Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes occurred in the clinical features of acute colonic diverticulitis (ACD) over a period of 10 years, to estimate the long-term probability of disease recurrence and to investigate whether it could be treated in an outpatient setting.
Methods Between January 1998 and January 2009, 488 ACD patients were diagnosed and treated in Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo. The diagnoses were made by ultrasonography (US) and/or CT. We investigated the time-dependent changes in the characteristics of patients with ACD, and we used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate the cumulative probability of recurrence, based on information from a questionnaire.
Results The percentage of patients who were diagnosed with left-sided ACD significantly increased over time in comparison to those with right-side disease (4% in 1998, 36% in 2009). Patients with left-sided ACD were significantly older and were diagnosed at a more advanced disease stage than those with right-sided ACD. Among the 212 ACD patients who responded to the questionnaire, the cumulative probability of recurrence in 125 patients with no history of ACD at 2.9, 5.9 and 10.1 years was 16.0%, 20.1% and 26.2%, respectively. The probability of recurrence in patients with right-sided and left-sided ACD did not differ to a statistically significant extent. In addition, outpatient treatability in patients with left-sided to right-sided ACD did not differ to a statistically significant extent (66.6% vs. 70.1%).
Conclusion The ratio of left-sided to right-sided ACD was found to have increased over the past decade. Left-sided ACD patients were older and their incidence of complications was higher in comparison to right-sided patients; however, the rate of recurrence and outpatient treatability in patients with left-sided and right-sided ACD did not differ to a statistically significant extent.
Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of reflux esophagitis and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection and their interrelationship in healthy young Japanese volunteers.
Methods Between 2010 and 2016, 550 fifth-year medical students at Saga Medical School, aged 22 to 30 years, underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and completed a questionnaire (frequency scale for symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease). H. pylori infection was determined by detecting urinary immunoglobulin G antibodies.
Results H. pylori antibodies were detected in 45 of the 550 subjects (8.2%). Endoscopic reflux esophagitis was detected in 38 out of 550 (6.9%): grade A in 37 subjects (97.3%) and grade B in 1. Most subjects with reflux esophagitis were H. pylori-negative (35/37). Nodular gastritis was observed in 33.3% (15/45) of H. pylori-positive subjects. The risk factors for H. pylori infection were drinking well water in childhood, nodular gastritis, and duodenal ulcer scars. The risk factors for endoscopic reflux esophagitis were male gender and obesity (body mass index ≥25).
Conclusion This study describes the risk factors for H. pylori infection and reflux esophagitis in healthy young Japanese subjects. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis was relatively high, and the infection rate of H. pylori was low compared with the aged Japanese population.
Objective The selective arterial secretagogue injection (SASI) test is considered indispensable for the accurate localization of insulinoma. However, the optimum timing of the post-injection evaluation is controversial, as some studies recommend 60 seconds [SASI (60 seconds)] while others support 120 seconds [SASI (120 seconds)]. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum timing for the SASI test evaluation for insulinoma localization.
Methods Thirteen patients with surgically proven insulinoma were studied retrospectively. For the SASI test, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) was determined at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds after calcium gluconate injection. A two-fold or greater increase in IRI over the baseline value was considered positive. The localization abilities of SASI (60 seconds) and SASI (120 seconds) were then compared.
Results In 13 patients, a secretagogue was injected into 40 arteries supplying the pancreas. In the SASI (60 seconds) and SASI (120 seconds), the respective findings were as follows: positive predictive value, 72.2% and 68.2%; false positive rate, 25.0% and 35.0%; and rate of positivity in the head and body/tail, 38.5% and 46.2%. When the artery with the largest change was taken as the dominant artery, the localization detection sensitivity was 76.9% for SASI (60 seconds) and 92.3% for SASI (120 seconds). The sensitivity of morphological imaging techniques for localization ranged from 61.5-91.7%.
Conclusion Compared with SASI (60 seconds) or morphological imaging, the insulinoma localization ability of SASI (120 seconds) was superior. Given these findings, we believe that the IRI level should be measured at 120 seconds in the SASI test.
Objective Hyponatremia is frequently observed in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis and it is also related to a poor prognosis. The vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist tolvaptan is used to treat cirrhotic patients with ascites and increases the serum sodium (Na) level. In this study, we investigated (i) whether or not correction of the Na level improves the prognosis of cirrhotic patients with ascites and (ii) predictors of normalization of the serum Na level after tolvaptan therapy.
Methods This was a single-center retrospective study. A total of 95 Japanese cirrhotic patients (60 men, median age 63 years) were enrolled and received tolvaptan orally after hospitalization for ascites treatment. The serum Na level was monitored during the period of tolvaptan treatment. The laboratory data and survival rates of patients who achieved serum Na levels of <135 and ≥135 mEq/L after 1 week were compared.
Results Patients showed serum Na levels of 136 (121-145) mEq/L, and 42.1% had a serum Na level of <135 mEq/L. Among patients with an initial serum Na level <135 mEq/L, 60.0% achieved a normal level after 1 week, and the survival rate was significantly higher in patients with a normalized serum Na level (p<0.01). The pretreatment brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level was predictive of achieving a serum Na level of ≥135 mEq/L (odds ratio: 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.316-0.987, p<0.05).
Conclusion Normalization of the Na level after one week was associated with a favorable outcome of tolvaptan therapy, and Na correction improved the prognosis.
Objective To investigate the clinical symptoms, the physical and neurological findings, and the clinical course of neurological complications in eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA).
Methods A retrospective chart review of EGPA cases managed by two referral hospitals was performed, with a focus on the neurological findings. The study analyzed the symptoms at the onset of EGPA and investigated their chronological relationship. The patient delay (the delay between the onset of symptoms and the initial consultation), and the physician delay (the delay from consultation to the initiation of therapy) were determined and compared. The involved nerves were identified thorough a neurological examination. The cases with central nervous system (CNS) involvement were described.
Results The average duration of symptoms prior to the initiating of therapy for sensory disturbances, motor deficits, rash, edema, and fever was 23, 5, 21, 18, and 24 days, respectively. Among the EGPA-specific symptoms, sensory disturbance was often the first symptom (63%), and was usually followed by the appearance of rash within four days (63%). The average physician delay (32.9±38.3 days) was significantly longer than the average patient delay (7.9±7.8 days; p=0.010). Reduced touch sensation in the superficial peroneal area, and weakness of dorsal flexion of the first toe secondary to deep peroneal nerve involvement, were highly sensitive for identifying the presence of peripheral nerve involvement in our series of patients with EGPA. Two cases, with CNS involvement, had multiple skin lesions over their hands and feet (Janeway lesions).
Conclusion Japanese physicians are not always familiar with EGPA. It is important for us to consider this disease, when an asthmatic patient complains about the new onset of an abnormal sensation in the distal lower extremities, which is followed several days later by rash.
Objective Inflammatory cytokines generated in visceral fat have been shown to contribute to the development of insulin resistance. The involvement of pulmonary inflammation in insulin resistance remains unclear, but smoking is known to be a risk factor for diabetes as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We herein examined the hypothesis that increased serum levels of lung interstitial injury biomarkers [surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D and Krebs von den Lungen (KL)-6] are associated with the risk of diabetes development.
Methods For cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, we enrolled 750 apparently healthy non-diabetic subjects who received annual examinations in 2011 or 2012 in the Tanno-Sobetsu cohort.
Results A cross-sectional analysis showed that distinct clinical parameters were associated with SP-A, SP-D and KL-6. In a multiple regression analysis, independent explanatory variables were Brinkman index and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) for SP-A, sex (women), BNP and body mass index (BMI) for SP-D, and age and BMI for KL-6. A longitudinal analysis of 415 subjects who received annual examinations in both 2011 and 2014 showed that 13 (3.1%) of the patients developed type 2 diabetes during the 3-year follow-up. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed the KL-6 levels, systolic blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2011 to be independently associated with new-onset diabetes. In a multiple regression analysis for HOMA-IR in 2014, the KL-6 level and BMI in 2011 were selected as explanatory variables.
Conclusion A modest elevation of the serum KL-6 level is therefore considered to be associated with the risk for insulin resistance development and new-onset diabetes mellitus in a general population.
An 82-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with abdominal fullness accompanied by lower abdominal pain. He presented with small bowel obstruction due to multiple diospyrobezoars. The bezoars were successfully removed without any surgical intervention by the administration of Coca-Cola Zero through a long intestinal tube and subsequent endoscopic manipulation. Such a combination may be the treatment of choice for small bowel obstruction due to bezoars.
The patient was a 76-year-old woman who had noticed slight difficulty in swallowing in the 3 years prior to this presentation. Her dysphagia progressed while she was hospitalized following cervical cancer surgery. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and an esophagram showed circumferential erosion and a stricture of the thoracic esophagus. Esophageal resection was performed; the resected specimens showed a stricture and wall thickening. Histologically, transmural hyperplasia, which consisted of inflammatory granulation tissue with the abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes, was observed. The patient was diagnosed with probable IgG4-related disease. IgG4-related esophageal disease presenting as esophageal lesions alone is a very rare condition.
Cholangiolocellular carcinoma is a minor primary cancerous tumor of the liver and its coexistence with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the liver is rare. We herein report a case of concurrent cholangiolocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in the liver, in addition to a rectal G1 neuroendocrine tumor, a so-called carcinoid. The intrahepatic tumors showed a different uptake in the 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings. In addition to conventional dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, we concluded that FDG PET/CT could therefore be a helpful modality to identify the properties of both cholangiolocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
A 35-year-old male patient who showed sustained virological response (SVR) following treatment for hepatitis C virus infection developed liver cancer. The lesion was identified by imaging studies, with atypical findings suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma. Partial hepatectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CLC). Only a few cases of CLC have been described in young patients who achieved SVR. Hepatologists should recognize the potential development of CLC even in young patients who achieve SVR, and the need for a close follow-up by imaging studies. In addition, true characteristics and cell origin of CLC were discussed in this report.
Although Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is known to be accompanied by malignancies, cases with hepatobiliary cancer are extremely rare. A 62-year-old man with palpable purpura rapidly extending to both lower legs was admitted to our hospital. He was undergoing follow-up for cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis B virus infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). He had renal dysfunction with hematuria and proteinuria and abdominal pain. Based on the clinical presentation and skin biopsy findings, he was diagnosed with HSP. The administration of steroids resulted in the rapid improvement of the patient's symptoms and he was discharged 12 days after admission.
We report the case of a 61-year-old man with schizophrenia who was treated with carbamazepine, in whom electrocardiography showed transient Brugada-type ST elevation. He had been hospitalized our hospital's Department of Psychiatry and had been diagnosed with pneumonia. On the following day, electrocardiography showed coved-type ST elevation in the right precordial leads and a blood examination revealed that the patient's carbamazepine concentration was at the upper limit of the standard range, as well as hypothyroidism. The patient's electrocardiogram normalized after the withdrawal of carbamazepine. We demonstrated that the patient's carbamazepine concentration-and not hypothyroidism-was associated with the serial electrocardiographic changes by monitoring the patient's blood concentration of carbamazepine and his thyroid function.
We herein report a case of atrial tachycardia (AT) originating from the dilated coronary sinus (CS) connected to a persistent left superior vena cava. The earliest activation site of AT was localized at the superior CS ostium, identified using a novel ultra-rapid high-density mapping system (Rhythmia™). Successful ablation was performed at the corresponding position. This report demonstrated the utility of an ultra-rapid high-density mapping system in identifying arrhythmogenic foci in adult cases of congenital heart disease.
Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) is a rare, non-neoplastic tumor involving calcium deposition in amorphous materials. Although its etiology is unknown, cases have frequently been reported in patients with hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease. We herein describe a case of cardiac CAT in a 64-year-old woman who had been on hemodialysis for diabetic nephropathy for 20 years, and the findings of the present patient, in association with the findings of previous case reports, suggest that end-stage renal disease seems to play an important role in the onset of CAT, especially in CAT formation at the mitral annulus, which appears to differ from CAT occurring at other sites.
A 52-year-old woman was treated with sensor augmented pump therapy after undergoing total pancreatectomy for a nonfunctional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). The secretion of both endogenous insulin and pancreatic glucagon were completely depleted. Octreotide long acting repeatable (Oct-LAR) was administered for the treatment of liver metastasis of NET. Both the fasting and postprandial glucagon levels decreased immediately after the administration of Oct-LAR. In a continuous glucose monitoring analysis, episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia was found to increase and an improvement of postprandial hyperglycemia was observed. This case suggests that octreotide may reduce the glucose level in both the fasting and postprandial states, in part by the suppression of extrapancreatic glucagon.
A 71-year-old woman previously diagnosed with reactive hypoglycemia was transferred to our emergency unit because of loss of consciousness. Her plasma glucose level was 27 mg/dL, and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) revealed postprandial asymptomatic hypoglycemia. A hypervascular tumor was identified via computed tomography in the distal pancreas, and the diagnosis of insulinoma was confirmed using the selective arterial calcium stimulation test. Although no episodes of hypoglycemia were observed during CGM after resection, a pathological examination identified regional lymph node metastasis. It is important to consider insulinoma as a cause of postprandial hypoglycemia, and CGM is useful for evaluating treatment outcomes.
We herein report a case of hemichorea-hemiballism in an 85-year-old man diagnosed with diabetes at 76 years of age. After a one-year interruption in treatment, he was treated with a low-calorie diet, linagliptin, and nateglinide. Over 51 days, his HbA1c level decreased from 15.8% to 7.7%. After a prompt improvement in his hyperglycemia, he began experiencing involuntary movements in the right upper and lower extremities. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity in the left lens nucleus. The patient was diagnosed with diabetic hemichorea-hemiballism and received haloperidol (1 mg/day) as treatment.
A 61-year-old man who had undergone total nephrouretectomy eight months earlier for right ureteral carcinoma was referred for the investigation of elevated serum hepatobiliary enzymes. Computed tomography revealed a small mass invading the lower bile duct. Duodenoscopy revealed a central ulcerative tumor near the major papilla, and a biopsy histologically confirmed metastatic ureteral carcinoma. Endoscopic biliary stenting ameliorated the cholangitis, and gemcitabine-based chemotherapy was initiated. The patient was stable for a year until a duodenal stenosis developed and required duodenal stenting. Endoscopic procedures play important roles in the management of rare metastases to the duodenum.
Sarcoidosis affects multiple organs and rarely has unusual manifestations. A 78-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for coughing symptoms. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed bilateral diffuse miliary patterns and right pleural effusion. Bronchoscopy showed multiple nodules in the carina and the bronchus intermedius. A CT scan of her abdomen revealed hypovascular lesions involving the pancreatic head and body. A transbronchial lung biopsy, bronchial mucosal biopsy, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of the pancreatic mass demonstrated non-caseating granulomas. We diagnosed the patient with sarcoidosis. She received no treatment for sarcoidosis and has been followed up for one year, during which no pulmonary disease progression had been observed and the pancreatic masses partially regressed.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) with characteristic symptoms is a potentially lethal reaction to antipsychotic drugs. Atypical NMS usually lacks major symptoms and frequently occurs after treatment using atypical antipsychotics, such as aripiprazole. A 64-year-old man developed aripiprazole-induced NMS after surgery, and our early recognition of the NMS was based on high creatine kinase levels and low serum iron levels. His characteristic symptoms (a fever, rigidity, and altered mental status) were only present for a few hours and were resolved by aripiprazole discontinuation and supportive care. Aripiprazole-induced NMS can present with brief but major symptoms, and clinicians may overlook this "brief" appearance of NMS.
We herein report the case of a 31-year-old Japanese woman who developed adult-onset clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) and presented with consciousness disorder and olfactory disturbance secondary to influenza A infection. The patient's neurological symptoms and the lesion in the splenium resolved within 14 days without therapy. Magnetic resonance images and the clinical course were consistent with a diagnosis of MERS; however, mental changes following the influenza infection always present a diagnostic dilemma for physicians. We considered various diagnoses, including viral encephalitis, medication-related encephalopathy, and MERS. A comprehensive assessment may be required to diagnose MERS, since it may mimic other neurological diseases, such as viral encephalitis and medication-related encephalopathy.
Mycobacterium wolinskyi belongs to the Mycobacterium smegmatis group, which comprises rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria. The number of case reports on M. wolinskyi infections associated with postoperative wounds has increased in recent years. We herein report a case of peritonitis due to M. wolinskyi after peritoneal catheter embedment surgery. Identification was achieved based on 16S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene sequencing of the isolate. The patient recovered following catheter removal and treatment with levofloxacin and minocycline for one month.
Ceftriaxone is a widely used third-generation cephalosporin showing advantageous pharmacokinetic properties and a broad antimicrobial spectrum. We herein report a case of ceftriaxone-induced neurotoxicity in a 56-year-old man on hemodialysis. Seven days after initiating high-dose ceftriaxone, the patient developed impaired consciousness along with facial myoclonus and sporadic phonation. The symptoms clearly disappeared shortly after withdrawal of the drug. Ceftriaxone is considered a safe antibiotic for patients with renal insufficiency, since it is excreted via both haptic and renal pathways. Physicians should note that antibiotic-associated encephalopathy may develop in patients administered ceftriaxone, especially in those complicated with renal dysfunction.
We herein report the first documented case of acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis in which Candida guilliermondii was the possible causative organism. A young Japanese woman presented to our hospital with relapsing respiratory symptoms accompanied by high fever. A detailed interview revealed that the onset of the symptoms occurred shortly after using a humidifier in her home. Her symptoms showed spontaneous improvement soon after admission, and an examination of her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed the specific infiltration of inflammatory cells, which predominantly consisted of lymphocytes. Precipitin testing showed a positive reaction to C. guilliermondii, which was isolated from the home humidifier. Repeated history taking is essential for diagnosing occult respiratory disorders.