Objective Carbazochrome sodium sulfonate (CSS) has been routinely used to treat bleeding; however, no study has examined the effect of CSS for gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of CSS for colonic diverticular bleeding.
Methods We performed a nationwide observational study using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database. We identified patients who were admitted for diverticular bleeding from July 2010 to March 2018. Patients who received CSS on the day of admission were defined as the CSS group, and those not receiving CSS were defined as the control group. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay, total costs, and blood transfusion within 7 days of admission. Propensity score matching analyses were performed to compare outcomes between the two groups.
Results A total of 59,965 patients met our eligibility criteria. Of these, 14,437 (24%) patients received CSS on the day of admission. One-to-one propensity score matching created 14,379 matched pairs. There was no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality between the CSS and control groups (0.6% vs. 0.5%, respectively; odds ratio: 0.96; 95% confidence interval: 0.72-1.29). The length of stay was longer in the CSS group than in the control group (11.4 vs. 11.0 days, respectively; difference: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.14-0.73). There were no significant differences in the total costs or the proportion of patients receiving blood transfusion between the groups.
Conclusions CSS may not reduce in-hospital mortality, length of stay, total costs, or the need for blood transfusion in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding.
Objective With the advent of endoscopic treatment, the detailed diagnosis of colorectal neoplasms made using magnifying colonoscopy has become increasingly important. However, insertion difficulty causes pain in unsedated colonoscopy. The aim of this prospective observational study was to clarify the factors associated with a patient's pain in unsedated colonoscopy using a magnifying endoscope.
Methods Patient pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale (0-10) immediately after the procedure. We defined 5 as mild enough pain that patients would not be reluctant to undergo another colonoscopy. Acceptable pain was defined as 5 or less and severe pain was defined as 8 to 10. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed using the pain scale score as a dependent variable.
Results A total of consecutive 600 patients undergoing unsedated colonoscopies were evaluated to assess their abdominal pain. The completion rate was 99.5% (597/600). The mean pain scale score was 3.88±2.38. The rate of acceptable pain was 80.5% (483/600). The rate of severe pain was 6.7% (40/600) including the incomplete cases. A comparison of polyp-positive and polyp-negative cases revealed no marked difference in patient pain (3.82±2.24 vs. 3.94±2.49, respectively; p=0.590) or insertion time (6.62±3.98 vs. 6.29±4.21, p=0.090), while more observation time was needed in polyp-positive cases than in polyp-negative ones (16.30±4.95 vs. 13.08±4.69, p<0.01). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses revealed that an older age, colectomy, antispasmodic agent use, and a small-diameter endoscope were significant factors associated with less patient pain. In particular, a small-diameter endoscope induces significantly more acceptable pain than a non-small diameter endoscope [85.63% (274/320) vs. 73.93% (207/280), p=0.00003].
Conclusion Unsedated colonoscopy using a magnifying endoscope by an expert may result in acceptable pain levels. The use of an antispasmodic agent, particularly hyoscine N-butyl bromide, and a small-diameter endoscope are recommended for reducing abdominal pain during unsedated colonoscopy.
Objective As direct jejunal feeding often causes great fluctuation in glucose levels, continuous or slow infusion is recommended for jejunal tube-fed patients. However, continuous feeding results in prolonged immobility and the loss of activities of daily living. We investigated whether or not intermittent feeding of a low-carbohydrate high-monounsaturated fatty acid (LC/HM) nutrient formula reduces glucose fluctuation in patients who have undergone jejunotomy.
Methods Ten bed-ridden non-diabetic patients receiving enteral feeding via a jejunostomy tube were enrolled in this study. LC/HM formula and standard control formula were infused in cross-over order for each patient at a speed of 160 kcal/h. Blood glucose levels were monitored by a continuous glucose monitoring system during the investigation period.
Results The mean and standard deviation of the glucose concentrations and mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE) were markedly lower while receiving LC/HM formula than while receiving control standard formula (104 vs. 136 mg/dL, 18.1 vs. 58.1 mg/dL, 50.8 vs. 160 mg/dL, respectively). The post-infusion hyperglycemia [area under the curve (AUC) >140 mg/dL] and peak value of the glucose level were also significantly lower in patients fed LC/HM than the control (25.7 vs. 880 mg・h/dL and 153 vs. 272 mg/dL, respectively). Reactive hypoglycemia (AUC <70 mg/dL) was also significantly lower (0.63 vs. 16.7 mg・h/dL) and the minimum value of the glucose level higher (78.4 vs. 61.8 mg/dL) in patients fed LC/HM than the control.
Conclusion The LC/HM formula is considered to markedly inhibit glycemic spikes and prevent rebound hypoglycemia in patients who receive enteral feeding after jejunostomy.
Objective Although most patients who obtain a sustained virological response (SVR) show an improved liver function, some show decreased platelet counts after the eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this retrospective study was to clarify the association of the liver and spleen volumes with the platelet count after SVR achieved by direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment.
Methods This study enrolled 36 consecutive patients treated by DAAs who obtained an SVR between September 2014 and December 2018. The liver and spleen volumes were derived from computed tomography scans obtained at pretreatment, SVR, and 48 weeks after SVR. No patient developed hepatocellular carcinoma during this study.
Results Compared with pretreatment, the median aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin serum levels, and platelet counts were significantly improved at SVR and 48 weeks after SVR. The liver/spleen volumes per body weight had decreased significantly from 22.5/4.2 mL/kg at baseline to 21.1/3.6 mL/kg at 48 weeks after SVR. The change in the liver volume was associated with the change in the platelet count, and the change in the spleen volume was negatively associated with the change in the serum albumin level. A multivariate analysis identified the change in the liver volume (≥95%, odds ratio 76.9, p=0.005) as the factor associated with improvement in the platelet count at 48 weeks after SVR. The patients with an increased liver volume at 48 weeks after SVR showed an increased platelet count.
Conclusion Both the liver and spleen volume decreased significantly after the eradication of HCV. The patients with a re-increased liver volume showed a rapid increase in the platelet count.
Objective Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by persistent thromboemboli of the pulmonary arteries, and one of its etiological factors may be inflammation. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is reportedly an important complication of pulmonary hypertension. However, the association between SDB and inflammation in CTEPH has been undefined. This prospective observational study analyzed the association between the severity of SDB, pulmonary hemodynamic parameters and the systemic inflammation level in patients with CTEPH.
Methods CTEPH patients admitted for a right heart catheter (RHC) examination were consecutively enrolled from November 2017 to June 2019 at the pulmonary hypertension center in Chiba University Hospital. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) were also enrolled as a control group. All patients underwent a sleep study using a WatchPAT 200 during admission.
Results The CTEPH patients showed worse nocturnal hypoxemia, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), and apnea-hypopnea index than the IPAH patients. Among these factors, only the nocturnal mean percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was negatively correlated with the pulmonary hemodynamic parameters. The circulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level was also high in the CTEPH group, and a multivariate analysis showed that the nocturnal mean SpO2 was the most important predictive factor for a high TNF-α level.
Conclusion We showed that CTEPH patients had high serum TNF-α levels and that the nocturnal mean SpO2 was a predictive factor for serum TNF-α levels. Further investigations focused on nocturnal hypoxemia and the TNF-α level may provide novel insight into the etiology and new therapeutic strategies for CTEPH.
Objective In the medical treatment of Graves' disease, we sometimes encounter patients who gain weight after the onset of the disease. To estimate the energy required during the course of treatment when hyperthyroidism ameliorates, we measured the resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition in patients with Graves' disease before and during treatment in the short-term.
Methods Twenty patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease were enrolled, and our REE data of 19 healthy volunteers were used. The REE was measured by a metabolic analyzer, and the basal energy expenditure (BEE) was estimated by the Harris-Benedict formula. The body composition, including body weight, fat mass (FM), muscle mass (MM) and lean body mass (LBM), were measured by a multi-frequency body composition analyzer. We tailored the nutritional guidance based on the measured REE.
Results Serum thyrotropin levels were significantly increased at three and six months. Serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine and REE values were significantly decreased at one, three and six months. The REE/BEE ratio was 1.58±0.28 at the onset and significantly declined to 1.34±0.34, 1.06±0.19 and 1.01±0.16 at 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively. Body weight, MM and LBM significantly increased at three and six months.
Conclusion The REE significantly decreased during treatment of Graves' disease. The decline was evident as early as one month after treatment. The REE after treatment was lower than in healthy volunteers, which may lead to weight gain. These data suggest that appropriate nutritional guidance is necessary with short-term treatment before the body weight normalizes in order to prevent an overweight condition and the emergence of metabolic disorders.
Objective The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of endoscopic bronchial occlusion (EBO) with endobronchial Watanabe spigots (EWSs) for the management of prolonged pulmonary air leaks, such as intractable pneumothorax, pyothorax with bronchial fistula, and postoperative air leakage.
Methods This was a retrospective study. Between April 2005 and March 2018, we recruited 21 patients with intractable pneumothorax (10 cases), pyothorax with bronchial fistula (7 cases), and postsurgical pulmonary fistula (4 cases) in whom appropriate drainage for 2 weeks had been unsuccessful and who were unsuitable for surgery. An EWS was inserted using a flexible bronchoscope via an endotracheal or a tracheostomy tube.
Results The mean number of sessions with EWS procedures was 1.94, and the mean number of inserted EWS per patient was 6.5. In addition to EWS procedures, pleural washing and pleural adhesion therapy were performed in all cases with pyothorax, whereas pleural adhesion therapy was performed in three patients with pneumothorax. The successful treatment rate was 85.7%. Reduction of air leakage was observed in 19/21 patients. The mean duration of reduction of air leaks was 4.1 days (median, 1; range, 0-24 days) following EWS procedures. The mean duration from tube insertion to chest tube removal was 43.4 days (median, 29; range, 16-105 days). Complications included spigot migration and infection (aspergillosis); no complications caused significant mortality.
Conclusion Performing EBO using an EWS appears to be a reasonable option for the management of intractable pneumothorax, pyothorax with pulmonary fistula, and postoperative air leakage.
Objective Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for arteriopathy, including acute coronary syndrome, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Thus, cessation is strongly recommended in order to reduce these risks. We recently demonstrated that smoking cessation causes temporary hyper-aggregability of human platelets. We previously showed that heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) is released from human platelets stimulated by collagen, accompanied by its phosphorylation. Accumulating evidence indicates potent roles of extracellular HSP27 as a modulator of inflammation. In the present study, using the stored samples obtained in the previous study, we investigated the effect of cigarette smoking cessation on the release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from collagen-activated human platelets (n=15 patients).
Methods We enrolled patients who visited smoking cessation outpatient services between January 2012 and November 2014. Platelet-rich plasma, chronologically obtained before and after the cessation, was stimulated by collagen using a PA-200 aggregometer in the previous study. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 released from platelets were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phosphorylation of HSP27 in platelets was evaluated by a Western blot analysis.
Results Cessation of cigarette smoking significantly upregulated the levels of collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated-HSP27 at four and eight weeks after quitting smoking compared to before cessation. However, there was no significant difference between the levels before cessation and those at 12 weeks after cessation. The levels of phosphorylated-HSP27 stimulated by collagen in the platelets at four weeks after smoking cessation were remarkably enhanced compared to before cessation.
Conclusion Cigarette smoking cessation temporarily enhances the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated-HSP27 from human platelets in the short term.
A 66-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with grade 2 hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Abdominal computed tomography and laboratory examinations revealed decompensated liver cirrhosis. Intravenous administration of branched-chain amino acids immediately ameliorated the HE, and lactulose was initiated. However, a breath test revealed small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO); therefore, rifaximin was additionally initiated. The breath test was repeated after discharge, when no evidence of SIBO or overt HE was identified. This case suggested that a breath test is effective for the identification of SIBO and that the administration of a poorly absorbed antibiotic should be considered in SIBO-positive HE patients taking lactulose.
The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after a sustained virologic response (SVR) due to interferon (IFN) therapy for hepatitis C virus infection remains a serious problem. We herein report 2 cases of HCC that developed more than 20 years after SVR with IFN therapy for chronic hepatitis C. The patients were 89- and 72-year-old men with HCC that developed 24-25 years after an SVR with IFN therapy. These patients regularly underwent imaging examinations; therefore, the HCC was detected in the early stage, when it was still curable. Both cases suggest that long-term surveillance after an SVR is effective for the detection of HCC, and radical treatment is possible.
An 81-year-old man presented with shortness of breath and was referred to our hospital with suspected acute pulmonary embolism. Enhanced computed tomography revealed a right aberrant subclavian artery with a thrombosed Kommerell diverticulum (KD), as well as deep vein thrombosis in the left leg and bilateral pulmonary artery thrombosis. Thrombosis in the KD disappeared after one month of anticoagulation treatment with rivaroxaban. Thrombosis of a KD is a rare condition that may cause distal emboli and subclavian steal syndrome, although this syndrome was not present in this case. Rivaroxaban is an effective anticoagulant for treating thrombosis of a KD.
A 73-year-old Japanese man was admitted with an asymptomatic pulmonary artery aneurysm. However, chest X-ray and contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography revealed a protrusion at the second left branch that in fact was a pulmonary artery aneurysm with a diameter of 50 mm. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a bicuspid pulmonary valve, and cardiac catheterization revealed pulmonary stenosis with a pressure gradient of 45 mmHg, but no other heart diseases were noted. An extremely rare pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with an isolated bicuspid pulmonary valve was diagnosed.
Adrenal insufficiency patients are treated with glucocorticoid replacement therapy. However, mimicking the in vivo circadian rhythm of cortisol levels is challenging, and suboptimal replacement increases the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease. We herein report a case of coronary spastic angina (CSA) with simultaneous low early-morning serum cortisol levels in a patient undergoing corticosteroid replacement therapy for primary adrenal insufficiency. Steroid therapy is reportedly effective for refractory angina, but underlying adrenal deficiency has never been revealed. Our case intimates the probable risk of CSA as a complication of relative adrenal insufficiency and highlights the effectiveness of dexamethasone in these patients.
An asymptomatic 47-year-old woman was admitted with pleural effusion and pulmonary infiltrates 1 month after ingesting raw wild boar and deer meat. Both her blood and pleural fluid were eosinophilic. Thoracoscopy revealed multiple nodules of the pleura, and biopsy samples of the nodules showed necrosis with epithelioid cell granulomas. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive for antibodies against Paragonimus westermani, and the patient was successfully treated with praziquantel. This is the first reported case of pulmonary or pleuropulmonary paragonimiasis where several pleural nodules were observed. The detection of pleural nodules on thoracoscopy can contribute to the prompt and accurate diagnosis of paragonimiasis.
An 81-year-old woman presented to our emergency room by ambulance with gait disturbance and pain in her left neck. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute left-sided dorsolateral medullary infarction and an occluded left vertebral artery. The temporal bone echo window was insufficient, but our pastable soft ultrasound probe attached to the cervix (PSUP) detected many microembolic signals caused by the contrast agent (cMES) in the common carotid artery. Chest CT revealed right pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) and she underwent coil embolization for PAVF considering the possibility of paradoxical embolism via PAVF. After embolization, the cMES disappeared on PSUP. Therefore, PSUP was useful for diagnosing and confirming the interventional procedural success for performing PAVF.
A 25-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to tonic convulsion with severe headache after having experienced symptoms of nausea and vomiting for a month. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive symmetrical lesions in the cortical and subcortical areas of parieto-occipital lobes and basal ganglia, consistent with typical characteristics of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Furthermore, some residual lesions in the left side of dorsal medulla oblongata and central area of the cervical spinal cord along with the presence of serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody yielded the diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). We herein discuss the mechanism by which PRES may occur together with NMOSD.
A 61-year-old woman with human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) and interstitial pneumonia (IP) was admitted to our hospital. She complained of sicca symptoms, polyarthralgia, and swollen joints. She was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Sjögren's syndrome. Methotrexate and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy were not utilized because of the inclusion of severe respiratory disorders among the complications and the neurological symptoms of HAM/TSP. Tocilizumab monotherapy improved the RA disease activity without exacerbating HAM/TSP. The present case suggests that tocilizumab might be a suitable treatment option in patients with RA and HAM/TSP.
Cogan's syndrome (CS), a rare vasculitis characterized by non-syphilitic, interstitial keratitis and Ménière-like attacks, is classified into "typical" and "atypical" forms, while Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a rare large-vessel vasculitis associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*52. Very few cases meet both the CS and TAK classification criteria. We herein report a 53-year-old woman diagnosed with atypical CS and aortitis similar to TAK. Her 25-year-old daughter manifested TAK without symptoms of CS, and both are HLA-B*52 positive. Our case highlights the difficulties of distinguishing aortitis with atypical CS from aortitis with TAK.
We herein report five patients with nasal mucosa and sinus involvement who were diagnosed with immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). In all cases, the lacrimal, parotid, and submandibular glands were swollen; biopsies of these glands were risky, so the labium and nasal mucosa were instead targeted. All patients tested positive through these biopsies, suggesting alternative sites for confirming IgG4-RD. These five patients had first been diagnosed and unsuccessfully treated for allergic rhinitis or chronic sinusitis. After the IgG4-RD diagnosis, they were administered corticosteroid therapy, which drastically improved the nasal mucosa and sinus involvement. When refractory allergic rhinitis or sinusitis is detected, IgG4-RD should be considered.
We herein report a case of fulminant Legionnaires' disease with autopsy findings in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Chronic kidney disease is a strong risk factor for Legionnaires' disease, although there have been only a few reports in HD patients. Because most patients on HD are anuric, the use of rapid assay kits to detect antigens in urine samples for the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease is not always feasible. We suggest the use of clinical predictive tools or the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, which can be applied for anuric patients, such as those on HD, with pneumonia.