Objective To evaluate irreversible electroporation (IRE) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).
Methods This study was approved by our local review board. Eight patients with histologically proven LAPC ≤5 cm were prospectively enrolled to undergo ultrasound-guided IRE. The primary endpoint was complications within 90 days. Secondary outcomes were the overall survival (OS) and time to local progression. Safety was assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0.
Results All patients were treated successfully. The median procedure time was 150 min. The median largest tumor diameter was 29.5 mm (20.0-48.0 mm) in the pancreatic head (n=5) and body (n=3). Open (n=4) and percutaneous (n=4) approaches were used. No patients died within 90 days after IRE. There were 5 minor complications in 3 patients and 4 major complications in 3 patients. The incidence rates of major complications did not differ significantly between the approaches. The median time to local progression after IRE was 12.0 months, and the median OS was 17.5 months from IRE and 24.0 months from the diagnosis, with no significant differences between the approaches.
Conclusions Percutaneous and open IRE may be acceptable for patients with LAPC (despite some major adverse events) and may represent a useful new therapeutic option.
Objective Coronary artery and cerebrovascular disease are the main causes of non-communicable diseases. In particular, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and ischemic stroke are the most serious conditions of coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease, respectively. Therefore, it is important to prevent these conditions by identifying populations at high risk of these diseases. We sought to investigate the differences in the clinical features of patients with these atherothrombotic diseases in nationwide Japanese multicenter registries. Gender differences were also examined.
Methods The dataset of the two nationwide multicenter registries for ACS [Prevention of AtherothrombotiC Incidents Following Ischemic Coronary (PACIFIC)] and ischemic stroke [Effective Vascular Event REduction after STroke (EVEREST)] was analyzed. Clinical features were examined and compared using datasets from the two registries.
Results A total of 6,878 patients (PACIFIC: n=3,426, EVEREST: n=3,452) were evaluated. The patients' background characteristics were significantly different between the two populations. Patients with ACS tended to be younger, had a higher body mass index, had a greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, were current smokers, and more often had a prior history of ischemia heart disease than patients with a stroke. Hypertension was more prevalent in patients with stroke than in those with ACS. The differences in patients' background characteristics between ACS and stroke in men were similar to those in the whole sample. However, the prevalence of hypertension in women was similar between the ACS and stroke groups, in contrast to the results from the whole sample.
Conclusion Patients' background characteristics were significantly different between those with ACS and stroke. Gender differences were also observed.
Objective The mechanisms underlying the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation depend on the conditions of kidney diseases. In angiotensin II (AngII) infusion models, the circulating AngII is filtered into the renal tubular lumens, activating intrarenal RAS. However, in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) models, plasma angiotensinogen (AGT) is filtered into the tubular lumens because of glomerular injury, activating intrarenal RAS. The intrarenal dopamine system activation reduces intrarenal AGT expression and suppresses the intrarenal RAS activity in AngII infusion models. However, the relationship between the intrarenal dopamine system and intrarenal RAS has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine that relationship in CKD patients.
Methods We recruited 46 CKD patients (age: 51.1±20.0 years; 16 men; causes of CKD: chronic glomerulonephritis, 34; diabetic nephropathy, 2; nephrosclerosis, 4; and others, 6) not undergoing dialysis or taking RAS blockers. The urinary dopamine (U-DOPA) level, an indicator of intrarenal dopamine activity, and the urinary AGT (U-AGT) level, a surrogate marker of intrarenal RAS activity, were measured.
Results As the CKD stages progressed, the U-DOPA levels decreased while the U-AGT levels increased. The U-DOPA levels were significantly and negatively correlated with the U-AGT levels but significantly and positively correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the U-DOPA levels were associated with the U-AGT levels after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and blood pressure (β=-0.38, p=0.045). However, no correlation was observed when eGFR was also adjusted (β=-0.17, p=0.29).
Conclusion The negative correlation between the intrarenal dopamine system and intrarenal RAS in CKD patients may be affected by the renal function.
The number of patients with methotrexate-associated lymphoproliferative disorder (MTX-LPD) is increasing. We describe a case of MTX-LPD of the stomach. After treatment with methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis, the patient developed left cervical lymphadenopathy and an ulcerative lesion in the stomach, which was presumed to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. However, we suspected MTX-LPD, based on the clinical course and the positivity of in situ hybridization for the detection of the Epstein-Barr encoding region. After the cessation of MTX, the left cervical lymphadenopathy and the gastric lesion disappeared. This is first report of gastric MTX-LPD that was presumed to be MALT lymphoma.
A 79-year-old man with appetite loss and nausea for 1 month was admitted to our hospital. His thoracic aortic aneurysm had gradually increased in size due to perigraft endoleak after the previous aneurysm repair surgery. Although he showed no hematemesis, melena, or a fever, gastrointestinal endoscopy and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed an aortoesophageal fistula (AEF). He developed septic shock due to a perigraft abscess and eventually died, although aortic graft replacement and esophageal transection were performed. Clinical suspicion is the most important factor for obtaining an accurate diagnosis and improving the prognosis in cases of AEF.
Renal hemosiderosis occurs in the context of severe intravascular hemolysis, with the most common cause being paroxysmal nocturnal hematuria. Patients with cold agglutinin disease (CAD) have relatively mild hemolysis, and acute kidney injury (AKI) due to renal hemosiderosis has not been reported. We encountered a patient with CAD caused by lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma who developed AKI secondary to renal hemosiderosis after an excessive alcohol intake.
Rituximab (RTX) has become a therapeutic option for inducing remission of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). However, the optimum dosage of RTX to induce remission of AAV and reduce adverse events, such as infection, remains unclear. We herein report an elderly and renally impaired patient with alveolar hemorrhaging due to refractory AAV who was successfully treated with single infusion of RTX. Single infusion of RTX may be a therapeutic option in refractory AAV patients who are vulnerable to infections.
We herein report a 37-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma with brain metastases and an asymptomatic ovarian tumor. Immunohistochemistry and a fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of the biopsied lung tumor revealed anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement. Although the origin of the ovarian tumor remained unclear, alectinib administration was initiated, and radiological responses were observed in all lesions, which confirmed that the ovarian tumor was a metastasis from lung cancer. Although differentiating the origin of an ovarian tumor is difficult in lung cancer patients due to the rarity of ovarian metastases, alectinib therapy can replace an invasive biopsy, especially in ALK-rearranged lung cancer patients.
Blunt airway trauma is rare but life threatening. Injuries to other vital organs accompany this type of injury in most cases; therefore, conservative treatment may be considered first. In cases of delayed fibrotic airway stenosis after conservative treatment, surgical treatment or bronchoscopic intervention are therapeutic options. We herein report a case of delayed airway stenosis after a blunt traumatic airway injury that was successfully managed by silicone stenting.
Mutations in the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can result in resistance to rifampin. Among various mutations in the rpoB gene, some known as disputed rpoB mutations can cause low-level rifampin resistance. It has been suggested that a high-dose rifampin (20 mg/kg)-based regimen might be effective in treating tuberculosis (TB) caused by M. tuberculosis with disputed rpoB mutations exhibiting low-level resistance. We herein report the first two cases of pulmonary TB caused by M. tuberculosis with a disputed rpoB mutation (CTG511CCG) that showed successful treatment outcomes with a high-dose rifampin-based regimen.
Tuberculosis may be accompanied by various hematological abnormalities during treatment, and occasionally thrombocytopenia is also noted. Most cases of thrombocytopenia in tuberculosis are moderate, and there are few reports about thrombocytopenia with diffuse alveolar hemorrhaging (DAH) in pulmonary tuberculosis. We describe the case of an 82-year-old man with pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous pleurisy. He underwent anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy; during tuberculosis treatment, he experienced DAH due to fulminant thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, but the laboratory findings should be carefully evaluated. Thrombocytopenia during anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy can cause life-threatening DAH.
A 66-year-old man presented with subacute sensorimotor neuropathy in association with small cell lung cancer. Tests for the anti-ganglioside antibody GM1-IgM were positive. Chemotherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment led to a slight improvement in neurological symptoms. Four additional cases of neuropathy accompanied by anti-ganglioside antibody and lung cancer have been reported. The most commonly reported pattern was subacute sensorimotor neuropathy. Patients died from cancer progression after 5 to 18 months. There is evidence that anti-ganglioside antibody inhibits tumor progression, prolonging the patient survival. However, severe neurological disturbance may offset the survival benefit of anti-ganglioside antibody in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome.
A 78-year-old man who had a 20-year history of polycythemia vera (PV) with a JAK2 V617F mutation presented with gradually progressive disturbance of consciousness. Hyper-intense lesions in the peri-lateral ventricular area and left cerebellar hemisphere were observed by T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging. Cytologic and genetic analyses of the lymphoma cells obtained from his cerebrospinal fluid established the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. No lesions outside of the brain were recognized. Because of his poor general condition, he was not treated actively. A postmortem analysis revealed a JAK2 V617F mutation in the lymphoma cells, suggesting their origin was a PV clone.
The prognosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been improved by the combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) with chemotherapy. Nonetheless, relapse occurs in a certain proportion of patients, mostly within three to four years after treatment. We herein report a patient treated with ATRA and chemotherapy achieving remission who relapsed approximately 17 years after the treatment. A literature review identified 5 additional reported cases of APL relapse after more than 10 years. None of them presented with generally established risk factors for relapse, such as a high leukocyte count. The potential for late relapse of APL occurring more than 10 years after treatment should be recognized.
Coagulation abnormalities are a rare but critical complication associated with plasma cell diseases. We herein present a case of multiple myeloma (MM) with complicated coagulopathy. Initially, the patient showed severe bleeding tendency due to concomitant acquired hemophilia A and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. Interestingly, the patient also exhibited hyperactivation of factor IX. During treatment for MM, the bleeding complications were ameliorated; however, the patient had central retinal vein occlusion. All of the coagulation abnormalities were completely resolved after the complete remission of MM. This case suggests that MM patients may have concomitant risks for both bleeding and thromboembolic complications.
Autoantibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been detected in inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system diseases. A 30-year-old woman had blurred vision, marked optic nerve disc swelling, serous retinal detachment at the macular on optic coherence tomography, and MOG-IgG seropositivity. The patient was thought to have optic papillitis associated with MOG-IgG. Her symptoms rapidly improved after high-dose methylprednisolone therapy. We hypothesize that serous retinal detachment was secondary, arising from optic papillitis. This is the first report of the concurrence of optic papillitis with MOG-IgG and serous retinal detachment. MOG-IgG should be tested in patients with marked optic disc swelling.
We herein report the case of stiff-person syndrome in a 73-year-old woman. She experienced episodes of painful muscle spasms and was admitted to another hospital. She was diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. She showed improvement in muscle spasms post-chemotherapy, which was discontinued due to pancytopenia. Six months later, she was admitted to our hospital for repeated whole-body muscle spasms, at which point she was diagnosed with stiff-person syndrome. An anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody text was negative. Her muscle spasms disappeared after the administration of corticosteroids and rituximab. Stiff-person syndrome may develop with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. In the present case, corticosteroids and rituximab provided effective treatment.
Plexiform schwannoma is a rare variant of schwannomas and usually presents with chronic symptoms. We herein report a case of cervical nerve plexiform schwannoma that presented with unusually sudden severe left radiculopathy of the eighth cervical nerve after physical exercise. Coronal short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a multinodular tumor along the eighth cervical nerve. The tumor was partially resected. A pathological analysis revealed that the tumor was a schwannoma, and we diagnosed the case as a plexiform schwannoma. The unusual sudden-onset presentation in this case was considered to be caused by the unusual localization of the tumor involving the nerve root and mechanical stress due to physical exercise.
Cervical cord infarction is uncommon but has been increasingly reported as a complication of vertebral artery dissection (VAD). A 54-year-old woman presented with neck pain and neurological deficit following sudden neck movement. Radiological findings suggested cervical cord infarction in the anterior spinal artery territory at the C5-C6 vertebral level and dissection of the intracranial segment of the right vertebral artery. Cervical cord infarction due to VAD is usually caused by dissection of its extracranial segment. The present case indicates that dissection of the intracranial segment of the vertebral artery can also cause cervical cord infarction.
A 70-year-old woman who had suffered from aseptic meningitis complained of chronic headache after dental treatment including tooth extraction. She developed a fever and respiratory failure. Based on chest computed tomography and head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), she was diagnosed with osteomyelitis in the clivus accompanying moderate pituitary involvement, cavernous sinus thrombosis and septic pulmonary embolism. Both of the causal bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Campylobacter rectus, were isolated from her blood. Dual infection leading to clival osteomyelitis and cavernous sinus thrombosis has not been reported. It is important to perform enhanced MRI and blood culture for patients with chronic headache related to dental treatment.
Asplenia may yield an increased risk of fulminant sepsis with various pathogens. Human infection with Campylobacter fetus is rare, but it often presents with non-gastrointestinal tract infection among immunocompromised individuals. A 55-year-old abattoir worker presented with a fever. He had had splenectomy for follicular lymphoma and rituximab maintenance therapy by four months before the presentation. Blood cultures yielded C. fetus, and the administration of meropenem dissolved the bacteremia. Further maintenance therapy was withheld, and no recurrence of infection has been observed for seven years. Asplenia, occupational exposure, and/or rituximab maintenance therapy might have been precipitating factors of this rare infection.