Objective To investigate the risks and benefits of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT: thienopyridine plus aspirin) following placement of drug-eluting stents (DES). The optimal duration of DAPT is not well established. Methods We analyzed a prospective registry of 2,050 patients with sirolimus-eluting stents during a 5-year follow-up. We divided 1,691 patients into two groups according to DAPT duration (DAPT ≤12 months (n=749) and DAPT >12 months (n=942)) and compared the clinical outcomes using a landmark analysis. Results The frequencies of major adverse cardiac events (MACE: 15.6% vs. 18.2%), death (10.0% vs. 11.5%), myocardial infarction (2.3% vs. 2.1%), target lesion revascularization (4.5% vs. 6.3%) and stent thrombosis (0.8% vs. 0.8%) were similar between the two groups. However, the frequency of bleeding was higher in the DAPT >12 months group (1.1% vs. 2.6%, p=0.030). The adjusted 12-month landmark analysis showed no differences in the incidence of MACE (hazard ratio (HR) 0.892; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.689-1.155; p=0.385) or a composite of target vessel revascularization, cardiac death and myocardial infarction (target vessel failure: HR 0.922; 95% CI 0.678-1.255; p=0.606). There were no differences in the frequency of stent thrombosis between the two groups during years 2 to 5 after stenting; however, with regard to bleeding, an increase in the frequency of hemorrhage events was observed after four years from the index procedures in the DAPT >12 months group. Conclusion DAPT performed beyond 12 months is associated with increased an frequency of bleeding complications and does not prevent the incidence of MACE, including stent thrombosis, during five years of follow-up after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation. Conducting larger, randomized studies will therefore be needed to confirm this finding.
Objective We compared the efficacies of irbesartan and olmesartan after successful stent implantation in patients with stable angina. Methods Twenty-six patients were randomly divided into irbesartan and olmesartan groups and treated for approximately eight months (at follow-up coronary angiography). Results There were no differences in blood pressure (BP) reduction or late loss between the groups. The BP levels in both groups at follow-up were significantly reduced. The equality of variance of systolic (S)BP (i.e., the intragroup standard deviation of SBP) in the irbesartan group was significantly smaller than that observed in the olmesartan group at follow-up. In addition, log[pentraxin-3] was significantly decreased in all of the patients at follow-up, with no differences between the groups. Interestingly, the levels of log[high-sensitive C-reactive protein(hs-CRP)] measured at 0 weeks were positively associated with in-stent late loss, and among independent biochemical variables in addition to age, gender, body mass index and the kind of angiotensin receptor blockers at 0 weeks, only these levels were related to in-stent late loss, as assessed by a multivariate analysis. Conclusion The ability of irbesartan to reduce BP is comparable to that of olmesartan, and irbesartan exhibits a lower variance of systolic BP after treatment. The level of log[hs-CRP] before stent implantation is a predictor of in-stent late loss.
Objective Although metabolic syndrome (MS) is considered to be a predictor of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, its value for predicting diabetes beyond the levels of fasting glucose (FG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) remains questionable. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of MS and Japanese MS (JMS) as predictors of diabetes. Methods This study is a longitudinal study using data for 2,034 subjects who visited our Medical Check-up Center in both 2008 and 2011 and were free from diabetes at baseline. The odds ratios (ORs) of developing diabetes in 2011 for MS and JMS were calculated after being adjusted for FG, age, sex and antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic medication use, then further adjusted for HbA1c. The optimal cutoff points for FG, HbA1c and body mass index (BMI) to discriminate the development of diabetes and their sensitivities/specificities were obtained from receiver operating characteristic curves. These sensitivities/specificities were compared with the sensitivities/specificities of MS and JMS. Results The ORs (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) of developing diabetes for MS and JMS were 1.36 (0.57-3.23) (p=0.484) and 3.23 (1.25-8.36) (p=0.016), respectively, after being adjusted for FG and 1.06 (0.39-2.86) (p=0.915) and 2.34 (0.79-6.95) (p=0.126), respectively, after being further adjusted for HbA1c. The sensitivities/specificities of FG, HbA1c, BMI, MS and JMS were 0.625/0.897, 0.828/0/919, 0.625/0.734, 0.375/0.911, and 0.375/0.941, respectively. Conclusion MS and JMS were found to be poor predictors of diabetes in a Japanese health screening population.
Objective The prognostic factors of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis remain unclear. We assessed the prognostic factors of all-cause mortality in patients with chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, focusing especially on underlying pulmonary disease, first-line treatment and host predisposition. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 194 patients negative for HIV who had chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis treated at our institution in Saitama, Japan. Results The patients (median age, 68.5 years) were followed over a median follow-up time of 2.6 years. The underlying pulmonary diseases consisted of previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 59 (30.4%) patients, emphysema in 39 (20.1%) patients, interstitial lung disease in 32 (16.5%) patients, nontuberculous mycobacteriosis in 29 (14.9%) patients and other diseases in 35 (18%) patients. The first-line treatments included observation in 65 (33.5%) patients, itraconazole in 56 (28.9%) patients, micafungin in 46 (23.7%) patients, voriconazole in 22 (11.3%) patients and amphotericin B (including liposomal amphotericin B) in five (2.6%) patients. The overall cumulative mortality rate was 50.2% at five years and 67.4% at 10 years. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling found an older age, the presence of systemic comorbidities, baseline corticosteroid use, a body mass index of <18.5 kg/m2 and a C-reactive protein level of ≥5.0 mg/dL to be negative prognostic factors for all-cause mortality. Conclusion The 5-year mortality rate of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis was 50.2%. When clinical trials are designed and implemented to test effective drug therapies in patients with chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis, the trial patients should be stratified according to these prognostic factors prior to randomization.
Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) in treatment-naïve Japanese patients with HIV-1 infection. Methods A 96-week multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel group pilot study was conducted. The endpoints were times to virologic failure, safety event and regimen modification. Results 109 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated (54 patients received ABC/3TC and 55 patients received TDF/FTC). All randomized subjects were analyzed. The time to virologic failure was not significantly different between the two arms by 96 weeks (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 0.72-6.13; p=0.178). Both regimens showed favorable viral efficacy, as in the intention-to-treat population, 72.2% (ABC/3TC) and 78.2% (TDF/FTC) of the patients had an HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL at 96 weeks. The time to the first grade 3 or 4 adverse event and the time to the first regimen modification were not significantly different between the two arms (adverse event: HR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.25-1.75, p=0.407) (regimen modification: HR 1.03; 95% CI, 0.33-3.19, p=0.964). Both regimens were also well-tolerated, as only 11.1% (ABC/3TC) and 10.9% (TDF/FTC) of the patients discontinued the allocated regimen by 96 weeks. Clinically suspected abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reactions occurred in only one (1.9%) patient in the ABC/3TC arm. Conclusion Although insufficiently powered to show non-inferiority of viral efficacy of ABC/3TC relative to TDF/FTC, this pilot trial suggested that ABC/3TC with ATV/r is a safe and efficacious initial regimen for HLA-B*5701-negative patients, such as the Japanese population.
Objective Brucellosis remains as a widespread zoonosis, both worldwide and in our country that causes serious public health problems with the potential to create disease in humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to examine the characteristics of brucellosis patients followed in our clinic and to compare these cases with those reported in the literature. Methods Four hundred and forty-seven patients who were treated in our clinic between March 2004 and March 2011 for a diagnosis of brucellosis and who were followed for one year after the completion of treatment were retrospectively examined. Data for the patients were obtained using brucellosis follow-up forms. Results Of the 447 patients, 261 (58.4%) were women, and the mean age was 48±17 years. Focal organ involvement was detected in 178 (40%) cases, with the musculoskeletal system being the leading site (30.6%), followed by the central nervous system (5.4%). Spondylodiscitis exhibited a significant correlation with an advanced age, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level on admission (p=0.001, p=0.0001 and p=0.001, respectively). A significant correlation was found between sacroiliitis and a younger age (p=0.003). Relapse was observed in 35 (7.8%) cases. Conclusion The present study allowed us to scrutinize the characteristics and complications of patients with brucellosis. Focal organ involvement of the musculoskeletal system was observed in the present cases, particularly spondylodiscitis and sacroiliitis. Spondylodiscitis was detected in elderly patients with high CRP and ESR values, whereas sacroiliitiswas seen in younger patients. We believe that age, symptom duration and laboratory parameters should be evaluated in patients with brucellosis and that older patients in particular should be precisely examined for bone and joint complications.
Objective To explore the opinions of outpatients concerning a new communication method: the self-management of assessed personal problems in health information records (SAPPHIRE) using patients' mobile phones to store and share medical content (medical SAPPHIRE, or m-SAPPHIRE). Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Patients Outpatients who visited us from March 1 to May 30, 2012, were asked to complete a questionnaire survey regarding SAPPHIRE and m-SAPPHIRE. The m-SAPPHIRE data consisted of a problem list, height, weight, waist size and active medication list. Ten questions were asked regarding the usefulness of m-SAPPHIRE, the sharing of m-SAPPHIRE and the use of mobile phones to store m-SAPPHIRE data. Results One hundred and ninety-three patients (male/female, 79/114; mean age, 57±21 years) were registered: 95.9% answered that m-SAPPHIRE would be useful, 98% agreed to manage their personal health records by themselves, and 95.8%, 93.8%, and 92.8% of the patients responded that they would allow m-SAPPHIRE information to be shared with family members, medical workers, and health care providers, respectively. Of the patients, 75.1% responded that they owned a mobile phone, and 43.5% answered that they could enter m-SAPPHIRE information into a mobile phone by themselves, while 27.5% responded that they could do so with someone's help. Conclusion Patients believe that m-SAPPHIRE would be useful for retrieving their health records during emergency situations or for sharing with family members and medical and health care providers. SAPPHIRE using mobile phones could be an inexpensive and legal method for sharing medical data.
A 75-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a loss of consciousness. His blood glucose level was 24 mg/dL. Abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple metastatic lesions in the liver, while upper endoscopy disclosed advanced gastric cancer. The hypoglycemia was refractory despite the administration of glucose and steroid therapy. The patient died within one month of admission. An autopsy revealed neuroendocrine-type gastric cancer, which, on examination with immunohistochemistry, was found to be negative for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I and positive for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The patient was diagnosed as having gastric cancer with non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) caused by IGF-II.
A 75-year-old woman developed depression in 2010 and was treated with oral medications at our Department of Psychiatry. Since she showed no tendency toward improvement, she underwent modified electroconvulsive therapy (mECT). Later, she developed severe liver injury that was presumably induced by the propofol used for mECT. Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic agent that reportedly can be used relatively safely in the presence of liver dysfunction. We herein report the first case of propofol-induced liver injury definitively diagnosed based on positive drug lympocyte stimulation testing (DLST).
Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer in patients with manic-depressive disorder. It is a drug that requires close monitoring due to its narrow therapeutic window and many side effects. There are several case reports of lithium side effects and toxicity occurring even at the therapeutic levels. Cardiac toxicity is observed in approximately 5% of patients; however, severe bradycardia caused by a single dose of lithium is exceedingly rare. We herein report a case of severe symptomatic bradycardia in a young man that occurred after a single dose of lithium. This case emphasizes the need to closely monitor patients when initiating therapy, even before the lithium levels are high enough to be detected.
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by physical, psychological and physiological abnormalities. Obesity and related cardiovascular diseases are a common problem in adult patients with PWS. This report describes a case of adult PWS with heart failure associated with marked obesity and sleep-disordered breathing that was successfully treated with oxygen therapy, adaptive servoventilation, medications, diet therapy and rehabilitation.
We herein describe the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and required an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implant. Subsequently, the patient was diagnosed with Fabry disease (FD), which was suspected based on the results of an endomyocardial biopsy and diagnosed following demonstration of deficient α-galactosidase A (GLA) activity. Molecular studies showed a novel point mutation in the 3' splice site consensus sequence of intron 5 in the gene encoding GLA that created a new splicing site, resulting in the expression of mutant mRNA. FD should be considered a cause of HCM in patients with severe tachyarrhythmia without other remarkable manifestations of FD.
We herein report a rare case of surgically proven normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism (NCHPT). A premenopausal 51-year-old woman was referred to our clinic because parathyroid adenoma was detected on neck ultrasonography (US). The patient's serum calcium concentration was 9.3 mg/dL and the intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 128.8 pg/mL. The findings of almost all other examinations were also compatible with a diagnosis of NCHPT. Then, parathyroidectomy was performed. The serum calcium and PTH concentrations reduced significantly but remained within the normal ranges. A histological examination demonstrated parathyroid adenoma. A review of this case and the associated literature suggests that estrogen plays a significant role in the etiology of NCHPT in premenopausal women.
A 52-year-old man was referred to our clinic. One week before his visit, he had complained of left eye pain and double vision. His clinical features were exacerbated. Despite the acute onset, which is atypical of thyroid eye disease (TED), TED was suspected due to the patient's history of Graves' disease (GD). After conducting clinical examinations and orbital magnetic resonance imaging, the patient was diagnosed with idiopathic orbital myositis (IOM), and intravenous glucocorticoid therapy was administered. After treatment, the patient's clinical manifestations dramatically improved. This is a rare case in that the history of GD made it difficult to differentiate IOM from TED.
We herein report the case of a 66-year-old Japanese woman who was admitted to our hospital due to diarrhea and malaise. She had been diagnosed with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) at 35 years of age and had suffered from recurrent cyst infections since that time. Antibiotic therapy combined with hepatic cyst drainage and cyst sclerosing therapy led to transient improvements each time. At 66 years of age, watery diarrhea occurred. The patient's serum albumin level declined to 1.8 g/dL, and her C-reactive protein level was 4.5 mg/dL. An endoscopic biopsy of the descending colon revealed amorphous deposits in the small arteries and tissues of the submucosal layer. The deposits were positive for Congo Red staining and amyloid A staining. Therefore, AA-amyloidosis was diagnosed. An endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and duodenum also showed AA-amyloid deposits. If an ADPKD patient with a long history of cyst infection develops diarrhea and malaise, AA-amyloidosis should be considered as a possible complication.
A 26-year-old man visited our clinic because of a persistent cough. Although his chest roentgenography showed no abnormalities, a sputum culture revealed a positive result for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Computed tomography (CT) prior to antituberculous chemotherapy demonstrated an esophagomediastinal fistula with subcarinal lymphadenopathy. One week after the treatment, he complained of a severe cough exacerbated by swallowing liquid. The development of a bronchoesophageal fistula (BEF) was suggested by esophagoscopy, and was confirmed by CT and bronchoscopy. The present case was unique because the process of BEF development could be followed by CT, and the BEF developed in an immunocompetent patient with relatively mild pulmonary tuberculosis.
Respiratory tract chondritis is not uncommon in patients with relapsing polychondritis (RP); however, diagnosing this condition remains problematic, especially in patients whose extrapulmonary manifestations do not predominate, as there are broad differential diagnoses of airway obstruction. We herein report the case of a 56-year-old man who presented with cough and dyspnea. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated diffuse smooth thickening of the visualized tracheobronchial wall with a moderately narrowed lumen. Airway chondritis was diagnosed on endobronchial ultrasound following demonstration of thickening of the submucosal and cartilaginous layers in the anterior and lateral aspects of the bronchial wall, while the posterior region expressed less involvement. In conjunction with nasal and auricular chondritis, which were previously overlooked, RP was finally diagnosed.
Acquired hemophilia (AHA) is a relatively rare and life-threatening disease caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII. Autoimmune bullous diseases (ABD) are also caused by autoantibodies against specific skin proteins. We herein report two cases of AHA associated with ABD. These coincidences are extremely rare, and only 14 documented cases have been reported previously. We further analyzed the properties of the autoantibodies in our patients. The epitopes were the A2 domain in patient 1, and both the A2 domain and the light chain in patient 2. Their isoforms were predominantly IgG4. Cross-reactivity could not be demonstrated. An accumulation of cases is required to unveil the pathogenesis of AHA.
Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare alcohol-associated disorder characterized by demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum. We herein present the case of a 56-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who was admitted to our hospital in a coma without focal or lateralizing neurological signs. MRI revealed a callosal lesion consistent with MBD and additional bifrontal linear cortical lesions. The callosal lesion completely disappeared with intravenous administration of high-dose multivitamins and corticosteroids, although the patient remained in a vegetative state. This case further supports the notion that cortical involvement in patients with MBD is a predictor of a poor prognosis.
Our patient had secondary restless legs syndrome (RLS) in the left lower limb caused by end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Severe RLS symptoms persisted even after amputation of the affected limb. Considering that oral administration of a dopamine receptor agonist was effective in treating the RLS in the phantom limb in this case, dysfunction of the central dopaminergic system was thought to be involved in the phantom limb-RLS mechanism. The persistence of RLS symptoms even after amputation of the affected limb suggests that the area responsible for ESRD-related RLS symptoms exists at the spinal level or in the higher central nervous system.
A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with jugular venous suppurative thrombophlebitis after undergoing strangulation ileus surgery. His condition was not stabilized by therapy with antibiotics, heparin or other supportive treatments. Pulse-spray treatment (PST) was administered, following which, the patient was afebrile without symptoms and the laboratory data improved. There were no complications such as sustained sepsis, septic embolisms or pulmonary embolisms. This is a unique case report of the use of a pulse-spray catheter in the treatment of total occlusive jugular venous suppurative thrombophlebitis following the failure of medical therapy.
Atorvastatin is a lipid lowering agent that is widely used worldwide. Rhabdomyolysis is a rare but serious side effect that may lead to renal failure and dangerous electrolyte abnormalities in patients with decreased hepatic clearance of atorvastatin. We herein report the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis receiving atorvastatin therapy for ischemic heart disease and hyperlipidemia who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.