Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Volume 53 , Issue 5
Showing 1-35 articles out of 35 articles from the selected issue
REVIEW ARTICLES
  • Yuji Hiromatsu, Hiroyuki Eguchi, Junichi Tani, Masataka Kasaoka, Yasuo ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 353-360
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune disorder of the orbit that is clinically relevant in 25-50% of patients with Graves' disease and 2% of patients with chronic thyroiditis. The age-adjusted annual incidence of clinically relevant GO is 16 per 100,000 population in women and 2.9 in men. At the onset of ophthalmopathy, 80-90% of patients have hyperthyroidism, with the rest having euthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The natural history of GO consists of two phases: an active inflammatory phase and a static phase. Anti-inflammatory therapy is indicated for the first phase of GO. Approximately 5% of patients experience late reactivation of GO. Asians appear to have less severe manifestations, with milder orbital edema, proptosis and muscle restriction. Genetic, anatomic and environmental factors influence the development of GO. Aging, thyroid dysfunction, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies, smoking and radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism also influence the development and course of GO.
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  • Ryo Tomioka, Makoto Matsui
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 361-365
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Magnetic resonance imaging has been shown to be a powerful tool for diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS) and evaluating surrogate markers of the disease activity. However, biomarkers may provide more accurate information regarding ongoing immune responses leading to demyelination and treatment effects in MS patients. Although serum biomarkers are easily accessible, they do not provide clear-cut results, whereas cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers provide unequivocal information, although samples cannot be repeatedly obtained. For diagnosis, the presence of oligoclonal IgG bands remains important. In addition, measuring the levels of adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and complement regulator factor H in the serum and evaluating the proportion of Th1/Th2 cells in the blood may be clinically feasible for monitoring the disease activity. In CSF samples, increased IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, CCL3, CCL5 and CXCL10 levels indicate active disease, and the flow cytometry findings of CSF cells can be used to detect increases in Th1 and CD4+CD25+ cells during relapse. Biomarkers closely linked to the disease activity may be informative of the pathogenesis of MS, while those associated with tissue damage or repair may be targets of new treatment strategies. Establishing the latter will be a primary point of research in the near future.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Toru Higuchi, Ryuichi Iwakiri, Megumi Hara, Ryo Shimoda, Yasuhisa Saka ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 367-373
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective The present study was conducted using data accumulated from our earlier study of bleeding peptic ulcers, focusing on elderly patients.
    Methods A total of 461 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers underwent emergency endoscopy at Saga Medical School Hospital between 1999 and 2011. Risk factors for bleeding peptic ulcers were compared between two groups: an elderly group (≥65 years old) and a nonelderly group (<65 years old). The relationship between drug use and age was examined using multiple logistic regression models. In the elderly group, the factors were compared between Period I (1999-2005) and Period II (2006-2011).
    Results The proportion of men and the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection were lower in the elderly group than in the nonelderly group. The use of low-dose aspirin, antithrombotic drugs and corticosteroids, but not nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, was higher in the elderly group. A multiple logistic regression analysis of prescribed medications indicated that low-dose aspirin was more frequently used in the elderly group. The rate of comorbidities was higher and the hemoglobin levels were lower in the elderly group. The rates of rebleeding within one week and death within one month did not differ in the elderly group. Compared with that observed in Period I, the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection was decreased and the rate of comorbidities was increased in Period II.
    Conclusion This study indicates that factors related to bleeding peptic ulcers in elderly patients have shifted from Helicobacter pylori infection to comorbidities associated with low-dose aspirin, suggesting a close relationship between low-dose aspirin therapy and comorbidities in elderly patients with peptic ulcers.
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  • Ken Ikeda, Takashi Koyama, Masaru Ishida, Megumi Okawa, Yasunori Oguma ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 375-381
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective The discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) increases the risk of stent thrombosis after coronary stenting. Some patients must discontinue DAPT due to gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease; however, the type of examination that is most useful for detecting GI tract diseases has not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) can be used to predict GI tract disease-related DAPT discontinuation following stent implantation in patients with coronary artery disease.
    Methods A total of 181 consecutive DAPT-naïve patients who underwent coronary stenting were divided into two groups according to the results of iFOBTs: a positive iFOBT group (n=32) and a negative iFOBT group (n=149). During the 12-month follow-up period, the DAPT discontinuation rate was lower in the negative iFOBT group than in the positive iFOBT group (3.4 vs. 18.8%, p=0.005). Kaplan-Meier event-free curves showed that the DAPT discontinuation rate in the negative iFOBT group was lower than that observed in the positive iFOBT group (log-rank test: p=0.001). Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed that a positive iFOBT result was the strongest predictor of the risk of DAPT discontinuation after coronary stenting.
    Conclusion A positive iFOBT result is associated with DAPT discontinuation following coronary stenting.
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  • Tadashi Iwao, Kenji Sakai, Eiji Ando
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 383-390
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective We examined the relative contribution of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity at different stages of glucose tolerance in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects.
    Methods A total of 641 subjects who underwent 75-g glucose tolerance testing were divided into two groups: 436 non-obese subjects (body mass index: BMI <25) and 205 obese subjects (BMI ≥25). The subjects were further divided into four groups: those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes. We compared insulin secretion and sensitivity indices, such as the insulinogenic index (IGI), homeostatic model insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of β-cell (HOMA-β) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI).
    Results In a univariate analysis, the obese subjects had higher levels of HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and IGI associated with lower ISI values in comparison with that observed in the non-obese subjects at different stages of glucose tolerance. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the HOMA-IR was a significant independent factor between the non-obese and obese subjects; the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidential interval: CI) was 3.78 (2.04-7.01; p<0.01) in the NGT group, 4.91 (2.06-11.72; p<0.01) in the IGT group and 2.02 (1.22-3.34; p<0.01) in the diabetes group. Although a similar trend was also observed in the IFG group (OR=15.83), the difference did not reach a level of statistical significance (p=0.066).
    Conclusion These data suggest that obese subjects are characterized by increased insulin resistance rather than reduced insulin secretion at all stages of glucose tolerance. Therefore, non-obese subjects and obese subjects are distinct entities at all stages of glucose tolerance.
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  • Mitsutaka Ono, Noriko Takebe, Tomoyasu Oda, Riyuki Nakagawa, Mizue Mat ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 391-396
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of coronary artery calcification (CAC). However, there are few reports on this issue in Japanese patients with diabetes. In this study, we examined the association of the CAC score (CACS) with oxidative stress markers.
    Methods The study subjects were 163 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (75 men and 88 women). The CACS (Agatston unit: AU) was measured by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and the oxidative stress markers, such as the urinary 8-isoprostane and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and serum malondialdehyde (MDA)-LDL cholesterol were measured. The relationships between CACS and oxidative stress markers were statistically analyzed.
    Results Compared with the CACS 0-400 AU group (n=132), the age, duration of diabetes, urinary 8-isoprostane levels, serum MDA-LDL-C/LDL-C and maximum intima media thickness (IMT) were higher, and body mass index and HbA1c level were lower, in the CACS >400 AU group (n=31). The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a CAC >400 AU was independently associated with the urinary 8-isoprostane (>median) (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.03-6.32, p=0.044), MDA-LDL-C/LDL-C (>median) (OR=2.62, 95% CI=1.07-6.40, p=0.035) and HbA1c (>median) (OR=0.32, CI=0.12-0.87, p<0.025). Focusing on oxidative stress, a higher MDA-LDL-C/LDL-C (p=0.026) and a higher urinary 8-isoprostane level (p=0.074) were associated with the CACS.
    Conclusion The CACS was found to be independently associated with the MDA-LDL-C/LDL-C and urinary 8-isoprostane levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
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  • Kozo Morimoto, Takashi Yoshiyama, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Yuka Sasaki, Yos ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 397-401
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Body weight loss in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease can be fatal. The administration of nutritional supplements should be an important component in the treatment of this disease. Objective data regarding the association between the nutritional status and disease severity have not been reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the nutritional status and radiological severity scores in MAC pulmonary disease patients.
    Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 40 patients who were admitted to our institution for the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease between July 2008 and July 2010. Nutritional indices, including the ideal body weight ratio, triceps skinfold, mid-upper arm muscle circumference, and percentage of predicted resting energy expenditure, were compared with the radiological severity scores. Quantitative values of the extent of nodules, infiltration shadows, cavities, and bronchiectasis on the computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the radiological severity scores.
    Results The patients suffered from a significantly decreased percentage of ideal body weight, body fat and muscle mass. The average radiological score was 17.6±8.4 points. The percentage of ideal body weight (p<0.001), percentage of triceps skinfold (p<0.001) and percentage of mid-upper arm muscle circumference (p<0.002) were negatively correlated with the radiological scores, while the percentage of the predicted resting energy expenditure (p<0.001) was positively correlated with the scores.
    Conclusion A poor nutritional status is common in patients with progressive MAC pulmonary disease, which supports the hypothesis that aggressive nutritional interventions are indicated in the treatment of this disease.
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  • Masayuki Matsuda, Nagaaki Katoh, Shu-ichi Ikeda
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 403-412
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective To retrospectively investigate the clinical manifestations at diagnosis in Japanese patients with systemic AL amyloidosis.
    Methods We reviewed the medical records of 230 Japanese patients who had visited our hospital and been diagnosed with AL amyloidosis, and abstracted those with the systemic type. The clinical data at diagnosis of systemic AL amyloidosis, including laboratory and imaging findings, were analyzed.
    Results Two hundred and two patients (mean, 58.7±9.5 years) were enrolled in this study. Immunofixation or immunoelectrophoresis was performed in 173 patients, 144 of whom were positive for M-protein in the serum and/or urine (κ:λ=30:114). The primary clinical manifestations at diagnosis were proteinuria and/or renal dysfunction (54.0%), congestive heart failure (24.8%), peripheral neuropathy (10.4%), hepatomegaly (7.9%) and arrhythmia (5.0%). The remaining patients developed unusual manifestations, such as solitary tumor, lymphadenopathy, gastrointestinal bleeding, intestinal pseudoobstruction, hemorrhagic tendencies and polyarthralgia. Dilatation of the intestine with marked thickening of the gastrointestinal wall on computed tomography and multiple nodular lesions with associated mucosal friability on endoscopy are characteristic findings of systemic AL amyloidosis.
    Conclusion The clinical pictures of Japanese patients with systemic AL amyloidosis are similar to those previously reported from the US and European nations; however, some patients with this disease develop uncommon symptoms. Conducting laboratory and histological examinations for systemic AL amyloidosis is necessary when making a differential diagnosis of these symptoms.
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  • Yoshiki Yamashita, Hideo Wada, Hideki Nomura, Toshiro Mizuno, Kanako S ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 413-419
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Many patients with malignant diseases are frequently complicated with some type of thrombosis, such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
    Methods This retrospective study was designed to examine the frequency of thrombosis in 478 patients with malignant diseases in comparison to that observed in 121 patients without malignant diseases and to evaluate the efficacy of fibrin-related markers (FRMs), such as soluble fibrin, fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products and D-dimer, in diagnosing thrombosis.
    Results The frequency of thrombosis, including 62 cases of VTE, 63 cases of DIC and nine cases of cerebrovascular thrombosis, was significantly higher in the patients with malignant diseases (28.0%) than in the patients without malignant diseases (12.5%). DIC was frequently detected in the patients with hepatic cell cancer and hematopoietic malignancy, while VTE was frequently observed in the patients with colon cancer, breast cancer and urinary tract cancer. The FRMs levels were significantly higher in the patients with thrombosis than in the patients without thrombosis. A receiver operating characteristic analysis showed these markers to be useful for diagnosing thrombosis.
    Conclusion Patients with malignant diseases have a high risk of thrombosis, and elevated FRMs levels are useful for diagnosing thrombosis in patients with malignant diseases.
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  • Jun Suzuki, Ryuji Sakakibara, Fuyuki Tateno, Yohei Tsuyusaki, Masahiko ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 421-426
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective To investigate the relationship between Parkinson's disease (PD) and the cardio-ankle vascular stiffness index (CAVI), a novel non-invasive measurement of vascular stiffness.
    Methods A total of 63 PD subjects who underwent CAVI measurement were enrolled, including 30 men and 33 women 69.1±7.5 years of age (range: 46-79 years). Sixty-three non-PD subjects (30 men, 33 women, mean age: 68.7±7.6 years [range: 43-79 years]) served as controls. Comparisons between the control and PD subjects were made using Fisher's protected least significant difference, the Bonferroni-Dunn test, Scheffe's test and the unpaired t-test.
    Results 1) The average CAVI values were as follows: control, 9.3±0.9; PD, 9.0±1.0 (p=0.049). The differences in the CAVI values between the groups and the index values (normative data provided internally in the VaSera system) were as follows: control, 0.4±0.8; PD, 0.03±0.9 (p=0.011). The CAVI values of the PD patients were significantly smaller than those of the control subjects. 2) Among the control subjects, the CAVI values in the subjects with atherosclerotic risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and/or diabetes) were significantly higher than those observed in the subjects without risk factors. In contrast, among the PD patients, the CAVI values in the subjects with atherosclerotic risk factors were equivalent to those observed in the subjects without risk factors. 3) Among the PD patients, the CAVI values did not change with the motor stage.
    Conclusion The results of the present study show that, compared with control subjects, PD patients exhibit normal CAVI values despite having mild but significant atherosclerotic risk factors, e.g., hypertension and diabetes. These findings suggest that PD patients are less vulnerable to systemic atherosclerosis than their risk factors may suggest.
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  • Sonoko Nagai, Takafumi Yokomatsu, Kiminobu Tanizawa, Kohei Ikezoe, Tom ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 427-433
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of combination therapy consisting of low-dose corticosteroids with weekly methotrexate in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis in whom long-term therapy is required. Combination therapy was selected because long-term standard corticosteroid therapy tends to result in various adverse effects and the steroid-sparing effects of methotrexate have been reported.
    Methods This study was a small open-label study comparing long-term functional changes between patients who received combination therapy (5-15 mg/day of prednisolone and 6 mg/week of methotrexate) and patients who received corticosteroids alone. The comparative analysis was based on the following therapeutic indexes: ejection fraction (EF), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVDd) on echocardiography, serum N-terminal fragment pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) on plain chest radiographs.
    Patients Seventeen patients with cardiac sarcoidosis were examined in the sarcoidosis clinic. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed based on the Japanese diagnostic guidelines published in 2006.
    Results The EF was significantly stabilized in the combination therapy group but not in the corticosteroids alone group at three years after the first treatment. The CTR and NT-proBNP levels were significantly stabilized in the combination therapy group compared with those observed in the corticosteroids alone group at both three and five years after the first treatment. The LVDd values tended to be stable in the combination therapy group compared with those observed in the corticosteroids alone group. The combination therapy was associated with few adverse effects.
    Conclusion Weekly methotrexate therapy with daily small doses of corticosteroids stabilized the EF, CTR and NT-proBNP levels in the serum without eliciting adverse effects longitudinally.
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  • Yuji Shimizu, Mio Nakazato, Takaharu Sekita, Koichiro Kadota, Kazuhiko ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 435-440
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective The hemoglobin levels and blood pressure has been reported in a few studies, and a positive association between the hemoglobin levels and the body mass index (BMI) status has also been documented. A higher BMI may therefore affect the association between the hemoglobin levels and hypertension. However, no published studies have examined this association in relation to the BMI status. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the association between the hemoglobin levels and hypertension in relation to the BMI status.
    Methods A cross-sectional study of 3,203 non-anemic subjects (1,191 men and 2,012 women, 30-79 years old) who were undergoing general health checkups was conducted.
    Results A positive association between the hemoglobin levels and hypertension was established for both men and women. For a one SD (standard deviation) increment in hemoglobin, the multivariable odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for hypertension were 1.21 (95%CI: 1.05-1.40) for men and 1.25 (95%CI: 1.13-1.39) for women. We also found that a significant association was confined to the participants with a BMI of <25 kg/m2. Among the participants with a BMI of <25 kg/m2, the multivariable ORs and 95% CIs for hypertension of a one SD increment in hemoglobin were 1.34 (95%CI: 1.12-1.60) for men and 1.31 (95%CI: 1.16-1.47) for women. Meanwhile, among those with a BMI of ≥25 kg/m2, the corresponding values were 1.01 (95%CI: 0.79-1.30) and 1.09 (95%CI: 0.87-1.37).
    Conclusion An independent positive association between the hemoglobin levels and the risk of hypertension was observed for both non-anemic Japanese men and women, confined to participants with a BMI of <25 kg/m2.
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CASE REPORTS
  • Yoshinori Mano, Akihiro Yoshizawa, Yuji Itabashi, Takahiro Ohki, Tatsu ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 441-444
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    We herein report the case of a 69-year-old woman with left atrial myxoma detected following treatment with glucocorticoids for an initial diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). The glucocorticoids markedly improved the patient's symptoms, and the tumor was excised after rapidly tapering the glucocorticoid dose. The PMR-like symptoms did not recur and the inflammatory marker levels returned to normal after surgery. The patient's clinical course indicated that the initial PMR-like symptoms were entirely caused by the left atrial myxoma. This case demonstrates that glucocorticoid treatment for suspected PMR can mask the symptoms of myxoma, leading to a delay in diagnosis.
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  • Yuichiro Yamada, Keisuke Suzuki, Hironobu Nobata, Hirohisa Kawai, Ryo ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 445-448
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    A 58-year-old woman who received gemcitabine for advanced gallbladder cancer developed an impaired renal function, thrombocytopenia, Raynaud's phenomenon, digital ischemic changes, a high antinuclear antibody titer and hypertensive emergency that mimicked a scleroderma renal crisis. A kidney biopsy specimen demonstrated onion-skin lesions in the arterioles and small arteries along with ischemic changes in the glomeruli, compatible with a diagnosis of hypertensive emergency (malignant hypertension). The intravenous administration of a calcium channel blocker, the oral administration of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker and the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were effective for treating the thrombocytopenia and progressive kidney dysfunction. Gemcitabine induces hemolytic uremic syndrome with accelerated hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon, mimicking scleroderma renal crisis.
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  • Kazuki Furuhashi, Noriyuki Enomoto, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Dai Hashimoto, ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 449-453
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    We herein report a case of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). A 58-year-old Japanese woman presented with oculocutaneous albinism and dyspnea on exertion. A high resolution computed tomography scan showed areas of reticular and ground glass opacity in the lungs, and a surgical lung biopsy revealed fibrotic NSIP. Foamy type 2 pneumocytes and the absence of dense granules in platelets were also observed, consistent with a diagnosis of HPS. Ultimately, a genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the HPS1 gene. The interstitial pneumonia progressed despite treatment with prednisolone, cyclosporine A and pirfenidone. In this report, we discuss the pathological lung features and treatment of HPS associated with interstitial pneumonia.
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  • Akimasa Sekine, Tamiko Takemura, Tomohisa Baba, Tsuneyuki Oda, Tae Iwa ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 455-460
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    We herein report two unusual cases of sarcoidosis presenting with similar subpleural reticular shadows predominantly in the lower lobes with quite different pathological findings. In one patient, the lower lobe specimen contained typical epithelioid cell granulomas with subpleural and paraseptal fibrosis. However, the other patient exhibited usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in the lower lobe and sarcoidosis lesions in the upper lobe. Therefore, the latter patient was diagnosed with sarcoidosis complicated with UIP. Our results indicate that performing a surgical lung biopsy is necessary in order to provide appropriate management when lower lobe subpleural reticular shadows are present, even in patients with suspected sarcoidosis.
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  • Kazuya Koyama, Go Sano, Yoshinobu Hata, Nobuyuki Shiraga, Hiroki Ota, ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 461-466
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Anomalous unilateral single pulmonary vein (AUSPV), a rare congenital anomaly, is associated with an aberrant course but normal drainage, and resembles arteriovenous malformation (AVM). We treated a 26-year-old man with AUSPV in the right lung and an anomalous segmental pulmonary vein in the left lung. CT revealed a tortuous vascular shadow with an enhancement pattern identical to that of the pulmonary vein, suggesting AUSPV. This was confirmed by pulmonary angiography. Although pulmonary AVMs were not detected on angiography, microvascular AVMs could not be excluded because delayed bubbles appeared on contrast echocardiography. A genetic examination revealed a missense mutation of BMPR2.
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  • Filippo Lococo, Giulio Rossi, Lorenzo Agostini, Angelina Filice, Massi ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 467-469
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The acquisition of histologic material is obligatory in order to establish the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In particular, tissue acquisition in cases of "dry" MPM (focal pleural thickening without pleural effusion or mediastinal lymph node involvement) is usually performed via a thoracoscopic pleural biopsy. In contrast, the techniques for performing echoendoscopic (transbronchial or transesophageal) needle aspiration of pleural lesions have only rarely been reported due to the theoretical limitations of tissue acquisition in such cases. We herein report the first case of "dry" MPM successfully diagnosed via endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) in a 73-year-old man presenting with a pleural mass in the right costovertebral recess, adjacent to the carina. The patient underwent radical resection, and a definitive pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of epithelioid MPM.
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  • Ikuo Shimizu, Yujiro Hamano, Shunichi Sato, Wataru Takeda, Takehiko Ki ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 471-475
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    A 47-year-old man presented with a fever and lower extremity paresthesia. A physical examination revealed sensory deficits in the left hand, distal arm and right sole. A bone marrow aspiration demonstrated infiltration of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) disclosed extensive involvement of the peripheral nerves. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of neurolymphomatosis (NL). The lymphoma progressed soon after the patient underwent cord blood transplantation, and he died on day 33 after transplantation. NL is a rare manifestation of lymphoma characterized by infiltration of the peripheral nerves, leading to neuropathy. It is an increasingly recognized entity and can be the first indication of lymphoma.
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  • Toshio Shigekiyo, Etsuko Sekimoto, Hironobu Shibata, Shuji Ozaki, Atsu ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 477-481
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    A 42-year-old man was referred to our department due to recurrent deep venous thrombosis. He, his father and his aunt had low antithrombin (AT) heparin cofactor activity and progressive AT activity levels with normal AT antigen levels. A single nucleotide substitution of G to C was found at nucleotide position c.1246 in exon 7 of the patient's AT gene, resulting in a p.Ala416Pro mutation of AT. The same mutation was identified in his father and aunt, but not his sister, who had a normal AT level. These results show that the AT-p.Ala416Pro mutation was responsible for type IIa AT deficiency in this family.
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  • Yasutaka Tajima, Chika Satoh, Yasunori Mito, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 483-487
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    We herein report a case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with a V210I mutation and discuss the pathological findings. The patient's clinical course was quite similar to that of patients with sporadic CJD. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a high signal intensity in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. Pathologically, spongiform degeneration of neurons and their processes with reactive astrocytosis was observed. Prion protein immunostaining revealed diffuse positive and plaque-type patterns. Only one Japanese case of CJD with this type of mutation has been reported to date, but without any pathological examination results. Therefore, this report is considered to be highly significant for understanding CJD.
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  • Nobuhito Nakajima, Masayuki Ueda, Hiroshi Nagayama, Yasuo Katayama
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 489-491
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    An 81-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus was hospitalized due to hemichorea-hemiballism. A radiological examination revealed typical putaminal changes of diabetic hemichorea-hemiballism (DHC-HB). Interestingly, brain computed tomography, performed before symptom onset, disclosed a hyperdense lesion in the left basal ganglia, indicating persistent basal ganglia impairment, even before the onset of symptoms, under sustained hyperglycemia. Additionally, an increase in the cerebrospinal fluid level of homovanillic acid was related to the symptom appearance of DHC-HB. Pronounced potential basal ganglia impairment under hyperglycemia and central dopaminergic hyperactivity was important for the development of DHC-HB in this patient.
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  • Motoko Ishida, Tomoya Miyamura, Shinji Sato, Daisaku Kimura, Eiichi Su ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 493-497
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    A 22-year-old woman with generalized lymphadenopathy and symmetrical swelling of the lacrimal and submandibular glands was diagnosed with IgG4-related disease. Biopsy specimens of the lips, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract and bronchus showed IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization revealed a high mean pulmonary arterial pressure. The patient was treated with 50 mg of prednisolone daily and rapidly improved. This is the first reported case of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with IgG4-related disease.
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  • Kanako Mochizuki, Yukio Kondo, Kohei Hosokawa, Kinya Ohata, Hirohito Y ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 499-503
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    Adenoviruses are increasingly recognized as important pathogens following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We herein report two cases of disseminated adenovirus infection that presented with nodular shadows on chest X-ray after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from unrelated donors. Both patients died of respiratory failure. Autopsies revealed adenovirus infection of multiple organs. Adenovirus infection should be suspected when nodular lung lesions of unknown origin appear in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.
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  • Hiroshi Ito, Shinichi Miyazaki, Takaya Ozeki, Masaki Matsuo, Joel Bran ...
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 505-509
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
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    A 47-year-old sexually active Japanese man was admitted with a persistent fever and weight loss. A physical examination revealed a cardiac murmur. A transthoracic echocardiogram was nondiagnostic, although blood cultures grew Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal endocarditis was diagnosed based on the modified Duke criteria. The administration of antimicrobial therapy resulted in an adequate initial resolution; however, two months after completing the therapy, the patient developed cardiac failure. Severe aortic regurgitation was identified, and the patient underwent emergent aortic valve replacement. Despite the rarity of gonococcal endocarditis, this disease should nevertheless be considered in patients presenting with a fever, cardiac murmur and a consistent sexual history.
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  • Hideharu Hagiya, Maya Kimura, Toru Miyamoto, Yuto Haruki, Fumio Otsuka
    2014 Volume 53 Issue 5 Pages 511-514
    Published: 2014
    Released: March 01, 2014
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a self-limiting type of drug eruption that frequently occurs as a reaction to antibiotics, particularly penicillins or macrolides. Daptomycin (DAP) is a newly developed antibiotic that specifically targets methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. We herein present the case of a 77-year-old severe burn victim who was diagnosed with DAP-induced AGEP while receiving treatment in an intensive care unit. Although rare, physicians should be aware that the administration of DAP can cause AGEP, which may complicate the clinical course of patients with a high fever and inflammation.
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