Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are large lymphocytes with azurophilic granules in their cytoplasm. LGLs are either natural killer (NK) cells or T lymphocytes. Expansions of the LGLs in the peripheral blood are seen in various conditions, including three clonal disorders: T-cell LGL (T-LGL) leukemia, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK), and aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL). However, the monoclonal and polyclonal expansion of LGLs has been associated with many other conditions. The present article describes these LGL disorders, with special emphasis on the clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatments of the three above-mentioned clonal disorders.
Objective Supraventricular arrhythmias are commonly detected in patients with anti-mitochondrial antibody M2 (AMA-M2)-associated myopathy. However, the prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias in unselected AMA-M2-positive patients and the impact of AMA-M2 on supraventricular arrhythmias have yet to be fully investigated.
Methods We analyzed 384 patients (116 men; age, 60 [48-69] years), who underwent AMA-M2 testing following the detection of elevated hepatobiliary enzymes. Supraventricular arrhythmias involving atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, sick sinus syndrome, and atrial standstill were confirmed by a 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, and physician-assigned diagnoses within the three years before and two years after the AMA-M2 test.
Results Seventy-seven (20%) patients were positive for AMA-M2. The prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias among AMA-M2-positive patients was higher than that among AMA-M2-negative patients (14% vs. 6%, p=0.008). A univariate analysis showed that supraventricular arrhythmias were associated with AMA-M2 positivity, aging, congestive heart failure, and the CHADS2 score. The multivariate analysis determined that AMA-M2 positivity was an independent risk factor for supraventricular arrhythmias (odds ratio 3.52, p=0.011). Among the AMA-M2-positive patients, the AMA-M2 titer did not differ to a statistically significant extent, regardless of the presence or absence of supraventricular arrhythmias. Multiple supraventricular arrhythmias with extremely low atrial deflections was a characteristic finding in AMA-M2-positive patients with supraventricular arrhythmias.
Conclusion AMA-M2 enhances the risk of supraventricular arrhythmias, indicating the possible involvement of the atrial myocardium and the formation of an arrhythmogenic substrate. The results highlight the need for clinical attention to supraventricular arrhythmias in AMA-M2-positive patients.
Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men.
Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category.
Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV1% predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], p<0.05).
Conclusion Reduced BMD was associated with airflow limitation, extent of radiographic findings, and a poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis.
Objective Pleurodesis is an effective therapy for malignant pleural effusion (MPE). While interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been regarded as a serious complication of pleurodesis, its clinicopathological characteristics have not been fully understood. This study was conducted to elucidate the incidence of ILD and the risk factors for ILD in patients who underwent pleurodesis to control MPE.
Methods The medical records of patients who underwent pleurodesis in Aichi Medical University between March 2008 and February 2013, the period before the approval of talc in Japan, were retrospectively analyzed.
Results A total of 84 patients underwent pleurodesis, all using OK-432. ILD occurred in 13 patients (15.5%). The development of ILD after pleurodesis was significantly associated with old age (odds ratio [OR]: 4.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-19.08) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment (OR: 5.97, CI: 1.7-20.9). A multivariate analysis revealed that >67 years of age (p=0.01) and EGFR-TKI treatment (p=0.02) were significantly associated with the development of pleurodesis-related ILD. Among the patients who received both pleurodesis and EGFR-TKIs (n=23), 8 patients developed ILD. All of these patients were receiving EGFR-TKI therapy at the time of pleurodesis or within 30 days after pleurodesis. In contrast, no cases of ILD were observed among the patients who stopped EGFR-TKIs before pleurodesis or started EGFR-TKIs at more than 30 days after pleurodesis.
Conclusion ILD seemed to be a frequent complication of pleurodesis in patients using OK-432, especially elderly patients and those who underwent pleurodesis while receiving EGFR-TKI therapy or who started EGFR-TKI therapy within 30 days after pleurodesis.
Objective The mortality rate due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is higher in patients with lung cancer than in those without. We examined the effect of treatment with thrombomodulin alfa (TM-α) for DIC in lung cancer patients.
Methods Subjects were 57 patients with DIC (43 men, 14 women; mean age, 71.7 years), comprising 31 with lung cancer and 26 without. DIC patients with or without lung cancer did not differ significantly in their background characteristics.
Results No significant difference was noted in the mortality rate between patients with lung cancer (61.3%) and those without (57.7%). However, the dose of TM-α was higher for survivors with lung cancer than for non-survivors (473.1 U/kg/day vs. 380.6 U/kg/day; p<0.01). Although no significant difference was noted in the DIC score between these four groups, the serum C-reactive protein level (6.9 mg/dL vs. 11.6 mg/dL; p<0.05) and prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR; 1.10 vs. 1.52; p<0.05) were lower in survivors with lung cancer than in the non-survivors with lung cancer. The initial body temperature in non-survivors without lung cancer was lower than that in survivors without lung cancer (37.2°C vs. 37.9°C, p<0.01), and the platelet count and the time to recovery from DIC in patients without lung cancer showed a significant negative correlation (r2=0.438, p<0.05).
Conclusion Our findings suggest that although 380 U/kg/day of TM-α is the recommended dose for DIC treatment, a higher dose may reduce the mortality rate of lung cancer patients with DIC. Furthermore, TM-α should be initiated before worsening of DIC parameters.
Objective In recent years, infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms has become an important issue. However, comparative studies of the bacteremia caused by ESBL Enterobacteriaceae and non-ESBL Enterobacteriaceae are extremely rare in Japan. This study aimed to assess the risk factors and prognosis of patients with bacteremia due to ESBL Escherichia coli (E. coli).
Methods The medical records of 31 patients with ESBL E. coli bacteremia and 98 patients with non-ESBL E. coli bacteremia who had been admitted to Osaka City University Hospital between January 2011 and June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The patient backgrounds, risk factors for infection, and prognosis were evaluated.
Results The male-to-female ratio, mean age, underlying disease, leukocyte count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level did not differ between the patients in the ESBL E. coli bacteremia and non-ESBL E. coli bacteremia groups. The mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score for patients with ESBL and non-ESBL E. coli bacteremia were 3.6 and 3.8, respectively. Further, the mortality did not differ between the two groups (9.7% vs 9.2%). However, the independent predictors associated with ESBL E. coli bacteremia according to a multivariate analysis were the use of immunosuppressive drugs or corticosteroids (p=0.048) and quinolones (p=0.005) prior to isolation. The mortality did not differ between the carbapenem and tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) or cefmetazole (CMZ) groups for the patients with ESBL E. coli bacteremia.
Conclusion Whenever we encountered patients with a history of immunosuppressive drug, corticosteroid, quinolone administration, it was necessary to perform antibiotic therapy while keeping the risk of ESBL E. coli in mind.
Objective Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a complex disorder, with no consensus on therapeutic options. However, Waon therapy has been reported to be an effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after Waon therapy in CFS patients and to investigate the correlation between such changes and the therapeutic efficacy of Waon therapy.
Methods Eleven patients (2 men and 9 women, mean age 27 years old) diagnosed with CFS participated in the study. The disease duration was 8-129 months, and the performance status was 5-8 (on a scale of 0-9). All patients underwent CBF scintigraphy using brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) before and after Waon therapy. CBF changes after Waon therapy were evaluated using a statistical analysis of imaging data, which was performed with a statistical parametric mapping software program (SPM5).
Results Waon therapy reduced symptoms in all 11 patients. We also observed an increase in the CBF within the prefrontal region, orbitofrontal region, and right temporal lobe. These results indicated that an improvement in clinical symptoms was linked to an increase in the CBF.
Conclusion The results indicated abnormalities of the cerebral function in the prefrontal region, orbitofrontal region, and right temporal lobe in CFS patients and that Waon therapy improved the cerebral function and symptoms in CFS patients by increasing the regional CBF. To our knowledge, this is the first report to clarify the CBF changes in CFS patients before and after Waon therapy.
A 56-year-old man with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was referred to our hospital. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed no evidence of any polypoid lesions in the stomach, and the patient had no history of Helicobacter pylori infection. He received omeprazole (20 mg) once daily for the GERD. EGD was performed at 1 year after the start of omeprazole administration, and this time, gastric hyperplastic polyps (GHPs) were detected. The GHPs increased in size as the omeprazole treatment continued, but they markedly decreased in size following omeprazole discontinuation. Thus, the administration of proton pump inhibitors may be a risk factor for the development of GHP independent of H. pylori infection.
Dermatomyositis or polymyositis as a paraneoplastic syndrome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an uncommon event. Few cases have been reported in the literature. We herein report the case of a 55-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B and alcoholism who presented with skin rash. Abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple hypervascular liver tumors consistent with HCC. He subsequently developed dysphagia with proximal limb weakness. Laboratory tests and electromyography demonstrated inflammatory myopathy. We therefore diagnosed the patient with HCC-induced dermatomyositis. Prednisolone and anti-viral therapy were administered; however, the patient died two months later due to the progression of the disease. We review the cases of HCC-induced dermatomyositis and polymyositis in the literature.
Hypocalcemia is relatively uncommon paraneoplastic syndrome. Only one case of hypocalcemia has been reported in a patient with chondrosarcoma. We herein report a case of a 32-year-old woman with metastatic chondrosarcoma with tetany. Her imaging findings revealed multiple calcific metastatic lesions in the lungs, pancreas, left atrium, and pulmonary vein. A laboratory examination showed hypocalcemia with no evidence of any other disease that could induce hypocalcemia. On the basis of the laboratory and clinical findings, we concluded the etiology of her severe hypocalcemia to be excessive calcium consumption by the tumor itself.
We herein report a case of Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis characterized by atypical hyperpigmentation, noted as exacerbation of the pigmentation of freckles and the occurrence of new freckles, that was diagnosed in the presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis. The clinical condition of the patient was markedly ameliorated by the administration of hydrocortisone and anti-tuberculosis agents. When exacerbation of the pigmentation of the freckles and/or the occurrence of new freckles are noted, Addison's disease should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. In addition, the presence of active tuberculosis needs to be assumed whenever we treat patients with Addison's disease caused by tuberculosis, despite its rarity.
The short D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35 is a confirmatory genetic cause of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), which presents with no renal complications. We herein report a five-year-old girl previously diagnosed with Coat's-like retinopathy, deafness, and mental retardation, who was found to have early-onset, severe FSHD. Despite the absence of muscle weakness, a Southern blot analysis showed a short D4Z4 repeat on chromosome 4q35. She presented with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, and her renal histopathological findings were severe glomerular endothelial injury, which is a new complication associated with this genetic abnormality. Screening of renal complications may be necessary for FSHD patients. This patient requires close follow-up for her muscle symptoms.
The pathogenesis of cerebral/renal salt-wasting syndrome remains unknown. We herein present a case of salt-wasting syndrome with a natural killer-cell neoplasm without cerebral invasion. A 78-year-old man with hemophagocytic syndrome received two cycles of chemotherapy that did not induce tumor lysis syndrome, but repeatedly caused polyuria and natriuresis. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the neoplasm led us to hypothesize that an oncolysis-induced cytokine storm may have caused renal tubular damage and salt wasting. Our theory may explain the pathogenic mechanism of cerebral/renal salt-wasting syndrome associated with other entities, including cerebral disorders, owing to the elevation of cytokine levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
The patient was a 69-year-old man with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who was taking pirfenidone. After 7 weeks of treatment, he suffered from left-sided eosinophilic pleurisy. Medical thoracoscopy was performed and the histopathological examination of the parietal pleura revealed the massive infiltration of eosinophils and lymphoid follicles. After stopping pirfenidone therapy, the patient's pleural effusion disappeared without additional treatment, and never recurred. This is the first case report of pirfenidone-induced pleurisy.
Some forms of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) have recently been considered to be a part of the spectrum of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease. This case report is the first description of a spontaneous remission in a patient with pathologically proven IgG4-related RF. Although the pathogenesis and long-term disease behavior of IgG4-related RF remains unknown, we believe that an initial assessment consisting of only careful monitoring might be one important strategy, especially in asymptomatic IgG4-related RF patients without nephropathy, while carefully monitoring these patients for the risk of recurrence.
An adult woman developed polymorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) 58 months after unrelated cord blood transplantation. She was treated successfully with chemotherapy and radiation therapy but presented with lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly 74 months after transplantation. A lymph node biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of nodular sclerosis type Hodgkin lymphoma (classical Hodgkin lymphoma [CHL]-type PTLD). After salvage therapy and hematopoietic stem cell harvesting, she was subsequently treated with consolidative high-dose chemotherapy with melphalan followed by stem cell rescue, which resulted in durable remission. High-dose chemotherapy using stem cell rescue has potential as a therapeutic option for subsequent CHL-type PTLD.
A 61-year-old woman with chronic-type adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) had been taking low-dose oral etoposide for progressive lymphocytosis. After taking this for 3.5 years, she was diagnosed with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), with a chromosomal translocation of t (6:11) (q27; q23). She thus received remission induction therapy, consolidation therapy, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although both t-AML and ATL were in remissive states, she died of a therapy-related infection within 1 year. We reviewed 12 reported cases of AML complicating ATL to better characterize this unusual disease. We should therefore include t-AML in the differential diagnosis when administering low-dose etoposide for ATL over a long period of time.
A 62-year-old man with asthma presented with a 1-month history of wheezing and exertional dyspnea. Although the wheezing symptoms disappeared after systemic corticosteroid therapy, the exertional dyspnea and hypoxemia did not improve. A diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) with pulmonary involvement was suspected because of the increased serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) level, increased alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2), decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and scintigraphic, computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT findings. The patient was diagnosed as having IVLBCL with pulmonary involvement based on a pathological analysis of a random skin biopsy and a transbronchial lung biopsy. IVLBCL should be considered in patients with symptoms of asthma that are refractory to corticosteroid treatment.
A 25-year-old woman presenting with progressive muscle weakness in the distal extremities in the absence of sensory involvement for 2 years was diagnosed with multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Her disease was difficult to manage with various immunosuppressants, and the muscle weakness eventually progressed to involve the respiratory muscles, necessitating mechanical ventilation. Intravenous cyclophosphamide (CY) dramatically improved her symptoms, and she has since maintained her ambulatory status for 18 years with intermittent CY therapy. Because the patient presented with hemorrhagic cystitis due to CY, we also implemented mesna administration by bladder perfusion. The administration of CY should therefore be considered in patients with severe MMN that is unresponsive to standard therapy.
A 44-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving interferon (IFN)-beta-1a treatment was admitted to a local hospital for severe icterus and liver injury. She was transferred to our university hospital because fulminant hepatitis (FH) was suspected. She was diagnosed with acute-type FH based on hepatic coma, severe liver injury and liver failure, and she received plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration therapy. On hospital day 6, she died from liver failure despite intensive care. An autopsy revealed histological findings consistent with FH. Physicians should monitor the hepatic function of MS patients receiving IFN-beta-1a treatment, as serious events can occur in rare cases.
An 89-year-old man attempted suicide by ingesting a pesticide (trichlorfon). After surviving the initial critical period in the intensive care unit, he developed rapidly progressive distal weakness and sensory disturbance. Electrophysiological examinations revealed sensory motor axonal polyneuropathy. Delayed polyneuropathy is a rare manifestation of organophosphate poisoning. Nerve conduction studies play an important role in the diagnosis of this rare clinical condition.
A hemi-paralyzed 86-year-old man was diagnosed with ischemic stroke and underwent thrombolysis. Pre-thrombolysis brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive strictly lobar cerebral microbleeding (CMB). Post-thrombolytic computed tomography revealed asymptomatic multiple intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH). His age, CMB topography, and decreased cerebral spinal fluid amyloid-β 40 and 42 levels were compatible with a diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). There is no consensus on the safety of thrombolysis for acute stroke patients with CAA. Patients with CAA might have a higher incidence of thrombolysis-related ICH than those without CAA.
Cases of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea due to clival fracture are rare. We present a case of bacterial meningitis with CSF rhinorrhea after a clival fracture. Heavily T2-weighted images showed a bone flap in the thinned clivus and fluid collection in the sphenoid sinus. CSF rhinorrhea developed at 1 month after mild trauma. The fracture may have been caused by the trauma and/or by the pressure gradient between the intracranial CSF space and the sphenoid sinus. A detailed history to identify trauma and an examination to detect bone defects in the skull base are necessary when patients present with bacterial meningitis and persistent rhinorrhea.
We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with proximal limb muscle weakness, who received post-operative chemotherapy for uterine cancer. Her serum creatinine kinase level was high (10,779 mg/dL) and a muscle biopsy from her left biceps revealed various sizes of muscle fibers accompanied by necrotic and regenerating fibers. She was positive for anti-3 hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coenzyme A reductase (anti-HMGCR) antibodies, but negative for anti-signal recognition particle (anti-SRP) antibodies. She was diagnosed with immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) and treated with prednisolone.
Our findings indicate that not only drug-induced myopathy but also paraneoplastic myopathy can be involved in the pathogenesis of IMNM.
A 35-year-old male who had not previously suffered any major illnesses was admitted to our hospital because of general fatigue, fever, headache, vomiting, consciousness disturbance, and seizures. A neurological examination showed that he was in a semi-comatose state and exhibited neck stiffness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging detected high-intensity areas in the bilateral hippocampi and periventricular white matter. A cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mononuclear pleocytosis, an elevated protein level, and positivity for human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) DNA. The patient's condition improved after the administration of methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, and acyclovir. This is the first known case of limbic encephalitis associated with HHV-7 in an immunocompetent Japanese adult.
A 19-year-old man presented with a fever, convulsions, and loss of consciousness at our hospital. The patient had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12. Influenza B virus infection was diagnosed using the rapid test kit, and an eight-fold increase in the serum levels of anti-influenza B virus antibody was confirmed using the complement fixation test. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multifocal high-signal lesions, and an electroencephalogram showed diffuse slowing of the background activity, indicating acute encephalopathy. After treatment with peramivir and methylprednisolone for 3 days, the patient was discharged without any neurological impairment. This was a case of influenza B infection associated with acute encephalopathy in a healthy young man.
A 56-year-old woman, without any immunocompromising diseases, was referred to our hospital because of a recurrence of pyogenic spondylitis. Computed tomography revealed multiple osteolytic changes in the whole body. Vertebral magnetic resonance imaging revealed osteomyelitis and spondylitis. Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was detected in sputum cultures, in abscesses from the right knee, and in a subcutaneous forehead abscess. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with disseminated Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection. The patient was treated with rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin, which resulted in symptomatic relief and radiological improvement. We herein report a rare case of disseminated Mycobacterium scrofulaceum infection in an immunocompetent host.