Objective The usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for making decisions in the treatment of liver abscess is unknown.
Methods We evaluated the internal blood flow in the arterial-predominant phase by CEUS using Sonazoid® in 21 patients. The stain area rate was evaluated in maximum parting plane of abscess in CEUS. Patients were divided into two groups: the vascular phase enhancement (VE) group, in which ≥50% of the abscess cavity was enhanced (12 patients), and the vascular phase non-enhancement (VNE) group, in which <50% of the abscess cavity was enhanced (9 patients). The rate of patients who were cured by conservative treatment alone was examined in both groups. The defect rate of all liver abscesses in the post-vascular phase was also evaluated.
Results In the VE group, improvement by conservative treatment alone was obtained in 11 out of 12 patients (91.7%), while in the VNE group, improvement by conservative treatment alone was obtained in only 1 out of 9 patients (11.1%), a significant difference (p<0.001). In the VE group, one patient did not improve with conservative treatment alone because the abscess ruptured near the liver surface. In the VE group, the abscess size was smaller than in the VNE group. By examining the defect rate in the post-vascular phase, it was found that 16 out of 21 patients (76.2%) showed 71% or more defects.
Conclusion The enhancement rate in the arterial-predominant phase of CEUS was considered useful for determining the treatment approach for liver abscess.
Objective Carotid artery stenting (CAS) in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis is characterized by high complication rates. These patients are excluded from clinical trials of CAS. The purpose of our retrospective study was to investigate the long-term clinical outcomes of CAS in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Methods CAS was performed under local anesthesia. The technical success rate, periprocedural complications, 30-day major vascular event rate (stroke, myocardial infarction, and/or death), 3-month morbidity and mortality rates, and 5-year survival probability were investigated.
Patients Nineteen patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were identified.
Results The mean age of the patients was 69 years. Periprocedural complications occurred in two patients (confusion following CAS in one and transient hemiparesis in the other). Complete neurological recovery was achieved in both patients. No major cardiovascular events occurred within 30 days after CAS. Asymptomatic intracranial hemorrhage only occurred in one patient, and seven patients died during the follow-up period at a mean of 3.5 years after the procedure (range, 6 months to 8 years). No permanent neurologic deficit remained in the patient with intracranial hemorrhage. The causes of death were cardiovascular disease (n = 4), cancer (n = 2), and pneumonia (n = 1). No patients died of stroke. The 5-year survival probability in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis was 57%.
Conclusion CAS in maintenance hemodialysis patients may be feasible and effective for the prevention of stroke with proper case selection, appropriate technique and strict perioperative management. The most common causes of death during the follow-up of maintenance hemodialysis patients were diseases other than stroke.
Objective When patients take neuroleptics, the distinction between Parkinson's disease (PD) and drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) based solely on clinical features can become difficult. At present, 123I-FP-CIT SPECT (DAT-SPECT) and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy are widely used to supplement the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. This study assessed the clinical symptoms and neurological findings in the patients suspected of having DIP based on DAT-SPECT findings.
Methods Twenty-three patients (11 men, 12 women, age: 52-81 years old) presenting with DIP were recruited. All patients underwent neurological examinations, including brain magnetic resonance imaging and DAT-SPECT. Patients who showed abnormal DAT-SPECT results underwent MIBG myocardial scintigraphy.
Results Eleven patients showed a reduction in the ligand uptake on DAT-SPECT (DAT-positive group), and nine of these patients showed a low delayed heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio on MIBG myocardial scintigraphy. The remaining 12 patients showed normal results on DAT-SPECT (DAT-negative group). All patients in the DAT-positive group had asymmetric motor symptoms, whereas only 4 in the DAT-negative group exhibited this clinical feature (p=0.001). A detailed medical history showed that 7 of the 11 patients in the DAT-positive group had prodromal symptoms for PD. However, only 1 patient in the DAT-negative group exhibited these symptoms (p= 0.009). Although two patients in the DAT-negative group showed poor improvement, they showed a normal H/M ratio on MIBG and no response to levodopa.
Conclusion The patients in the DAT-positive group might have prodromal symptoms that were worsened by neuroleptic drugs. The results of detailed history-taking and neurological findings seem to indicate cases of compromised dopaminergic transmission before the administration of neuroleptic drugs.
Patients with chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 (CEAS) develop multiple circular, longitudinal, or eccentric ulcers in the ileum. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish CEAS from Crohn's disease. CEAS and primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) are together known to be caused by a mutation of SLCO2A1 gene. The case of a 65-year-old man whose characteristic appearance due to pachydermia of the forehead folds led to the diagnosis of CEAS with PHO is presented.
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare intermediate-grade tumor. We herein report the case of an 81-year-old man with rectal ulceration and abnormal retroperitoneal soft tissue with a high serum level of IgG4. The administration of prednisolone reduced the retroperitoneal lesion; however, the rectal ulceration expanded. Surgical resection was performed. A histopathological examination revealed proliferating spindle cells accompanied by inflammatory cells and plasma cells. Liver metastasis emerged two months after surgical resection, and the histology of the proliferating spindle cells sampled by a fine-needle biopsy was similar to that of the rectal tissue. The patient ultimately died of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
Pyogenic granuloma (PG) generally appears in the skin or oral cavity, but rarely occurs in the small intestine, where it can cause bleeding. To date, only 35 cases of small intestinal PG have been reported in the English literature. We retrospectively collected information from the clinical records of seven cases of small intestinal PG that were managed in our hospital and summarized the characteristics. Further information on the clinical characteristics was obtained from the literature. Capsule endoscopy, useful for identifying the source of hemorrhage in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, can detect PGs. Treatment can often be accomplished with endoscopic mucosal resection.
To date, no cases of vonoprazan-associated gastric mucosal redness have been reported, and its endoscopic and pathological features remain largely unclear. We report four cases of vonoprazan-associated gastric mucosal redness. In all cases, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) demonstrated linear or spotty redness that newly appeared in the greater curvature of the middle gastric body after the initiation of vonoprazan, which disappeared after its discontinuation. A tissue biopsy taken from the gastric mucosa with redness revealed inflammatory cell infiltration, parietal cell protrusions (PCPs), and oxyntic gland dilatation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the endoscopic and pathological features of vonoprazan-associated gastric mucosal redness.
A 72-year-old man was followed as an outpatient at our hospital for 6 years after surgery for small cell carcinoma of left adrenal gland origin. Follow-up abdominal computed tomography showed a 6-cm mass in the left lower mesentery. The patient underwent open laparotomy. The histological diagnosis was sclerosing mesenteritis. The previous specimens of the left adrenal mass were then re-examined with a microscope, and panniculitis was found around the small cell carcinoma. Both lesions were histologically similar to IgG4-related disease (RD), but they did not completely meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD clinically or histologically.
A 64-year-old Japanese man suffered cardiopulmonary arrest, which may have resulted from sepsis and/or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketonic coma, and was admitted after successful resuscitation. He had watery diarrhea on day 18 and was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus enterocolitis. In addition, computed tomography performed on day 27 and colonoscopy revealed gastric emphysema and intestinal pseudolipomatosis, respectively. This report is the first to describe a patient with cytomegalovirus enterocolitis and subsequent gastric emphysema and pseudolipomatosis. Gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus infection may underlie gastric emphysema and intestinal pseudolipomatosis, particularly in patients with relative or obvious immune dysfunction.
A 69-year-old man was diagnosed with a liver abscess and received antibiotics at a local hospital. He was referred to our hospital due to a persistent fever. He had hepatic masses protruding from the liver surface toward the transverse colon. We reached a diagnosis of inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) by a percutaneous liver biopsy. Colonoscopy showed direct invasion of IPT to the colon. His condition improved by the intravenous administration of antibiotics. Hepatic IPT is often misdiagnosed as a malignant tumor. We should consider IPT when we encounter hepatic tumors, and a percutaneous liver biopsy is useful for avoiding unnecessary excessive treatments.
An 82-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with heart failure. Coronary angiography revealed one anatomically normal right coronary artery and three left coronary arteries (LCA-1, LSA-2, and LSA-3) separately originating from the right sinus of Valsalva, comprising multiple atherosclerotic lesions. LCA-1 became the obtuse marginal branch after branching off into the septal branches. LCA-2 was the main circumflex artery with an obstructive lesion. LCA-3 corresponded to the distal part of the anterior descending branch. The patient died 14 days after hospitalization. We describe the rarity of quadriostial origin, the unusual course, and the unusual branching of the coronary arteries.
A 71-year-old woman with cardiac sarcoidosis underwent an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in the left precordium to prevent fatal arrhythmias. Two weeks later, she presented with dyspnea. Chest X-ray revealed right pneumothorax due to the active atrial lead perforation. Subsequently, air was detected surrounding the heart. Although it was difficult to differentiate pneumopericardium from pneumomediastinum, postural conversion computed tomography (CT) in the supine and prone positions documented air migration in the pericardial cavity and diagnosed pneumopericardium. This rare case of pneumopericardium combined with pneumothorax contralateral to the venous access site highlights the utility of postural conversion CT for diagnosis of pneumopericardium.
A 30-year-old woman with multiple ovarian cysts presented with high serum estradiol levels. She had a pituitary adenoma, but the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration was within the normal range. The patient complained of neck pain and palpitations during the disease course, and laboratory results revealed thyrotoxicosis and a systemic inflammatory response with negative findings for anti-thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibody and positive findings for anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Prednisolone improved the symptoms and the thyroid function and was discontinued after two months. A histological examination of the pituitary tumor confirmed it to be FSH-producing pituitary adenoma, with subsequent normalization of the serum estradiol concentration.
A 70-year-old man with insulinoma-associated antigen-2 autoantibodies developed diabetes mellitus (DM) without ketoacidosis after starting nivolumab to treat advanced gastric cancer. He subsequently exhibited preserved insulin-secretion capacity for over one year. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) infrequently cause type 1 DM associated with the rapid loss of insulin secretion and ketoacidosis as an immune-related adverse event. ICIs may also cause non-insulin-dependent DM by inducing insulin resistance if there is islet autoantibody-related latent beta-cell dysfunction. The present case highlights the importance of testing blood glucose levels regularly to diagnose DM in patients treated with ICIs, even if they do not have diabetic ketoacidosis.
We performed a renal biopsy for nephrotic syndrome in a patient with squamous cell lung carcinoma, which can worsen the prognosis. Chemoradiation therapy was effective for the cancer and proteinuria; we thus inferred that the nephrotic syndrome had been closely associated with the carcinoma. A pathological analysis of the kidney showed monoclonality for λ chain, satisfying the diagnostic criteria of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits (PGNMID); however, conspicuous mesangial proliferation was not observed. This is the first case of PGNMID complicated with lung carcinoma; furthermore, our findings underscore the importance of examining renal lesions and assessing monoclonality in cancer patients.
Eribulin is a chemotherapeutic agent used for advanced breast cancer, but there are some reports of eribulin-induced lung injuries. Three of our patients experienced eribulin-related lung injuries. Radiology revealed organizing pneumonia in two cases and diffuse ground-glass shadows indicative of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the third. A retrospective survey of patients treated with eribulin at our hospital identified no other cases of eribulin-induced lung injuries. Overall, drug-related lung injuries occurred in 2.8% of our eribulin-treated patients, which is similar to the rates reported for other anticancer drugs. The findings from these three cases provide guidance for the safe use of eribulin.
The patient was a 73-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who was treated with pembrolizumab. After six cycles of pembrolizumab, she developed symptoms suggestive of neuropsychiatric SLE, such as resting tremor, confusional state, depression, mood disorder, and anxiety disorder. In addition, her cerebrospinal fluid level of interleukin-6 was elevated. Her symptoms resolved one month after the discontinuation of pembrolizumab. This is the first report of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with lung cancer and SLE on immune checkpoint blockade therapy.
A 66-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and weakness in the limbs. She had bilateral uveitis and gastric ulcers. A neurological examination revealed tetraparesis and sensory disturbance in the right arm. A cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed polymorphonuclear pleocytosis with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Magnetic resonance imaging showed brain lesions and a long spinal cord lesion. She was initially diagnosed with neuro-Behçet's disease and was treated with corticosteroids, resulting in no improvement. A gastric mucosa biopsy indicated T-cell lymphoma colocalizing with neutrophils. The cytokine-mediated neutrophilic inflammation probably caused characteristic CSF and histopathological features. It is noteworthy that T-cell lymphoma may present with CSF neutrophilic inflammation.
A 67-year-old woman with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) developed severe somnolence. Ten days after admission, fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hyperintense areas around the bilateral hypothalamus, which were not present on MRI at admission. The orexin level, which is decreased in idiopathic narcolepsy, was slightly decreased in her cerebrospinal fluid. Immunosuppressive treatment and methylphenidate markedly improved her somnolence. This case shows that NMOSD in the acute phase can cause somnolence in a patient without apparent lesions in the hypothalamus.
A 57-year-old woman with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) receiving mechanical ventilation developed intractable right temporal headache. She was diagnosed with brain abscess secondary to chronic suppurative otitis media. In this case, the otitis media was caused by nasopharyngeal reflux associated with eustachian tube muscle weakness and a supine position. In addition, ALS patients under mechanical ventilation have a limited ability to convey their pain. Their complaints are often overlooked because many physicians do not know that pain is common in ALS. Physicians should recognize brain abscess as a severe complication of ALS and listen to the complaints of these patients.