Objective A clinical trial (REQUIRE) was started to investigate the use of an ultrasound renal denervation system in the treatment of resistant hypertension (RHT). We analyzed the prevalence of patients who were eligible for inclusion in this cross-sectional study at the time of screening.
Methods Nine-hundred ninety-nine consecutive hypertension (HT) patients who were treated in our hospital as outpatients were classified into the following categories: patients treated with at least 3 types of antihypertensive drugs including diuretic agents who were eligible for enrolment in SYMPLICITY HTN-Japan (SH-J) with an office systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥160 mmHg, who were ≤80 years of age, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (RHT-S); and patients who were treated similar medications and who were eligible for enrolment in REQUIRE, with an SBP of ≥150 mmHg, ≤75 years of age, and an eGFR of ≥40 mL/min/1.73 m2 (RHT-R). We investigated the proportion of patients in each category. We also investigated HT patients (1,423 cases) who were enrolled in the Chikushi Anti-Hypertension Trial (CHAT), a research network that includes general practitioners.
Results Eleven patients (1.1%) with RHT-S and 18 patients (1.8%) with RHT-R were identified. After the exclusion of patients with secondary HT and a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of <90 mmHg (applied in REQUIRE), 5 patients (0.5%) with RHT-S and 4 patients (0.4%) with RHT-R remained. In the analysis of the CHAT study, only 2 (0.1%) patients with RHT-R remained.
Conclusion The number of eligible patients in the REQUIRE trial was decreased, largely due to the strict age restriction and the new DBP limitation. The prevalence of eligible patients in REQUIRE was estimated to be approximately 0.5 to 0.8 times that in SH-J. Since patient enrollment will be difficult, drastic measures may be required to recruit eligible patients.
Objective The incidence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections has increased in recent decades. Nevertheless, NTM pleurisy is still a rare disease. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the clinical features and outcomes of NTM pleurisy.
Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of consecutive patients whose pleural effusion culture yielded NTM, from 2002 to 2016 at a respiratory hospital in Japan. The clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of these patients were analyzed.
Result The 12 patients with NTM pleurisy were predominantly male, with a median age of 69 years (range, 48-93 years). They included eight patients with a history of smoking and six patients with immunosuppressive comorbidities such as malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and conditions requiring steroid administration. Fibrocavitary disease was the most common radiographic feature of these patients, and Mycobacterium avium complex was the most common pathogen. Pneumothorax was complicated in 11 patients. Surgery was performed on seven patients, in addition to thoracic drainage for the treatment of pleurisy and pneumothorax. Three patients died of respiratory failure.
Conclusion Pneumothorax is a frequent complication of NTM pleurisy, often making the condition difficult to treat. Surgery at an appropriate time should therefore considered for refractory cases.
Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the efficacy and safety profiles of low-dose dasatinib therapy (50 mg once daily).
Methods Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase (CML-CP) who were being treated with low-dose imatinib (≤200 mg/day), but were resistant to this agent were enrolled in the current study (referred to as the LD-CML study).
Results There subjects included 9 patients (4 men and 5 women); all were treated with dasatinib at a dose of 50 mg once daily. Among 8 patients who had not experienced major molecular response (MMR; BCR-ABL1 transcript ≤0.1% according to International Scale [IS]) at study enrollment, 5 attained MMR by 12 months. In particular, 3 of 9 patients demonstrated a deep molecular response (DMR; IS ≤0.0069%) by 18 months. Five patients developed lymphocytosis accompanied by cytotoxic lymphocyte predominance. There was no mortality or disease progression, and all continue to receive dasatinib therapy at 18 months with only 2 patients requiring dose reduction. Toxicities were mild-to-moderate, and pleural effusion was observed in 1 patient (grade 1).
Conclusion Low-dose dasatinib can attain MMR and DMR without severe toxicity in patients with CML-CP who are unable to achieve MMR with low-dose imatinib. Switching to low-dose dasatinib should therefore be considered for patients in this setting, especially if they are otherwise considering a cessation of treatment.
Esophageal lichen planus (ELP) is rare and only about 80 cases have been reported in the literature. An 85-year-old woman presented with dysphagia and odynophagia. Endoscopy revealed a severe stricture in the proximal esophagus. Oral examinations at two years after the first endoscopy revealed erosions around the gingiva, and an examination of biopsy specimens taken from the site of erosion led to a diagnosis of oral lichen planus. Esophageal endoscopy was performed again, and biopsy specimens showed spongiosis and necrotic keratinocytes in the epithelium (civatte bodies). The patient was diagnosed with ELP and was treated with systemic corticosteroids, which resulted in clinical relief.
A 63-year-old woman underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma and cervical lymph node resection. Pathological analyses revealed the presence of signet cell carcinoma in a resected lymph node, which were apparently different from the pathological findings of thyroid carcinoma. No evidence of a primary tumor could be found elsewhere despite detailed examinations, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, capsule endoscopy, CT scan, and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Two and half years later, the patient developed multiple bone metastases and the pathological findings confirmed the presence of signet cell carcinoma. The primary origin remained undetermined. Metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin is extremely rare.
We herein describe a 69-year-old man suffering from chronic diarrhea caused by lansoprazole (LPZ)-induced collagenous colitis (CC) accompanied with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), diagnosed by increased fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin clearance and the findings of leakage from the descending colon to the sigmoid colon on scintigraphy. MR enterocolonography (MREC) was also performed for differentiating digestive diseases, and inflamed findings were observed around the same portion as those on scintigraphy, suggesting that this region was responsible for protein loss in this case. The MREC findings improved after the cessation of LPZ, and hypoalbuminemia also improved simultaneously. This case suggests that MREC may be a new and useful diagnostic tool for CC with PLE.
A 63-year-old man was admitted to our department following a secondary medical examination. Blood tests showed high levels of liver enzymes, IgG, IgG4, and antinuclear antibody. Computed tomography showed tumors in the bilateral lower lobes of the lungs and pleural thickening. After pleural and liver biopsy procedures, he was conclusively diagnosed with IgG4-related lung pseudotumor and pleural inflammation with autoimmune hepatitis. We started treatment with prednisolone 40 mg/day, and chest radiograph and blood tests showed signs of improvement. This was a rare case that suggested an association between IgG4-related disease and autoimmune hepatitis.
A 78-year-old woman was admitted with benign biliary stenosis. A plastic stent was placed at the left branch to prevent obstructive cholangitis. Two weeks after the procedure, the patient was readmitted with cholangitis caused by hemobilia. However, computed tomography (CT), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), peroral cholangioscopy, and abdominal angiography failed to establish the bleeding source. At the seventh bleeding, CT revealed a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm for which coil embolization was successfully performed. Hemobilia after plastic stent placement is extremely rare. We urge clinicians to consider the possibility of a pseudoaneurysm near the stent when trying to identify the bleeding source.
A 67-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy and renal insufficiency was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea secondary to end-stage heart failure. We introduced oxycodone for medically refractory dyspnea instead of morphine because of the patient's renal insufficiency. After the administration of oxycodone, his dyspnea was alleviated without any adverse opioid effects, such as respiratory depression. After treating his heart failure, he was able to leave the intensive care unit. Oxycodone may therefore be a reliable agent for the treatment of dyspnea in patients with end-stage heart failure and renal insufficiency.
We describe a case of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in a 49-year-old woman. The patient had been treated with amiodarone for non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Two weeks prior to her admission, she developed thyrotoxicosis and prednisolone (PSL, 30 mg daily) was administered with the continuation of amiodarone. However, she was admitted to our hospital for CPA. We performed total thyroidectomy to control her thyrotoxicosis and the pathological findings were consistent with type 2 AIT. She gradually improved and was discharged on day 84. This case demonstrates the importance of considering immediate total thyroidectomy for patients with uncontrollable AIT.
One adverse effect of methylprednisolone (MP) pulse therapy is an acute dose-dependent increase in the blood glucose level. Five patients with thyroid ophthalmopathy but normal glucose tolerance received MP pulse therapy (3 cycles, 3 days/week) and were assessed by continuous glucose monitoring. Steroid therapy increased the mean sensor glucose level, and all patients developed steroid-induced diabetes. The patients were treated alternately with mitiglinide (30 mg/day) and repaglinide (1.5 mg/day) during the second or third MP pulse therapy. The sensor glucose levels before lunch and dinner were more favorable during treatment with repaglinide than during treatment with mitiglinide. Repaglinide may be more clinically appropriate than mitiglinide.
An 80-year-old man presented at our hospital with renal failure. He had been treated with edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, for deep vein thrombosis for 10 months prior to admission. Although the pulses in his bilateral pedal arteries were palpable, cyanosis was present in the bilateral toes. Laboratory data indicated azotemia and eosinophilia. A skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE). Because no invasive vascular procedure was performed, we assumed that CCE was related to edoxaban. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report suggesting CCE induced by an Xa inhibitor.
Bronchial thermoplasty is a novel procedure for patients with severe asthma showing a stable lung function. We herein report two cases with a deteriorating lung function. The lung function tended to improve in one case, while the other case discontinued mepolizumab medication after the procedure. Treatment was performed safely under general anesthesia in both cases. The use of bronchial thermoplasty may therefore be useful for the treatment of patients with a deteriorating lung function.
IgA vasculitis (IgAV) commonly occurs in young children, who present with a tetrad of purpura, abdominal pain, arthralgia and nephritis. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare complication of IgAV. We herein report an adult case of IgAV with a presentation of DAH and nephritis (pulmonary renal syndrome, PRS), but without other typical manifestations, such as purpura, abdominal pain and arthralgia. A 33-year-old man presented with hemoptysis and a low-grade fever and was diagnosed to have IgAV based on the results of a renal biopsy. Treatment with corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis was effective. IgAV should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult PRS.
Although the majority of patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis have pulmonary involvement, some cases have pleural involvement as extra-pulmonary sites of infection. We herein report a case of upper lobe-predominant pulmonary fibrosis that developed in a 47-year-old male with a history of bilateral tuberculous pleurisy. Based on his chest radiological findings, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was most strongly suspected, and a surgical lung biopsy (SLB) was performed to obtain a pathological diagnosis. The SLB specimens showed interstitial pneumonia with pleural involvement without any characteristic findings of PPFE. Careful discretion in obtaining a precise diagnosis of this condition should be practiced in such cases.
A 62-year-old male with lung adenocarcinoma harboring an exon 19 deletion in the Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was treated with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and several cytotoxic agents. After administering a fifth-line chemotherapy regimen, a liver biopsy revealed a diagnosis of recurrence with a T790M mutation. After an 82-day course of osimertinib therapy, the patient developed osimertinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). Osimertinib was discontinued, and oral prednisolone was started. The ILD quickly improved, but liver metastases progressed and osimertinib was restarted concurrently with prednisolone. The patient showed neither disease progression nor a recurrence of ILD at 5 months. In situations in which no alternative treatment is available, osimertinib rechallenge should thus be considered as an alternative treatment.
Cowden syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas of the ectoderm and brain. A 36-year-old Japanese man presented with right facial seizure during sleep and was admitted to our hospital. He showed cobblestoning over the tongue and palmar pitting but no neurological abnormalities while he was not having a seizure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal lobe. Electroencephalography showed sharp waves over the left frontal lesion. A genetic analysis revealed a novel mutation of PTEN. The administration of carbamazepine ended the seizures. This is the first Japanese case of Cowden syndrome with a novel PTEN gene mutation and cortical dysplasia.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a medium vessel vasculitis affecting systemic organs. Muscle involvement of PAN usually lacks elevation of creatinine kinase (CK). We herein report a case of PAN with rhabdomyolysis. A 71-year-old man was hospitalized because of muscle weakness of the lower limbs that persisted for 1 month. On a physical examination, rapidly progressive lower proximal muscle weakness and bilateral drop foot were observed. His blood test showed an elevation in the C-reactive protein (19.5 mg/dL) and CK (13,435 IU/L) levels and negativity for anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody. Computed tomographic angiography showed stenosis of the left renal artery. Electromyogram indicated mono-neuritis multiplex pattern, and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated discretely granular hyperintensities on T2 and slow tau inversion recovery in his femoral muscles. A femoral muscle-biopsy specimen showed fibrinoid necrosis of medium-sized vessels and disruption of the elastic lamina of the vessel wall in fascia. Furthermore, muscle necrosis was localized depending on the arterial distribution, suggesting ischemic changes in the muscles. Given these findings, he was diagnosed with PAN with rhabdomyolysis and treated with methyl-prednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone at 50 mg/day. He was additionally treated with monthly intravenous cyclophosphamide at 500 mg. Sustained remission has been obtained for two months since the treatment. Although rhabdomyolysis rarely manifests with PAN, it should be included in a differential diagnosis of febrile patients presenting with acute myalgia and weakness with CK elevation.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a systemic inflammatory disorder categorized as small-vessel vasculitis. We herein report an elderly Japanese man with AAV (granulomatosis with polyangiitis affecting the eyes, nose, lungs, and kidneys) who also showed periaortitis at the diagnosis and developed cranial hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) during steroid maintenance therapy. His consciousness disturbance caused by HP improved after steroid pulse therapy, but he died of aspiration pneumonia. Autopsy findings showed giant cells in the thickened pachymeninges and obsolete inflammatory lesions in the aortic adventitia and renal tubulointerstitium. This is the first case of AAV complicated by periaortitis and cranial HP.
Co-infection with cryptococcus and tuberculosis has rarely been reported. We herein report a case of an 80-year-old man with cryptococcal pleuritis concurrent with pulmonary tuberculosis. He was admitted for progression of left pleural effusion and consolidation in the left upper lobe. Culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was positive in sputum, and analyses of pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte-predominant high levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA). Medical thoracoscopy revealed massive infiltration of Cryptococcus neoformans in pleura without granuloma. This is the first case report of cryptococcal pleuritis coincident with pulmonary tuberculosis. Cryptococcal pleuritis should be ruled out when the adenosine deaminase levels are elevated in pleural effusion.
A 39-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital complaining of left chest pain and rash on the hands and feet. Plain thoracic computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple nodular shadows in the left lower lobe of the lung. A diagnosis of secondary syphilis was made based on the appearance of the rash and positive serologic tests for syphilis. The patient was started on amoxicillin but was switched to minocycline due to amoxicillin-induced rash on both forearms. Thoracic CT after five months of treatment revealed that the multiple lung nodular shadows had contracted, and secondary syphilis with pulmonary involvement was diagnosed.
Eculizumab is the complement inhibitor administered to ameliorate intravascular hemolysis in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Whether or not the inhibitory mechanism may also increase the susceptibility to non-Neisserial infection is unclear. A 73-year old woman presented with bacteremia, cholecystitis and liver abscess with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although she had been neutropenic for 21 years, she had no history of severe infection before eculizumab had been administered. The infection with P. aeruginosa was successfully controlled with antibiotics, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and cholecystectomy. The present case might be representative of less common bacterial infections than Neisseria spp. among patients treated with eculizumab.
We herein describe a case of trauma-related wound infection with a subcutaneous abscess caused by both Enterobacter cancerogenus and Aeromonas hydrophila. An 89-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of an injury that he had suffered in a car accident. The right dorsal region of the foot around the wound was reddish and swelling. The pus culture on his right foot grew E. cancerogenus and A. hydrophila. The patient was successfully treated with a 10-day course of meropenem and a 25-day course of levofloxacin. E. cancerogenus can therefore be a causative pathogen in skin and soft tissue infections among trauma patients.
Disseminated cryptococcosis usually develops in immunosuppressed patients. A 33-year-old postpartum woman developed disseminated cryptococcosis with marked eosinophilia. She presented with a cough and a week-long fever. A computed tomography scan showed multiple pulmonary nodules randomly distributed. Eosinophils were observed to have increased in number in both her peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A transbronchial lung biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid specimens revealed findings consistent with cryptococcal infection. Disseminated cryptococcosis can present with marked eosinophilia of the peripheral blood and lung tissues. Additionally, the postpartum immune status may sometimes be involved in the development of opportunistic infections in previously healthy women.