Objective Gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently a standard procedure, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are most commonly used to treat post-ESD ulcers. Vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB), reportedly inhibits gastric acid secretions more effectively than PPIs. Combination therapy of a PPI plus rebamipide is effective for treating larger ulcers. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of vonoprazan plus rebamipide compared to esomeprazole plus rebamipide for the treatment of post-ESD ulcers.
Methods First, vonoprazan plus rebamipide (V group) or esomeprazole plus rebamipide (E group) was orally administered to subjects for eight weeks. We then evaluated the ulcer healing process at four and eight weeks after the procedure using a gastric ulcer stage system and by measuring the ulcer size.
Patients A total of 84 patients who underwent ESD for gastric neoplasms between September 2015 and December 2017 in Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital were included in this randomized controlled trial.
Results The ulcer scar rates at week 4 in the V group (n=43) and E groups (n=39) were 20.9% and 15.4%, while those at week 8 were 90.7% and 92.3%, respectively. The ulcer reduction rates at week 4 in the V and E groups were 94.6% and 93.8%, and those at week 8 were 99.7% and 99.3%, respectively. The ulcer scar rates and reduction rates were not significantly different between the two groups.
Conclusion Combination therapy consisting of vonoprazan plus rebamipide was not superior to that of esomeprazole plus rebamipide for post-ESD ulcer healing (UMIN000019516).
Objective It is important to preserve the pancreatic β-cell function in order to maintain good glycemic control for a long period. The aim of this study was to examine which factors are associated with the β-cell function in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods A total of 372 subjects with type 2 diabetes who had been hospitalized for the amelioration of their glycemic control and/or education about diabetes in Kawasaki Medical School Hospital were included in this study. We evaluated the remnant β-cell function as the HOMA-%β using the computer software program HOMA2 and estimated the glycemic fluctuation with the glycoalbumin (GA)/hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ratio. In addition, we divided the subjects into a relatively young group (<65 years old) (n=210) and an elderly group (≥65 years old) (n=162) and performed several analyses in each group.
Results The GA/HbA1c ratio, GA and HbA1c were independent determinant factors for the HOMA-%β regardless of age. We obtained almost the same results even after excluding those subjects using insulin secretagogues. These data suggest that the glycemic fluctuation and glycemic control are associated with the remnant β-cell function in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Conclusion It is very important to reduce glycemic fluctuation as well as to maintain good glycemic control in order to preserve β-cell function in subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Objective This multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional trial aimed to investigate adherence barriers to inhaled medicines when compared with oral medicines in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma.
Methods The self-reporting "Adherence Starts with Knowledge 20" (ASK-20) questionnaire was administered for adherence barriers of inhaled and oral medicines to outpatients with regular clinic attendance.
Results Patients with COPD and asthma reported different adherence barriers to inhaled medicines. Independent adherence barriers [odds ratio (95% confidence interval)] to inhaled medicines relative to those for oral medicines among patients with COPD and asthma were those related to item Q8 [ "I know if I am reaching my health goals"; 2.49 (1.39-4.47); p=0.0022] and item Q2 [ "I run out of my medicine because I do not get refills on time"; 2.69 (1.26-5.75); p=0.0127], respectively. Among patients with poor adherence to only inhaled medicines, those with COPD and asthma recognized item Q3 [ "consuming alcohol and taking medicines"; 6.63 (1.27-34.7); p<0.05] and item Q1 [ "forget to take medicines only sometimes"; 4.29 (1.83-10.0); p<0.05], respectively, were recognized as independent adherence barriers to inhaled medicines. The total ASK-20 scores and total barrier counts in patients with poor adherence to inhaled medicines were significantly higher than in those without poor adherence among patients with asthma (p=0.0057) but not those with COPD (p>0.05).
Conclusion These results will aid in personalizing education on adherence to inhaled medicines among patients with COPD and asthma.
Objective To determine whether or not displaying the cost of tests can help reduce charges on test ordering in Japan.
Methods This study was conducted under the setting of a simulated first visit of an outpatient for general internal medicine in a secondary medical institution in Japan. We randomly assigned 27 residents and clinical fellows to Team A or B. The first half, without charges displayed on the ordering system, was designated the "non-display group," and the participants of Team A selected tests for each paper-based simulated case (Q1-Q14), while the participants of Team B selected tests for Q15-Q28. The second half, which had charges displayed, was designated the "display group," and the participants of Team A selected tests for Q15-Q28, while the participants of Team B selected tests for Q1-Q14. The main outcome measure was the difference in the cost of tests per paper-based simulated case between the non-display and display groups.
Results The median (interquartile range) cost of tests per paper-based simulated case was 12,255 yen (5,040-23,695 yen) in the non-display group versus 9,425 yen (2,320-21,700 yen) in the display group, showing a decrease of 2,830 yen with charges being displayed (p=0.002).
Conclusion Displaying the charges when ordering tests in paper-based simulated cases resulted in cost reduction. The adoption of this intervention may reduce health insurance costs under the health insurance system in Japan, which has features such as universal health coverage and universal access to care.
A 57-year-old woman was admitted with lower abdominal pain and bloody bowel discharge. She was diagnosed with rectal tumor by colonoscopy, and a biopsy was performed. Surgery was performed, resulting in a diagnosis of rectal paraganglioma. Since recurrence was confirmed three years later, reoperation was done, and chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine (CVD) was subsequently carried out for further recurrence. After the administration of up to 15 courses of CVD, we delivered best supportive care due to disease progression. She died a year and a half after starting chemotherapy. We herein report this rare disease with a review of the relevant literature.
We herein report a rare case of a gastric adenoma overlying a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) that was removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). A 78-year-old woman was referred to our hospital. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed an elevated lesion of 15 mm in diameter overlying a submucosal mass in the gastric cardia. ESD was performed for the epithelial neoplasm, and biopsy specimens were obtained directly from the exposed surface of the submucosal tumor. The epithelial tumor was a tubular adenoma with focal severe atypia and a gastric phenotype. Biopsy specimens revealed a GIST, which was resected by laparoscopic intragastric surgery afterward.
A 50-year-old woman with epigastric discomfort was referred to our hospital. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed flat, elevated, submucosal tumor-like lesions in the esophagus. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the esophagus was diagnosed based on the examination of an endoscopic biopsy specimen. Computed tomography showed the enlargement of a lymph node in the gastric cardia. The present case showed disease progression despite Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and achieved partial remission after rituximab monotherapy. The patient remained in partial remission for 20 months. This case suggests that esophageal MALT lymphoma with lymph node involvement does not respond to H. pylori eradication therapy and that it requires systemic treatment.
A diagnosis of hereditary angioedema is usually made with recurrent episodes of swelling of the subcutaneous tissue with a family history. We herein report a case in which recurrent acute abdomen was the main manifestation of hereditary angioedema. A 45-year-old womon presented with a 10-year history of recurrent severe abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed remarkable submucosal edema of the ileum. A blood examination revealed grossly reduced complement C4 and CH50 with deficiency of C1-inhibitor. Genetic testing revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation of the SERPING1 gene, and a diagnosis of hereditary angioedema was made. Hereditary angioedema should be listed as a differential diagnosis of recurrent acute abdomen.
A 56-year-old healthy woman was referred to our hospital for abdominal pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a 14-cm-diameter liver tumor with intratumoral hemorrhage. We performed emergent transcatheter arterial embolization. She was referred to hepatic surgeon (M.M.) for resection. Preoperative colonoscopy showed an elevated lesion measuring 2 cm in diameter that was pathologically diagnosed as a rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). We performed low anterior resection of the rectum, followed by extended right hepatectomy for all hepatic lesions. Intratumoral hematoma was observed in the largest hepatic lesion (size: 150 mm×100 mm). Microscopy also indicated NET G2. We pathologically diagnosed a liver tumor from a rectal NET that bled spontaneously.
We experienced two cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring immediately after treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). Case 1 was a 75-year-old woman in whom HCC was detected immediately after completion of DAA treatment. Case 2 was a 75-year-old woman who had a hypovascular nodule in liver. The hypovascular nodule became hypervascular without enlargement of the nodule size immediately after DAA treatment completion. Although the association between DAA treatment and hepatocarcinogenesis is unknown, sufficient surveillance after achieving a sustained viral response is required, as a large number of patients at a high risk of hepatocarcinogenesis are treated with DAAs.
A 69-year-old man who had been hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), underwent urgent percutaneous coronary intervention. In the subacute phase, he developed sudden chest pain and hemodynamic deterioration, and urgent coronary angiogram showed multiple coronary artery spasms. The discontinuation of beta-blocker treatment and the administration of a calcium antagonist helped prevent angina attacks. In Japanese patients who tend to have coronary artery spasm, the routine administration of beta-blockers for post-ACS patients with a preserved left ventricular systolic function should be considered carefully.
A 40-year-old man who was diagnosed with bronchial asthma and eosinophilia was transferred to our hospital due to a worsening respiratory status. He was diagnosed with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), and eosinophilic pneumoniae. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging indicated Löffler endocarditis. Treatment was initiated using intravenous methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and heparin as anticoagulation therapy. Three months later, CMR showed the improvement of the LV myocardium.
In this case, the early diagnosis of Löffler endocarditis by CMR could prevent systemic embolism and CMR was useful for assessing the curative effects of steroid and immunosuppressant therapy.
A 78-year-old man with mild coronary arteriosclerosis on coronary CT angiography underwent MRI of the prostate with the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) (gadopentetate dimeglumine). He developed acute coronary syndrome immediately after the intravenous injection of GBCA, and recovered after the administration of nitroglycerine, atropine sulfate, and hydrocortisone. He was discharged on the ninth day of hospitalization without recurrent chest symptoms. This is the second reported case of Kounis syndrome caused by GBCA. Kounis syndrome caused by MR contrast media is rare, but we should recognize that all contrast agents have the potential to cause Kounis syndrome.
A 28-year-old man with type 1 diabetes mellitus was admitted for shock and coma due to diabetic ketoacidosis. Despite aggressive treatment and management of the patient's underlying clinical issues, the patient remained in a comatose state. Further investigations revealed an excess consumption of psychotropic agents; however, there was no evidence of an insulin overdose. Physicians should be aware that, in patients who are highly dependent upon insulin, an overdose of psychotropic agents can lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
A 40-year-old Japanese man presented with child-onset hypertriglyceridemia recently complicated by diabetes mellitus. The patient's diabetes mellitus was maintained, but he had persistent insulin resistance. The patient also had persistent severe hypertriglyceridemia (1,224-4,104 mg/dL), despite the administration of bezafibrate and ezetimibe. Type V dyslipidemia was revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and the refrigerator test, and a significantly reduced post-heparin lipoprotein lipase mass of 26 ng/mL was confirmed. Genetic testing confirmed two heterozygous LPL variants, p.Tyr88X and p.Gly215Glu in trans; thus, the patient was diagnosed with lipoprotein lipase deficiency. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency typically arises in type I dyslipidemia, but is latent in type V dyslipidemia.
A 60-year-old male patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) was admitted for glycemic control. The patient exhibited abdominal adiposity, osteoporosis, and high insulin requirement (>100 U), and we suspected hypogonadism. A physical examination revealed small testes and thin pubic hair, laboratory examination found high luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and low testosterone levels, and a chromosome analysis (47, XXY) indicated hypogonadism due to Klinefelter syndrome (KS). KS is associated with autoimmune diseases and patients positive for diabetes related auto-antibodies. In male patients with T1DM and abdominal adiposity, the concurrence of KS should be taken into consideration.
Tosufloxacin, which is not used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a fluoroquinolone recommended for pneumonia when the possibility of tuberculosis infection cannot be excluded. In the present case, symptoms and chest infiltrative shadow initially improved by tosufloxacin. Therefore, we regarded this patient as having general pneumonia and did not perform follow-up chest X-ray until the infiltrates had completely disappeared. However, a few weeks later, the symptoms and the infiltrates had worsened, so M. tuberculosis was isolated from the patient's sputum. This case suggests that patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis should be monitored carefully, even if antibiotics without antituberculous activity are initially effective.
Bronchial occlusion with endobronchial Watanabe spigots (EWSs) can be an essential therapeutic measure for treating massive hemoptysis in intensive care patients when no other conventional options are available. A 68-year-old-man on mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal circulation after cardiovascular surgery presented massive hemoptysis. He was deemed unfit for bronchial artery embolization (BAE) and surgery while in the intensive care setting; thus, bronchial occlusion was performed using EWSs. His hemoptysis ceased, and he was successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal circulation. Bronchial occlusion by EWSs may be considered an optimal, and at times, definitive treatment for obtaining hemostasis in these situations.
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a relatively common progressive noninflammatory entheses disease. Patients are often asymptomatic or are undiagnosed due to minor chronic symptoms. We herein report a rare case in which the primary symptom was sudden-onset upper airway obstruction due to exuberant osteophytosis in the cervical spine. Treatment was successful with careful airway management and surgical osteophyectomy. Most DISH cases in the literature with airway obstruction have been managed with tracheotomy. However, the safety and necessity of this approach remain questionable. We herein discuss the possibility of conservative management as a choice of airway control. Airway obstruction due to DISH may be underrecognized. This highlights the importance of including DISH in the differential diagnosis of airway obstruction. In addition, a detailed evaluation and personalized care for each individual case is essential.
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma that typically develops in the upper aerodigestive tract. We encountered an ENKTL patient who presented with generalized muscle weakness with eyelid swelling, diplopia, and facial edema. A muscle biopsy revealed lymphocytic infiltration without significant atypia; some lymphocytes formed granuloma-like structures. Although the initial response to steroids was encouraging, an ulcerative eruption appeared in the thigh, and a skin biopsy revealed lymphocytes with atypia. A re-analysis of the muscle biopsy with additional immunohistochemistry revealed neoplastic NK/T lymphocytes in the granulomatous structures. Our case highlights the significance of re-evaluating muscle biopsy specimens in cases of atypical myositis.
Malignant lymphoma sometimes involves peripheral nerves due to paraneoplastic syndrome associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies. We report a very rare case of malignant lymphoma accompanied by an asymmetrical and isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy associated with a new subset of anti-ganglioside antibodies. Magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose position emission tomography showed no abnormalities of the hypoglossal nerve nucleus; however, the patient' s serum was positive for anti-sulfated glucuronyl paragloboside IgM antibodies as well as anti-GM1 IgM and anti-GQ1b IgM antibodies. The present case might suggest a paraneoplastic asymmetrical and isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy associated with a new subset of anti-ganglioside antibodies.
We herein report the case of a 59-year-old man with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody encephalitis who presented with slowly progressive cognitive impairment mimicking dementia for over 3 years and then developed seizures. Unique brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of fluctuating striatal lesions were observed during the disease course. He was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone, which dramatically improved his neurological function. Taken together, these findings indicate that anti-LGI1 encephalitis may present as slowly progressive cognitive impairment mimicking dementia and that fluctuating MRI striatal lesions may be a characteristic radiological finding of this disorder.
Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a large-vessel vasculitis affecting the aorta and its main branches. Hemoptysis can be experienced as the respiratory manifestation, but origination from a bronchial artery is rare. Ulcerative colitis (UC) shares genetic similarities with TAK; HLA-B52*01 is associated with TAK and UC. We herein report a patient who presented with hemoptysis from the right bronchial artery and was diagnosed with TAK during the follow-up of UC. Transcatheter embolization was performed, and prednisolone and tocilizumab induced remission. Complication of TAK should be considered in the clinical course of HLA-B52-positive UC patients, and tocilizumab may be a treatment option.
A 43-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with peripheral blood hypereosinophilia and abnormal chest X-ray findings. Her pleural effusion revealed hypereosinophilia and a low glucose level. She was diagnosed with pulmonary paragonimiasis based on an elevated antibody level of Paragonimiasis westermani. Although she had no medical history of allergic disorders, a pulmonary function test revealed bronchodilator reversibility. After praziquantel therapy, her symptoms, hypereosinophilia in peripheral blood, and pleural effusion were improved. A repeated pulmonary function test after praziquantel therapy showed a negative bronchodilator response. Pulmonary paragonimiasis may induce bronchodilator reversibility during the acute phase of infection.
A 62-year-old man with diabetes mellitus and a two-day history of fever and dyspnea presented at our hospital. He was diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), septic shock, and respiratory failure. Sputum Gram staining revealed Gram-negative coccobacilli. Based on the Gram staining findings and history, Acinetobacter baumannii was considered as one of the causative organisms of his CAP. Consequently, he was successfully treated with the initial administration of meropenem. We suggest that A. baumannii should be considered as one of the possible causative organisms of CAP based on a fulminant clinical course, and the presence of Gram-negative coccobacilli.
We report the case of a 36-year-old previously healthy woman who presented with fever and headache. Blood and cerebrospinal cultures and a bacterial analysis revealed the presence of β-lactamase non-producing ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type f (Hif) with sequence type 124. Accordingly, the patient was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis with bacteremia caused by Hif. She had normal humoral immunity, and antibiotic therapy rapidly improved her condition. Our case indicates that serotype replacement can occur in Japan and suggests that a certain sequence type causes invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease, regardless of host immunity.