Among the various diagnostic strategies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), physical diagnosis is the quickest and requires no extra cost. Rapid physical diagnosis of COPD in primary care practice can lead to earlier actions of preventive measures and counseling for patients. Further, rapid physical diagnosis of COPD in an emergency department is also crucial for timely use of potentially lifesaving therapy specific for COPD patients. In this review, we will present a broad scope of physical findings for rapid physical diagnosis of COPD.
Aim The effect of rapid-acting insulin secretagogues (glinides) on glycemic control when included with insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes remains uncertain. To examine this, we added glinide once a day to twice daily injections of premixed insulin. Research Design and Methods Seventy-four type 2 diabetic patients, taking twice daily injections of premixed insulin and whose diabetic control was stable, were registered at 6 independent institutions. After a 3-month observation period, 60 patients were administered 10 mg mitiglinide or 90 mg nateglinide at lunchtime without changing their insulin regimen. After 12 weeks, administration of glinide was discontinued and observation was continued. HbA1c levels were measured at the start of glinide administration, after 12 weeks of glinide , and at 12 weeks after discontinuation. Results HbA1c improved from 7.72±0.66% to 7.55±0.71% (p <0.01) at Week 12 of glinide administration. Twelve weeks after discontinuation, HbA1c returned to the baseline level (7.72±0.81%). Conclusion This study indicates that the addition of glinide once a day at lunchtime to twice daily injections of premixed insulin is effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Background Motorization and supermarket-proliferation affect lifestyles. About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to several shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The influences of these changes on the prevalence of diabetes are uncertain. Objective and Measurements The influence of motorization and supermarket-proliferation on the prevalence of diabetes was studied in the inhabitants of a town on Okinawa, Japan. Measurements were composed of anthropometry and blood chemistry. Participants were asked where they buy food and daily necessities (several shops or a supermarket) and how they get there (by car or on foot). Design Serial cross-sectional. Participants Inhabitants of the island of Okinawa were studied. Results In 1991, 24% went to several shops and 20% to a supermarket. However, in 2004, only 3.1% went to several shops and 83% to a supermarket. In 1991, 55% went to shopping places on foot and 38% by car. However, in 2004, only 14% went on foot and 76% by car. The prevalence of diabetes in Okinawa increased from 4.7% in 1991 to 8.4% in 2004. The prevalence of diabetes correlated positively with the percent of inhabitants going to supermarkets, and those going there by car. In 1991, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 4.7% in men and 4.6% in women; no difference was noted between men and women. In 2004, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased to 9.2% in men and to 7.5% in women. The increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes from 1991 to 2004 was higher in men than in women. Conclusions About 15 years ago, Okinawans went to shops on foot, but now they go to supermarkets by car. The prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Motorization and supermarket-proliferation are associated with the increases of the prevalence of diabetes. The increase in diabetes prevalence was higher in men than in women.
Objective Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a severe adverse event of gefitinib therapy. However, the mechanism still remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether or not oxidative stress, one of the common factors in drug-associated ILD, is involved in the pathogenesis of gefitinib-induced ILD. Patients and Methods Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we measured the concentration of serum thioredoxin (Trx), a redox-active protein with antioxidative effects, in 44 patients treated with gefitinib, including three patients who had ILD. Results In patients who had gefitinib-induced ILD, serum Trx levels were significantly elevated. They decreased after cessation of gefitinib therapy accompanying clinical improvement of ILD. Conclusion It was suggested that oxidative stress may be involved as a part of mechanisms causing or worsening gefitinib-induced ILD.
We describe a 68-year-old woman diagnosed as having a colonic adenocarcinoma associated with traditional serrated adenoma (SA) with submucosal invasion of the sigmoid colon. Colonoscopy revealed a 0-IIa+IIc colon cancer with a SA component, about 12 mm in diameter, in the sigmoid colon. She underwent laparoscopy-assisted resection of the sigmoid colon. In the resected specimen, colon cancer with mucin pools was adjacent to the SA. Cases of colonic adenocarcinoma associated with traditional SA with submucosal invasion are relatively rare. This case suggests that SA may play a role in the development of colorectal cancer.
We describe a 47-year-old woman with severe coronary vasospasm induced by hyperthyroidism. The patient complained of anginal chest pain without specific characteristics of thyrotoxicosis. Coronary arteriography was performed and revealed 90% stenosis of both the left and right coronary os. She was treated with emergent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Postoperatively, she exhibited a comatose mentality. Severe thyrotoxicosis was indicated on thyroid function tests and thyrotoxic storm was diagnosed. Nineteen days after the surgery and following the initiation of propylthiouracil treatment, coronary arteriography revealed entirely normal coronary arteries.
A case of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) with a rare complication of Buerger's disease-like large arterial occlusion (AO) was successfully treated with emergent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and anticoagulants plus corticosteroid. By reviewing 15 reported cases of HES with AO including the present case, we found man predominance but no other consistent characteristics in HES with AO, such as age, smoking history, eosinophil counts or previous treatments, thus, predicting AO in HES patients appears to be difficult. Vessel intervention should be considered as a treatment option, since treatment delay in some patients has resulted in the amputation of extremities.
Mixed chimerism in a post-transplant patient with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is generally considered to be a status preceding donor-cell rejection and bone marrow failure. Here, we report on a rare, prolonged mixed chimerism in a patient with SAA who showed a full recovery in hematological and immunological status after transplantation. The analysis in this patient showed about 20% and 80% recipient-type cells of total blood cells and T cells, respectively, at two years post-transplantation, and 14% and 25% of total blood cells and T cells, respectively, at four years post-transplantation. This report describes the most comprehensive case study known to date.
We report a 74-year-old woman with anit-Golgi antibody and anti-SS-A/Ro antibody who contracted inflammatory myopahy presenting 'ALS-like' symptoms. We identified anti-Golgi antibody directly using confocal microscopy and successfully treated her with steroid. This report suggests that there is a new categorized subgroup of inflammatory myopathy with these specific antibodies and the pattern of autoantibody in these patients indicates the specific clinical course and treatment strategy.
It has been said that the color of sputum from patients with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia is orange. However, why the color is orange has not been clarified. First, orange-colored sputum obtained from a patient with L. pneumophila pneumonia is presented. Then, the formation of an orange-colored pigment in a culture medium (without charcoal) after the growth of L. pneumophila is demonstrated.