg/dL, and the Uur/Ucr and Cur/Ccr were 0.56±0.14% and 45.7±18.0%, respectively. A genetic analysis of URAT1 in 15 RHU patients showed that 13 harbored a URAT1 gene mutation, whereas 2 harbored the wild-type gene. The SUA level was significantly lower in RHU patients (n=11) than in either gout patients (n=44) or normouricemic patients (n=16). This reduction was accompanied by the elevation of Cua/Ccr. Urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels were higher in RHU patients than in gout or normouricemia patients. Cua/Ccr correlated with normalized urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels. The prevalence of urolithiasis was 18.2% in RHU cases and 6.8% in gout cases. A homozygous URAT1 mutation was associated with urolithiasis.
Conclusion Besides urolithiasis, RHU can be associated with tubular dysfunction, such as elevated urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels.
Objective Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) may be susceptible in vitro to Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella aerogenes. However, treatment with mainly fourth-generation cephalosporins or carbapenems is currently recommended. Diversification of antimicrobial agents in therapy is required to avoid the selection pressure of resistant organisms by broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. This study investigated the clinical efficacy of 3GC therapy for Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella aerogenes bacteremia in a multicenter, retrospective, observational study.
Methods Patients with Enterobacter spp. or Klebsiella aerogenes detected in blood cultures and treated with a susceptible antimicrobial agent were included in the study. Propensity score matching was performed to align patient background bases, and clinical outcomes between the 3GC and non-3GC groups were compared. Treatment success was defined as having no need for treatment escalation or the addition of other antimicrobial agents, no recurrence, or no death within 30 days.
Results The study included 188 cases, of which 57 and 131 were included in the 3GC and non-3GC treatment groups, respectively; 53 patients in each group were matched by propensity score matching. There were no significant differences between groups in rates of switching to a susceptible antimicrobial or adding another agent, relapse within 30 days, or death within 30 days. In the 3GC group, source control was associated with favorable clinical outcomes.
Conclusion Definitive 3GC therapy for susceptible Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella aerogenes bacteremia is as clinically effective and valuable a targeted therapy as non-3GC therapy and can be implemented under conditions in which infection source control measures are in place.
Objective Both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and relative bradycardia are common conditions among clinicians; however, the association between these has not been well studied. The present study assessed whether or not relative bradycardia on admission was more predominant in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia than in those with other infectious pneumonia.
Methods For this single-center, retrospective cohort study, we collected data through electronic medical records and examined the occurrence of relative bradycardia on admission. We used logistic regression analyses to compare outcomes with and without relative bradycardia on admission. The primary outcome was COVID-19 pneumonia. The secondary outcome was hypoxemia during the hospital stay. We performed multivariable regression with adjusting for the effects of age, sex, healthcare-associated pneumonia, body mass index, Charlson comorbidity index, and bilateral infiltration on computed tomography (CT) as confounding factors.
Patients Adult patients with new-onset hospitalized infectious pneumonia confirmed by CT between January 1, 2020, and July 31, 2021.
Results This study included 395 participants. On admission, 87 (22.0%) participants exhibited relative bradycardia, and 302 (76.5%) participants had COVID-19. Relative bradycardia on admission was not significantly associated with COVID-19 pneumonia [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-3.54, p=0.588] but was associated with hypoxemia (adjusted OR 4.74; 95%CI 2.64-8.52, p<0.001).
Conclusion The study results showed that relative bradycardia on admission was not associated with COVID-19 in cases of infectious pneumonia. However, relative bradycardia may be associated with the incidence of hypoxemia in pneumonia.
We herein report two cases of early esophageal adenocarcinoma derived from non-Barrett's columnar epithelium. Both patients, a 65-year-old woman and 60-year-old man, had elevated lesions on white-light imaging. Magnifying endoscopy revealed slightly irregular surface and vessel patterns, and both patients were successfully treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection. Histopathologically, both lesions comprised of well-differentiated gastric mucin phenotype adenocarcinoma. One lesion was accompanied by ectopic gastric mucosa, but the other was speculated to be ectopic gastric mucosa according to the tumor locus at the upper thoracic esophagus. Despite its rarity, endoscopists should consider the existence of adenocarcinoma derived from non-Barrett's columnar epithelium.
A mediastinal thoracic duct cyst that originates from the thoracic duct is a very rare disease in the mediastinum. There have been no reports of mediastinal thoracic duct cyst infection caused by endoscopic treatment. This is the first case of mediastinal thoracic duct cyst infection after endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal cancer. We herein report a 75-year-old man with mediastinal thoracic duct cyst infection caused by esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection. In cases where a mediastinal thoracic duct cyst is found before performing endoscopic esophageal treatment, we should carefully consider the potential risk of post-treatment cyst infection.
A 71-year-old man with hyperthyroidism complained of headache lasting two months. He had been using propylthiouracil (PTU) for 14 years. Treatment intensification did not improve the symptoms. Blood tests detected a positive myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). Diffuse dural thickening was identified by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was diagnosed with hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) due to ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). He received methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by prednisolone and methotrexate, which improved his headache. PTU-induced AAV-related HP is a rare and indiscernible disease. Therefore, the possibility of the disease should be proactively considered when a PTU user experiences refractory headaches.
A 43-year-old man developed headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, and vomiting. His blood pressure was 203/121 mmHg, heart rate 122 beats/min, body temperature 39.1°C, and respiratory rate 24/min. He had elevated levels of creatinine at 2.95 mg/dL and lipase at 1,364 U/L as well as an extremely low calcium level at 5.2 mg/dL. Hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia were seen. Chest and abdominal computed tomography showed interstitial pneumonia, severe pancreatitis, and a right adrenal tumor. The patient also developed vertebral artery dissection and medullary infarction. After right adrenalectomy, the patient was diagnosed with pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis (PMC). Acute pancreatitis might augment numerous life-threatening manifestations of PMC.
A 55-year-old woman showed progressive renal dysfunction after unilateral deceased-donor lung transplantation for lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A kidney biopsy showed a striped pattern of interstitial fibrosis, suggesting calcineurin inhibitor toxicity, and zebra body accumulation predominantly in the podocytes, characteristics of Fabry disease. Nevertheless, she had no extra-renal symptoms of the disease, and gene testing identified no known pathogenic variant or exon deletion. Our case report and literature review suggest that this atypical lysosomal inclusion may be phospholipidosis induced by sertraline. Potential underlying etiologies linking zebra body deposits may be not only hereditary but also drug-induced phospholipidosis.
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease with isolated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is rare. We herein report a 91-year-old man admitted with hypoxia and diagnosed with anti-GBM disease with DAH based on positive bronchoalveolar lavage and serum antibody test results. There was no renal involvement. Although remission was achieved using glucocorticoids and plasmapheresis, the patient experienced DAH relapse one week after the last plasmapheresis. Rituximab 375 mg/m2 was administered 4 times weekly; thereafter, DAH relapse was not observed, and the glucocorticoid dosage was tapered. Rituximab was thus effective in treating anti-GBM disease with isolated DAH in an extremely elderly patient.
Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The optimal management strategy of methotrexate (MTX) related-LPD with central nervous system (CNS) involvement and histological features of LYG remains unclear. We herein report a case of grade 2-3 LYG in a rheumatoid arthritis patient, in which an intracranial mass accompanied by hemorrhaging and pulmonary and skin lesions developed. The patient received successful rituximab monotherapy. The tumor cells in the skin and brain showed monoclonal and oligoclonal proliferation, respectively. Our case suggests that rituximab monotherapy may be effective against MTX-LPD with CNS involvement, especially in cases with LYG histology.
A 67-year-old man complained of lower limb edema with a purpuric skin rash. Laboratory tests revealed proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine levels, and low serum albumin levels. The patient was also positive for cryoglobulin in serum, immunoglobulin (Ig) M gammopathy, hypocomplementemia, and rheumatoid factor. He was negative for anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies. A pathological analysis of the renal tissue revealed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, common histological features of cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV), and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma invasion. Although hematologic malignancy is a rare cause of type II CV, these clinical findings suggest that mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT) lymphoma may have been the cause in the present case.
A 67-year-old woman with a 2-day history of a fever, headache and disturbed consciousness was admitted to our hospital. Bacillus subtilis was isolated from both the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. She was cured by the administration of vancomycin. Next-generation sequencing identified the strain as B. subtilis var. natto, the same strain found in natto, which this patient ate daily. We suspected that some of the B. subtilis that caused the infection may have actually been B. subtilis var. natto.
A 26-year-old woman developed a sudden headache, ptosis, and diplopia. Magnetic resonance imaging and angiography demonstrated a symmetrical lesion from the midbrain to the brainstem, involving the solitary nucleus and multifocal cerebral artery narrowing. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) was suspected, and the patient improved after vasodilatation. Leigh syndrome was suspected due to the elevated serum pyruvate level, so mitochondrial DNA was analyzed, and an m.9176T>C mutation was detected. The final diagnosis was adult-onset Leigh syndrome manifesting as RCVS. An uncontrolled baroreflex due to a solitary nuclear lesion or endothelial dysfunction may have contributed to her unique presentation.
A 72-year-old woman had a history of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection previously treated with interferon to achieve a sustained virologic response. Thereafter, she developed polyarthritis and purpura of the lower extremities as well as progressive renal dysfunction with hypertension and proteinuria that had occurred in the last three months. Laboratory investigations revealed seropositivity for cryoglobulin but negative findings for HCV RNA. She was ultimately diagnosed with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis complicated by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) based on the pathological findings of the kidney and bone marrow, indicating that MGUS-induced cryoglobulinemic vasculitis may occur even after HCV elimination.
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a life-threatening disease associated with recurrent episodes of subcutaneous and mucosal swelling, painful abdominal cramping, and asphyxiation. HAE has long been thought to be caused by genetic defects of C1 inhibitors (C1-INH). Recently, HAE with a normal C1 inhibitor expression (HAEnCI) was reported, and the missense mutation p.Lys330Glu (K330E) in exon 9 of the plasminogen (PLG) gene was shown to be responsible for a subset of HAEnCI. HAE with the K330E mutation in the PLG gene-PLG (HAE-PLG) has been reported in only two Japanese families in Asia. We herein report a third family with HAE-PLG in Japan.
A 38-year-old man with deep vein thrombosis associated with Behçet's disease (BD) was admitted to our hospital due to worsening symptoms despite the initiation of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Administration of oral prednisolone and an intravenous anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody dramatically improved his symptoms. In addition, he was incidentally diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, which increases the risk of aortic aneurysms. BD also increases the risk of aortic aneurysms. This case suggests that immunosuppressive treatment is effective in patients with inflammation-related DOAC-refractory venous thrombosis who also suffer from BD.
A Japanese man experienced three episodes of hypovolemic shock and was diagnosed with systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS). He developed SCLS exacerbation 2 days after receiving a second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, 1 year after the third episode. After fluid therapy and albumin administration, we initiated terbutaline and theophylline prophylaxis for SCLS. A literature review revealed that SCLS attacks often occur 1-2 days after the second COVID-19 vaccination. Patients with a history of SCLS should avoid COVID-19 vaccination and be carefully monitored for 1-2 days if they receive the vaccine.