Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are large lymphocytes with azurophilic granules in their cytoplasm. LGLs are either natural killer (NK) cells or T lymphocytes. Expansions of the LGLs in the peripheral blood are seen in various conditions, including three clonal disorders: T-cell LGL (T-LGL) leukemia, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders of NK cells (CLPD-NK), and aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL). However, the monoclonal and polyclonal expansion of LGLs has been associated with many other conditions. The present article describes these LGL disorders, with special emphasis on the clinical features, pathogenesis, and treatments of the three above-mentioned clonal disorders.
Objective Supraventricular arrhythmias are commonly detected in patients with anti-mitochondrial antibody M2 (AMA-M2)-associated myopathy. However, the prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias in unselected AMA-M2-positive patients and the impact of AMA-M2 on supraventricular arrhythmias have yet to be fully investigated.
Methods We analyzed 384 patients (116 men; age, 60 [48-69] years), who underwent AMA-M2 testing following the detection of elevated hepatobiliary enzymes. Supraventricular arrhythmias involving atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, atrial tachycardia, sick sinus syndrome, and atrial standstill were confirmed by a 12-lead electrocardiogram, 24-hour ambulatory monitoring, and physician-assigned diagnoses within the three years before and two years after the AMA-M2 test.
Results Seventy-seven (20%) patients were positive for AMA-M2. The prevalence of supraventricular arrhythmias among AMA-M2-positive patients was higher than that among AMA-M2-negative patients (14% vs. 6%, p=0.008). A univariate analysis showed that supraventricular arrhythmias were associated with AMA-M2 positivity, aging, congestive heart failure, and the CHADS2 score. The multivariate analysis determined that AMA-M2 positivity was an independent risk factor for supraventricular arrhythmias (odds ratio 3.52, p=0.011). Among the AMA-M2-positive patients, the AMA-M2 titer did not differ to a statistically significant extent, regardless of the presence or absence of supraventricular arrhythmias. Multiple supraventricular arrhythmias with extremely low atrial deflections was a characteristic finding in AMA-M2-positive patients with supraventricular arrhythmias.
Conclusion AMA-M2 enhances the risk of supraventricular arrhythmias, indicating the possible involvement of the atrial myocardium and the formation of an arrhythmogenic substrate. The results highlight the need for clinical attention to supraventricular arrhythmias in AMA-M2-positive patients.
Objective Osteoporosis, which is now recognized as a major comorbidity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), must be diagnosed by appropriate methods. The aims of this study were to clarify the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and COPD-related clinical variables and to explore the association of BMD with the updated Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification in men.
Methods We enrolled 50 Japanese men with clinically stable COPD who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), pulmonary function testing, and computerized tomography (CT) and who had completed a questionnaire (COPD assessment test [CAT]). We determined the association between the T-score and other tested parameters and compared the BMD of patients in each GOLD category.
Results Twenty-three of the 50 patients (46.0%) were diagnosed with osteopenia, and 7 (14.0%) were diagnosed with osteoporosis. The BMD findings were significantly correlated with the CAT score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage predicted (FEV1% predicted), low attenuation volume percentage (LAV%), and percentage of cross-sectional area of small pulmonary vessels (%CSA) on CT images. Notably, the median T-score of the GOLD category D participants was significantly lower than that of the participants in each of the other categories (A [-0.98], B [-1.06], C [-1.05], and D [-2.19], p<0.05).
Conclusion Reduced BMD was associated with airflow limitation, extent of radiographic findings, and a poor quality of life (QOL) in patients with COPD. The BMD of GOLD category D patients was the lowest of all of the patients evaluated, and category D patients may benefit from active intervention for osteoporosis.
Objective Pleurodesis is an effective therapy for malignant pleural effusion (MPE). While interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been regarded as a serious complication of pleurodesis, its clinicopathological characteristics have not been fully understood. This study was conducted to elucidate the incidence of ILD and the risk factors for ILD in patients who underwent pleurodesis to control MPE.
Methods The medical records of patients who underwent pleurodesis in Aichi Medical University between March 2008 and February 2013, the period before the approval of talc in Japan, were retrospectively analyzed.
Results A total of 84 patients underwent pleurodesis, all using OK-432. ILD occurred in 13 patients (15.5%). The development of ILD after pleurodesis was significantly associated with old age (odds ratio [OR]: 4.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-19.08) and epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment (OR: 5.97, CI: 1.7-20.9). A multivariate analysis revealed that >67 years of age (p=0.01) and EGFR-TKI treatment (p=0.02) were significantly associated with the development of pleurodesis-related ILD. Among the patients who received both pleurodesis and EGFR-TKIs (n=23), 8 patients developed ILD. All of these patients were receiving EGFR-TKI therapy at the time of pleurodesis or within 30 days after pleurodesis. In contrast, no cases of ILD were observed among the patients who stopped EGFR-TKIs before pleurodesis or started EGFR-TKIs at more than 30 days after pleurodesis.
Conclusion ILD seemed to be a frequent complication of pleurodesis in patients using OK-432, especially elderly patients and those who underwent pleurodesis while receiving EGFR-TKI therapy or who started EGFR-TKI therapy within 30 days after pleurodesis.
Objective The mortality rate due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is higher in patients with lung cancer than in those without. We examined the effect of treatment with thrombomodulin alfa (TM-α) for DIC in lung cancer patients.
Methods Subjects were 57 patients with DIC (43 men, 14 women; mean age, 71.7 years), comprising 31 with lung cancer and 26 without. DIC patients with or without lung cancer did not differ significantly in their background characteristics.
Results No significant difference was noted in the mortality rate between patients with lung cancer (61.3%) and those without (57.7%). However, the dose of TM-α was higher for survivors with lung cancer than for non-survivors (473.1 U/kg/day vs. 380.6 U/kg/day; p<0.01). Although no significant difference was noted in the DIC score between these four groups, the serum C-reactive protein level (6.9 mg/dL vs. 11.6 mg/dL; p<0.05) and prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR; 1.10 vs. 1.52; p<0.05) were lower in survivors with lung cancer than in the non-survivors with lung cancer. The initial body temperature in non-survivors without lung cancer was lower than that in survivors without lung cancer (37.2°C vs. 37.9°C, p<0.01), and the platelet count and the time to recovery from DIC in patients without lung cancer showed a significant negative correlation (r2=0.438, p<0.05).
Conclusion Our findings suggest that although 380 U/kg/day of TM-α is the recommended dose for DIC treatment, a higher dose may reduce the mortality rate of lung cancer patients with DIC. Furthermore, TM-α should be initiated before worsening of DIC parameters.