Background and Aim Pancreatitis remains a serious complication after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The efficacy of prophylactic pancreatic duct stent placement to prevent post-ERCP pancreatitis in patients at high risk has been established in several randomized controlled trials. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and risk factors of post-ERCP pancreatitis in patients who had undergone prophylactic pancreatic duct stenting. Patients and Methods Between July 2002 and January 2010, ERCP-related procedures were performed in 9192 cases of pancreatobiliary diseases at seven institutions. Among them, 414 patients (246 men, 168 women; mean age, 68 yr; age range, 22-91 yr) at high risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis who had undergone prophylactic pancreatic duct stenting were included in this study. The stent used in the present study was a 5-Fr stent with a single duodenal pigtail, which is made of soft polyethylene and has no flange (Pit-stent: Cathex, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The pancreatic duct stent was placed via the channel of the duodenoscope over a guidewire with the assistance of fluoroscopy at the end of the procedure. The frequency and risk factors of post-ERCP pancreatitis were investigated. Post-ERCP pancreatitis was defined based on the consensus criteria. Results Therapeutic ERCP was performed in 52% of the patients. Indications for prophylactic pancreatic duct stenting were as follows: difficult cannulation of the bile duct, 192; pancreatic duct cytology/biopsy, 95; precut sphincterotomy, 40; pancreatic sphincterotomy, 29; female gender, 28; papillectomy, 25; sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, 12; history of pancreatitis, 10. Hyperamylasemia at 18-24 h after ERCP was observed in 64% (267 patients) of the patients. Pancreatitis occurred in 9.9% (41 patients: mild, 37; moderate, 2; severe, 2). Univariate analysis revealed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas to be the only significant risk factor for pancreatitis (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2, 7.1). Multivariate analysis also showed IPMN to be the only risk factor for pancreatitis (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2, 7.8). The mean diameter of the pancreatic head duct in patients with IPMN who developed post-ERCP pancreatitis was significantly smaller than that in those who did not develop pancreatitis (3.0 ± 1 mm vs 4.7 ± 2.6 mm, p=0.0037). Conclusion Post-ERCP pancreatitis developed in 9.9% of the patients at high risk who had undergone prophylactic pancreatic duct stenting. Since the majority of cases of post-ERCP pancreatitis were mild, pancreatic duct stenting may contribute to lessening the severity of pancreatitis. The present results suggest that IPMN without a dilated pancreatic head duct is a possible risk factor for post-ERCP pancreatitis after prophylactic pancreatic duct stenting.
Objective Premature discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy (APT) increases the risk of thrombosis in patients who have undergone placement of a drug-eluting stent for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The goal of the present study was to identify predictors of patients who would prematurely discontinue APT following stent implantation. Methods One-hundred and sixty-one ACS patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention in our institution between November 2004 and September 2008 were enrolled in this study. Results Over the 12-month follow-up period, 18 patients (11.2%) discontinued APT. Among baseline demographic and laboratory variables, multivariate analysis revealed that mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) level was an independent risk factor for APT discontinuation (OR: 0.738, p=0.017). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the incidence of APT discontinuation was significantly higher in patients with low MCH (<30.0 pg) than in patients with high MCH (≥30.0 pg) (p=0.0006). Conclusion Low baseline MCH level was a predictor of APT discontinuation in ACS patients. Thus, careful consideration should be made before employing a drug-eluting stent in patients with low MCH levels.
Objective This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between red cell distribution width (RDW) and short-term outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in a Chinese population. Methods and Patients A total of 1,654 patients with ACS on admission were divided into four groups according to quartiles of baseline RDW. The relationships between RDW and one-month cardiac mortality as well as heart failure and recurrent infarction were assessed. Results Higher RDW values were associated with increased one-month cardiac mortality (quartile 1: 0.2%; quartile 2: 0.6%; quartile 3: 3.3%; quartile 4: 8.1%; p<0.001) and one-month heart failure and recurrent infarction (quartile 1: 2.1%; quartile 2: 2.7%; quartile 3: 3.6%; quartile 4: 15.2%; p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that RDW independently predicted for cardiac mortality (OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.427-3.137, p<0.001) and heart failure and recurrent infarction (OR: 2.134, 95% CI: 1.602-2.844, p<0.001) during a one-month follow-up in patients with ACS. Conclusion The present study indicates that elevated RDW could predict an increased risk of short-term adverse outcomes in patients with ACS.
Objective To investigate the predicting factors for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) following radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism. Methods Standard 12-lead ECG and 24-h Holter monitoring were performed in 94 patients (38 males, mean age 46.1±8.2 years) with persistent AF following radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with two-dimensional echocardiography. Results Euthyroidism or hypothyroidism was achieved in 81% and 19% of the patients, respectively, after radioiodine therapy. At the end of follow-up (1.6±1.3 years), LV ejection fraction in the 52 patients with LV dysfunction was increased from 39.3±3.3% to 59.0±5.5% (p<0.01). In the 38 patients with pre-treatment paroxysmal AF, no AF was documented during the follow-up. In the 45 patients with pre-treatment persistent AF, AF was found in 27 (60%) during the follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that more than 55 years old in age (RR 2.76, 95% CI: 1.16-8.79, p<0.01), duration of hyperthyroidism (RR 3.08, 95% CI: 1.22-11.41, p<0.01) and duration of pre-treatment atrial fibrillation (RR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.31-7.68, p<0.01) were independent predictors for persistent AF following radioiodine therapy. Conclusion Older age, duration of hyperthyroidism and pre-treatment duration of AF are risk factors for persistent AF following radioiodine therapy.
Objective A low serum adiponectin level is associated with a high incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in the healthy population. Paradoxically, serum adiponectin is elevated in patients with severe CAD or chronic heart failure. We investigated the determinants of serum high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin in patients with CAD. Patients and Methods We studied 228 consecutive patients with CAD confirmed by angiography. Anemia was defined as a hemoglobin of <13.0 g/dL in men and<12.0 g/dL in women. A high plasma B-type natriuretic-peptide (BNP) was defined as >100 pg/mL. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min for more than 3 months. The patients with CAD were divided into eight groups according to the presence or absence of anemia, high BNP, and/or CKD. Results In all 228 patients with CAD, serum HMW adiponectin correlated positively with age, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and BNP, while this parameter showed negative correlations with body mass index, insulin resistance, triglycerides, eGFR, and hemoglobin. Multivariate analysis showed that HDL-C, BNP, gender, and age were independently associated with the HMW adiponectin. Serum HMW adiponectin was lower in CAD patients with than without metabolic syndrome. Serum HMW adiponectin and the HMW/total adiponectin ratio were highest in CAD patients who had anemia, high BNP, and CKD among the groups. Conclusion In patients with CAD, metabolic syndrome is associated with a lower serum HMW adiponectin, while the presence of anemia, high BNP, and CKD is associated with elevation of the serum HMW adiponectin.
Objective Evidence from many studies suggests that dyslipidemia has a pathogenetic role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between serum lipid parameters and urinary albumin excretion in type 2 diabetic patients from Shanghai, China. Methods A total of 1094 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. The urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A I (ApoA I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] were measured and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was calculated according to the Friedewald formula. An ACR of ≥30 μg/mg was defined as albuminuria, and <30 μg/mg as normoalbuminuria. Results The levels of ApoE and triglyceride were significantly higher in albuminuric group compared with normoalbuminuric group (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Differences of ACR among the groups based on the tertile of ApoE and the tertile of triglyceride were significant (both p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression model, ApoE was independently associated with ACR (β=0.003, 95%CI 0.002-0.005, p<0.001). Conclusion Serum ApoE level was independently associated with urinary albumin excretion in type 2 diabetic patients from Shanghai, China.
Objective A recent study concerning high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, suggested that it is initially a hydrostatic-type pulmonary edema. We suspect that some extent of cardiac insufficiency may likely relate to the mechanism of the development of this disease. Methods By Doppler echocardiography, the Tei index (a new quantitative index proposed for the evaluation of global myocardial performance) and the systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) were measured before and after 30 minutes of hypoxic breathing. Patients Eleven HAPE-susceptible subjects (HAPE-s) and nine HAPE-resistant subjects (HAPE-r). Results The results of Tei index indicated an enhanced left myocardial performance but an impaired right performance in HAPE-s during hypoxic breathing. The sPAP of HAPE-s was significantly increased after hypoxic breathing, which was not correlated with the heart functions such as right ventricular (RV) Tei index, cardiac index (CI), percent ejection fraction (EF%) and percent fractional shortening (FS%) under hypoxic condition. Comparatively, the HAPE-r subjects did not show such significant changes of Tei index after hypoxic breathing. The results suggested that a paradoxical myocardial performance, in a format of an augmented left ventricular (LV) in contrast to an attenuated RV, was observed in the HAPE-s exposed to acute hypoxia. Conclusion The responses of the left and right myocardial performances to hypoxia may be involved in the pathogenesis of HAPE.
Objective We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate which factors have a significant impact on wheezing and QOL in the elderly of a Japanese local community. Methods In 2008, 527 participants (250 participants aged 45 to 64 years and 277 participants aged 65 to 88 years) responded to the questionnaire regarding wheezing and disease history. QOL was evaluated by the Short Form-8. The participants underwent airway reversibility testing. The plasma levels of IgE were measured. The plasma levels of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were measured in twenty-one participants with a history of ischemic heart disease and in thirty-five age-matched participants without that history. Results Wheezing was reported by 50 (9.5%) participants and was associated with a lower score of QOL. In multivariate analysis, wheezing was associated with sex (OR 3.12, CI 1.10-9.67) and a history of bronchial asthma (OR 22.3, CI 6.50-84.0) among participants aged 45 to 64 years. Among participants aged 65 and over, wheezing was associated with a history of bronchial asthma (OR 4.86, CI 1.39-15.1) and ischemic heart disease (OR 5.12, CI 1.61-15.0). Participants with both a history of ischemic heart disease and wheezing showed higher levels of N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Airway reversibility was only associated with a history of ischemic heart disease (OR 4.65, CI 1.26-17.6). Conclusion It is suggested that bronchial asthma and heart disease are both significant causes of wheezing and affect the QOL in the elderly of a Japanese local community.
Coil embolization is a safe therapy for pulmonary arterio-venous malformations (PAVMs). We report the case of a 72-year-old woman affected by hereditary hemorrhagic teleangectasia who experienced right bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation 36 hours after embolization of an extended PAVM. To our knowledge, this is the first case of such a complication of embolization of a pulmonary fistula, presumably due to an acute pressure overload on both the right atrium and ventricle. This case report suggests that, after embolization of extended pulmonary fistulas, patients should be carefully monitored for rhythm disturbance and new onset of intraventricular conduction defects.
A 17-year-old Japanese man was referred to our hospital because of highly elevated serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and transaminases. On admission, the proximal muscles of the lower extremities were found to be predominantly affected, and a score of 3/5 was obtained on Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Muscular atrophy was evident and Gowers' sign was positive. His functional vital capacity (FVC) was markedly reduced. The results of the third edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) indicated impairment of the patient's intelligence. Muscle biopsy showed scattered intracytoplasmic vacuoles with basophilic amorphous materials inside which were strongly stained by both periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and acid phosphatase. Biochemical analysis of the muscle tissue confirmed the diagnosis of GSDII because the glucosidase activity was 1.0 nmol/4 MU/mg/30 min (control range, 7.3 ± 2.2). Genetic analysis revealed a novel compound heterozygous missense mutation in GAA -c.1814 G >A (p.Gly605Asp) and c.1846 G >A (p.Asp616Asn) both in exon 13.
A 62-year-old woman was admitted with dry mouth, general fatigue, and severe back pain. Biochemistry examination showed extreme hypercalcemia (21.2 mg/dL). Bone marrow examination was negative, but needle biopsy of a metastatic lung tumor revealed abnormal plasma cells; thus, multiple myeloma stage III-A was finally diagnosed. Serum concentrations of both parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) were markedly elevated (PTHrP 7.2 pmol/L, normal <1.1 pmol/L; MIP-1α 84.9 pg/mL, normal <46.9 pg/mL). Her myeloma appeared to have simultaneously caused two mechanisms producing hypercalcemia: humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) by PTHrP and local osteolytic hypercalcemia (LOH) by MIP-1α. Therefore, the combination of two calcium-modulating abnormalities likely aggravated her hypercalcemia.
We describe a rare case of transient thyrotoxicosis secondary to painless thyroiditis accompanied by panhypopituitarism caused by ruptured Rathke's cleft cyst. A 32-year-old man presented with vomiting and diarrhea. Laboratory data showed that he had transient hypercalcemia, primary thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis and panhypopituitarism. The sellar magnetic resonance imaging showed cystic macroadenoma. He underwent surgical exploration. Histological examination showed a ruptured Rathke's cleft cyst. Our case suggests that, although rare, it is important to recognize the possibility of coexistence of hypopituitarism in patients with primary thyrotoxicosis.
A 22-year-old man was diagnosed with isolated mediastinal myeloid sarcoma which radiologically mimicked primary mediastinal lymphoma. Despite administration of standard remission induction chemotherapy with daunorubicin and cytarabine, and three cycles of intensive high-dose cytarabine-based consolidation, chemo-resistant hypermetabolic lesions were persistently detected in the highest mediastinum and in the supraclavicular area. However, complete remission and long-term survival were achieved by curative radiotherapy followed by unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Frequently, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recurs after renal transplantation, resulting in poor graft survival. Pathological mechanisms of the recurrence are still unknown, but both B and T cell disorders are suspected based on much evidence. This supports theoretical benefits using plasma exchange (PE) and lymphocytapheresis (LCAP). A renal transplant was performed for a 35-year-old woman, who suffered steroid-resistant FSGS and developed to chronic kidney disease stage 5D at 31 years old. We treated the patient with recurrent FSGS by LACP and examined whether peripheral neutrophils were dynamically changed after the therapy. Further, we performed flowcytometric analysis to examine lymphocyte fractions before and after LCAP. The decrease of helper (CD4 positive) and memory (CD4 and CD45RO positive) T cells was prominent after LCAP. Although B cells were at the nadir because of rituximab treatment, LCAP also decreased peripheral B cells. These suggest that LCAP has the potential to suppress the activities of recurrent FSGS after renal transplant.
We herein report two cases of everolimus-associated interstitial pneumonia in patients with renal cell carcinoma. A 68-year-old Japanese man (case 1) was admitted to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea, left infiltration and consolidation on chest radiographs. He had started receiving everolimus (10 mg daily) three months before the admission for the treatment of recurrent renal cell carcinoma. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid taken from his left B4 showed a marked increase of lymphocytes (42.9%). An organizing pneumonia pattern of everolimus-associated interstitial pneumonia was strongly suspected radiologically, and treatment with high-dose corticosteroids, discontinuation of everolimus and oxygen support was started. The treatment was successful, and the patient recovered with only minor pulmonary fibrotic changes in the left lower lobe. A 57-year-old Japanese man (case 2) was referred to our department for the evaluation of interstitial pneumonia. He had started to receive everolimus (10 mg daily) four months previously. Chest CT demonstrated interstitial pneumonia predominantly in bilateral lower lobes, with small pulmonary metastatic nodules. His pulmonary complications were spontaneously resolved eight days after the discontinuation of everolimus. To the best of our knowledge, Case 1 is the first reported case of successfully treated organizing pneumonia pattern of interstitial pneumonia with acute respiratory failure induced by everolimus in Japan.
The present study describes a case of a 60-year-old Japanese man who was histologically diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma harboring L858R mutation of epidermal growth factor receptor. He was successfully treated with gefitinib, but eventually developed leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. He underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting for hydrocephalus and received erlotinib in place of gefitinib with concurrent whole brain radiotherapy; this resulted in dramatic improvement in his symptoms and performance status from four to one and he survived for as long as 13.6 months after the initiation of erlotinib therapy. This multidisciplinary approach may be particularly useful in terms of increasing survival and improving quality of life.
A 66-year-old man was diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis in February 2009 and started 40 mg of oral prednisolone followed by a maintenance dose of 5 mg daily. The patient developed a cough in October 2010 and visited our division. He had a high serum concentration of immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 and his chest computed tomography showed airway stenosis without bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy (BHL). The bronchial biopsy specimens revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations with IgG4-positive/IgG-positive plasma cells of more than 50%. Thus, we diagnosed the airway lesion with IgG4-related airway involvement. This is the first report of a patient with IgG4-related airway involvement without BHL.
The tree-in-bud appearance usually reflects benign disorders of the bronchovascular bundle. Pulmonary metastasis reportedly also shows a tree-in- bud pattern in cases of dilated peripheral pulmonary artery filled with intravascular tumor emboli or fibrocellular intimal hyperplasia of the small pulmonary arteries induced by tumor microemboli, or endobronchial metastatic disease. On X-ray CT, pulmonary metastases may result in four main types of imaging manifestations: nodules, lymphatic spread, tumor emboli, and endobronchial tumor, and show diffuse interstitial thickening or multiple nodules in general. We report a rare case of localized pulmonary peribronchovascular lymphatic tumor spread without intravascular tumor emboli from a pancreas cancer, which mimicked the localized vascular tree-in-bud sign.
Pure erythroid leukemia (PEL) is an extremely rare disorder characterized by neoplastic proliferation of immature erythroblasts. A 66-year-old man, who had received chemoradiotherapy for hypopharyngeal cancer, was admitted because of pancytopenia. Bone marrow was infiltrated with 81% proerythroblasts positive for CD71 and CD235a. An increased number of macrophages with active hemophagocytosis was also present. Chromosome analysis showed hypodiploid complex abnormalities. The patient died of progressive disease despite induction chemotherapy. Erythroblastic infiltration into the liver and hemophagocytosis in the spleen were found at autopsy. Therapy-related PEL with hemophagocytic syndrome and hepatic infiltration of PEL has never been reported.
We describe a patient with acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) that clinically resembled acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The karyotype of his leukemic cells was 46, XY, del (3) (q?) and did not include a chromosomal translocation involving the retinoic acid receptor-α gene. However, retinoic acid syndrome developed, and partial remission was achieved after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) followed by chemotherapy. Our case might provide new insights into the mechanism of the growth inhibitory effect of ATRA on APL-like cells.