Objective Spontaneous mechanical alternans (MA), or pulsus alternans, has been observed in heart failure patients with hypertension or tachycardia for 150 years and is considered a sign of a poor prognosis. However, in some dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients with MA, optimal medical therapy (OMT) brings left ventricular reverse remodeling (LVRR), a preferable prognostic indicator. This study examined the probability of LVRR in DCM patients with spontaneous MA and whether or not LVRR can be predicted by the baseline blood pressure or heart rate.
Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective observational study of newly diagnosed DCM patients from January 2017 to December 2020.
Results Thirty-three newly diagnosed DCM patients were retrospectively examined. Spontaneous MA was observed during diagnostic cardiac catheterization in at least 1 of the pressure waveforms of the aorta, left ventricle, pulmonary artery, or right ventricle in 10 patients (30%) (MA-group). LVRR after OMT was achieved roughly equally in the MA group (6 of 10, 60%) and the non-MA group (12 of 23, 52%). In the MA group, those who achieved LVRR had a significantly higher baseline systolic aortic pressure (more than 120 mmHg in all 6 patients) than those who did not, although the baseline heart rate did not show a significant correlation with LVRR. In contrast, in the non-MA group, LVRR was unrelated to the baseline aortic pressure or heart rate.
Conclusion The probability of LVRR in newly-diagnosed DCM patients with spontaneous MA was similar to that in those without spontaneous MA. Spontaneous MA may not necessarily be a sign of a poor prognosis if observed in patients with a preserved blood pressure.
Objective Several studies have shown an increased risk of bullous pemphigoid (BP) when receiving dipeptidyl pepitidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) treatment. The present study explored the associations of DPP-4i treatment with the clinical phenotypes and clinical course of BP.
Methods We analyzed data of 146 patients with BP at Tokai University School of Medicine from December 1, 2009, to December 31, 2021. We obtained data by a retrospective medical record review and compared the bullous pemphigoid disease area index (BPDAI) between diabetes patients receiving DPP-4i treatment and those not receiving DPP-4i treatment. We employed multivariable linear regression models to explore the association between the DPP-4i treatment and the BPDAI scores.
Results Among 53 BP patients with diabetes, 33 had developed BP during treatment with DPP-4i agents, among which vildagliptin was the most frequently used. The urticaria/erythema scores of the BPDAI were significantly lower in patients who developed BP while receiving DPP-4i treatment than among others. Of note, 69.2% of the patients who stopped DPP-4i treatment experienced complete remission, and the clinical course was more favorable in patients with lower scores for urticaria/erythema than among others.
Conclusion These findings suggest that, in patients who developed BP while receiving DPP-4i treatment, a noninflammatory phenotype may indicate a high likelihood that DPP-4i treatment contributes to the development of BP. The discontinuation of DPP-4i should be carefully considered in close consultation with dermatologists.
Objective Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most critical manifestation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In some cases, ILD may appear before the RA onset. Some patients with an initial diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIPs) develop RA; however, few studies have reported on its features, and the details remain unknown. In the present study, the clinical, radiological, and pathological features were evaluated in patients with ILD preceding RA.
Methods The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of patients with ILD preceding RA were retrospectively reviewed using the medical records.
Patients Ten patients with ILD preceding RA out of 883 IIP patients who underwent a surgical lung biopsy at our hospital from 2004 to 2018 were retrospectively examined.
Results The median patient age was 59 (range 50-76) years old, and 7 of the patients were women. The median time from the ILD diagnosis to the RA onset was 50 (range 33-65) months. Regarding the high-resolution computed tomography pattern, the "indeterminate for UIP" pattern was the most popular, and cysts were seen in all cases. Attenuation around the cyst was prominent. Pathological findings showed plasma cell infiltration, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT), and bronchiolitis in the lobules. Cellular and destructive bronchiolitis was noticeable in many patients with ILD preceding RA and contributed to the destruction and dilation of the bronchiole.
Conclusion In ILD patients with IIP, radiological and pathological findings with increased attenuation around the cysts, prominent inflammatory cell infiltration (especially in plasma cells), an increase in the BALT number, and cellular and destructive bronchiolitis might serve as helpful RA development indicators.
Objectives We investigated the factors associated with the deterioration of the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) over five years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods Clinical data were obtained from 391 patients who were classified into 2 groups: a group with HAQ-DI deterioration (in which the HAQ-DI had worsened) and a group without HAQ-DI deterioration. A multivariable logistic regression analyses of the age, sex, disease duration, body mass index, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, the use of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, methotrexate use, glucocorticoid use, C-reactive protein, pain visual analog scale (pain VAS), disease activity score 28 erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR), the HAQ-DI, and van der Heijde modified total Sharp score was performed at baseline and five years to determine significant factors associated with the HAQ-DI.
Results The significant factors associated with HAQ-DI deterioration were age [odds ratio (OR): 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.08], glucocorticoid use (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.03-3.71), DAS28-ESR (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.33-2.79), change in pain VAS from baseline (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and change in DAS28-ESR from baseline (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.15-2.44).
Conclusion The present study suggests that glucocorticoid tapering as well as disease activity and pain control are required to prevent deterioration of the HAQ-DI in patients with RA.
Objective Amid the global spread of antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial stewardship should be further promoted in the clinical setting. Our previous study suggested an intra-week disproportion of discontinuation of broad-spectrum antibiotics. We therefore explored the generalization of this prescription trend by investigating the use of all intravenous antibiotics.
Methods A retrospective, observational study.
Patients Between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020, we collected data on the initiation and discontinuation of intravenous antimicrobials on each day of the week and on days after holidays at Okayama University Hospital, Japan. We compared the monthly antimicrobial prescription initiation and discontinuation using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction as a post-hoc procedure.
Results Data from 15,293 hospitalized cases were analyzed. The initiation of antimicrobials differed slightly among days of the week, although this trend was clinically insignificant. Compared with the initiations, antimicrobial discontinuations were disproportionately biased among the weekdays, tending to occur on Mondays (p<0.001) about twice as often as on other days. Similarly, antimicrobials were unevenly discontinued on the day after holidays compared to other days (p<0.001), with an approximately 2-fold difference. The use of antimicrobials in the hospital was thus unequally terminated on weekdays.
Conclusion To further promote antimicrobial stewardship, clinicians should be aware of the influence of behavioral, environmental, and social factors on antimicrobial prescription, which is seemingly beyond medical indications.
Objective The incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has been decreasing in the overall population but is increasing in older patients ≥90 years old. A poor performance status due to underlying diseases makes it difficult for patients with tuberculosis to receive standard oral treatment. However, there is no consensus concerning alternative treatments. This study examined the treatments and outcomes of older patients with tuberculosis and a poor performance status and determined the limitations of tuberculosis treatment for them.
Methods We retrospectively enrolled 121 older patients with tuberculosis and a performance status of 3 or 4 due to underlying diseases during their hospitalization between April 2015 and March 2017 at National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital. We classified them according to the drug administration route (oral, enteral, and injection routes) on admission and compared the characteristics and prognoses among the three groups.
Results There were 79 patients in the oral route group, 28 (35.4%) of whom died during hospitalization. Among the 15 patients in the enteral route group, 6 (40.0%) died. Among the 27 patients in the injection route group who received non-oral agents, 22 (81.5%) died.
The prognosis of the injection route group was poor, with a median survival time of 21 days.
Conclusion Treatment success cannot be expected with injection treatment in patients with a poor general condition because of complications. Although injection treatment may be a viable alternative treatment, its establishment as the standard treatment cannot be currently endorsed.
We treated a case of gastroesophageal varices due to decompensated liver cirrhosis associated with Wilson's disease. The varicose veins penetrated the paraesophageal vein. We performed endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) on the perforating vein and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy distally. However, 5 days after treatment, the patient vomited blood. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed bleeding from the ulcer after EVL at the perforating vein. We performed EVL and stopped the bleeding. However, the next day, she vomited blood again and developed hemorrhagic shock. We were able to achieve hemostasis and save the patient's life with combination therapy consisting of percutaneous transhepatic obliteration and Sengstaken-Blakemore tube placement.
Infectious enteritis is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This case presented a young woman who underwent remission maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC). She was suspected of having concomitant Clostridioides difficile and Edwardsiella tarda infections. The patient's symptoms did not improve after initial antibiotic therapy; thus, the treatment strategy was modified to include an intravenous corticosteroid to treat the UC flare-up. Her symptoms significantly improved after corticosteroid administration. This is the first report of a case in which concomitant C. difficile and E. tarda infections occurred with UC flare-up.
A 51-year-old man who had been receiving steroid therapy for type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) for 3 years contracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As he had a high-grade fever and dry cough, and because his SpO2 level had dropped below 95% in the supine position, he was considered as being at a high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); therefore, he received combined REGN-COV2 antibody therapy. The patient's fever resolved immediately after this treatment, and he went into remission. A high cumulative steroid dose is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection. Early antibody cocktail therapy may be effective and rewarding for steroid-dependent type 1 AIP patients with a potential risk for SARS-CoV-2.
To our knowledge, there have been no reports of first-line lenvatinib (LEN) and LEN re-challenge following atezolizumab/bevacizumab (Atezo-Bev) failure in the same patient. We herein report a patient with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who failed either 1st line LEN and 2nd line Atezo-Bev, and successfully achieved complete response to LEN rechallenge with sequencial transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). This patient had a poor response to TACE before immunotherapy and introduction of molecular-targeted drugs but showed a good response to selective TACE after LEN rechallenge. Our findings suggest the need to reconsider the use of molecular-targeted drugs and TACE with advances in immunotherapy.
A 71-year-old woman with recurring stage IV hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was admitted to our hospital while being treated with atezolizumab and bevacizumab and complained of fatigue, vomiting, and appetite loss. The following were noted on admission: serum glucose level, 633 mg/dL; metabolic acidemia (HCO3− of 19.5 mmol/L); remarkably low serum and urinary C-peptide levels (0.16 ng/mL and ≤1.5 μg/day, respectively); and urinary ketone body level, 4,197 μmol/L. She was diagnosed with atezolizumab-induced fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and insulin therapy improved the symptoms. To our knowledge, this a novel report of atezolizumab-induced fulminant T1DM in an HCC patient.
A 19-year-old man with pectus excavatum developed symptomatic persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). He had no remarkable medical history or comorbidities and had not exercised intensely during childhood. Electrical cardioversion and pre-treatment with amiodarone for two months failed to maintain sinus rhythm. Computed tomography before ablation revealed compression of the right and left atria between the sternal bone and vertebral bodies. Voltage mapping revealed that the right and left atrial voltages were preserved within the normal limit. However, radiofrequency catheter ablation successfully eliminated recurrent persistent AF. No recurrence was observed during eight months of follow-up.
A 75-year-old man receiving treatment for necrotizing pancreatitis developed septic disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). During percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a large amount of fresh thrombi appeared after balloon dilatation for the ACS-culprit lesion. Given the low plasma antithrombin (AT) activity and poorly prolonged activated clotting time (ACT), we suspected that acquired AT deficiency-related heparin resistance (HR) was responsible for the thrombus formation. Administration of AT gamma markedly improved ACT, and we successfully completed PCI. We suggest that AT gamma be considered a treatment option for AT deficiency-related HR and subsequent intraprocedural thrombotic events.
A 72-year-old man was admitted for examination of proteinuria (9.14 g/day) and leg edema. Essential thrombocythemia (ET) was diagnosed because of thrombocytosis (platelet count, 57.9×104/μL), elevated megakaryocytes in bone marrow biopsy, and JAK2 V617 mutation. Kidney biopsy led to a diagnosis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) cellular variant (characterized by glomerular capillaries filled with swollen endothelial cells containing foam cells) in 6 glomeruli, FSGS tip variant in 5 glomeruli, and additional FSGS variants in other glomeruli. Affected glomeruli had anti-CD61 antibody staining-positive megakaryocyte infiltrations. ET mayinduce FSGS because megakaryocyte infiltration increases intraglomerular pressure, resulting in hypertension and proteinuria.
Tuberculosis is a common etiology of granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN). However, the absence of evidence of lung involvement and lack of mycobacterial isolation in cultures make the etiological diagnosis and treatment decision challenging. We herein report a 46-year-old man with severe renal failure, a persistent fever, and a history of lymphoma. A renal biopsy exhibited GIN. Despite no evidence of tuberculosis except for a positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), the patient was successfully treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Our case suggests that anti-tuberculosis therapy should be considered for patients with IGRA-positive GIN after excluding other etiologies.
A 77-year-old man was referred to our hospital for abnormal thoracic radiographs. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a 20-mm subpleural ground-glass opacity in the right S6 area. A CT-guided biopsy revealed lung adenocarcinoma. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography revealed multiple abnormal bone accumulations, and a subsequent biopsy of a left iliac bone lesion revealed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A right lower lung lobectomy was performed for the lung adenocarcinoma (cT1bN0M0, stage IA2). An aggressive biopsy of the bone lesion confirmed a rare case of double primary malignancies, which determined the patient's treatment and outcomes.
We herein report a patient with primary effusion lymphoma-like adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (PEL-like ATL) that developed during hemodialysis. A 77-year-old man developed a fever and ascites. Elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), calcium and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) along with antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) were seen in his blood. Lymphoma cells in ascites were positive for HTLV-1 proviral DNA, but there were no neoplastic cells in peripheral blood or bone marrow and no lymphadenopathy. He was therefore diagnosed with PEL-like ATL, acute-type. After administration of brentuximab vedotin, his serum LDH, sIL-2R and atypical cells in ascites cytology decreased. The development of novel effective molecular-targeted therapies is warranted.
We herein report a case of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) that occurred after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. In this patient, progressive pancytopenia observed two months after acute hepatitis following the second dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine indicated the development of HAAA. Although some reports have suggested that SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases, no cases of HAAA developing after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination have been reported. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in children has only started relatively recently, so the range of side effects in children has not yet been thoroughly described. Therefore, we need to strengthen surveillance for symptoms of children who are vaccinated.
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder sometimes accompanied by ovarian teratoma. However, the concept of encephalitis without anti-NMDAR antibodies successfully treated with ovarian teratoma resection and immunotherapy has not been established. We herein report two such cases. Case 1 exhibited delayed magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities in the thalamus and basal ganglia, despite clinical improvement. Case 2 presented with brainstem encephalitis similar to Bickerstaff's encephalitis. Although both patients tested negative for anti-NMDAR antibodies, the recovery of the neurological function and good prognosis following tumor resection with immunotherapy indicated a close association between these diseases and ovarian teratoma.
A 75-year-old man presented with headache and disturbance of consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed edema localized mainly in the cortex and linear contrast enhancement. A brain biopsy revealed numerous astrocytes with inclusion, and genetic testing demonstrated prolonged GGC repeats in NOTCH2NLC. The present case provided two novel insights into the mechanism underlying encephalopathy associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease. First, the histological findings at a site with contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging did not demonstrate any organic association, such as the presence of inflammation or ischemic changes. Second, the imaging and cerebrospinal fluid findings demonstrated increased cerebral blood flow and opening of the blood-brain barrier, indicating the cause of the cerebral swelling.
A 38-year-old man was taken to hospital with generalized clonic seizure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple ring-enhancing lesions centered in the left frontoparietal lobe. A histopathological examination of a brain biopsy sample revealed granulomatous lesions with caseous necrosis. We extracted DNA from a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) brain specimen, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the DNA sample detected the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific insertion sequence IS6110. The lesions worsened after anti-tuberculosis drugs were administered, which we considered to be a paradoxical response and continued treatment. A genetic diagnosis of M. tuberculosis using FFPE specimens is useful for diagnosing tuberculoma.
Cryptogenic new-onset refractory status epilepticus (C-NORSE) is a neurologic emergency condition characterized by refractory status epilepticus (RSE) of unknown cause. Brain atrophy in a setting of C-NORSE is usually irreversible. A 33-year-old woman who was highly suspected of C-NORSE once showed mild frontotemporal atrophy on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but follow-up MRI revealed recovery of the brain atrophy. Her cognitive function also gradually improved, with a reduction in seizure frequency. Early initiation of intensive immunotherapy with anti-seizure medications may have minimized irreversible brain damage associated with RSE, resulting in a relatively good outcome.
Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) is a peripheral nervous system disorder involving multifocal distribution. Although nerve ultrasonography has shown potential for detecting NA lesions, no established detection method exists for distal forearm NA. A 59-year-old man presented with weakness of the muscles innervated by the left posterior interosseous nerve (PIN), median nerve (MN), anterior interosseous nerve (AIN), and ulnar nerve (UN), following severe left shoulder pain. This case suggests that nerve ultrasonography can help accurately diagnose distal forearm NA.
We encountered a 78-year-old Japanese man with IgG4-related sialoadenitis complicated with marked eosinophilia. We diagnosed him with IgG4-RD (related disease) with a submandibular gland tumor, serum IgG4 elevation, IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration, and storiform fibrosis. During follow-up after total incision of the submandibular gland, the peripheral eosinophil count was markedly elevated to 29,480/μL. The differential diagnosis of severe eosinophilia without IgG4-RD was excluded. The patient exhibited a prompt response to corticosteroid therapy. His peripheral blood eosinophil count was the highest ever reported among similar cases. We also review previous cases of IgG4-RD with severe eosinophilia.
Mycobacterium marinum is a ubiquitous organism inhabiting both fresh and salt water. It can cause human diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection. The organism is also known to cause a false positive reaction to interferon-γ release assay, the test to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection. Here, we present a case of submandibular nodule caused by M. marinum with positive T-SPOT®.TB test, which was likely to be false positive.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) oophoritis is an extremely rare and fatal condition. We encountered a 63-year-old woman with CMV oophoritis who had been treated for Burkitt's lymphoma. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography performed after chemotherapy showed a high 18F-fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose uptake in both ovaries, which required distinguishing relapse. CMV oophoritis was diagnosed on histology following bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Although the patient later developed recurrent episodes of CMV antigenemia, after which complications of CMV retinitis appeared, and she ultimately died of CMV meningitis, surgical resection with antiviral medication resolved her abdominal symptoms and cleared CMV antigenemia for several weeks. It is therefore worth considering surgical resection in combination with antiviral drugs as a treatment option.