Objective Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011, many residents of Fukushima Prefecture were affected by a radiation accident in addition to suffering loss or damage from the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The aim of this study was to evaluate the actual condition of patients with peptic ulcers related to the disaster.
Methods Patients with peptic ulcers at six hospitals in three different regions of Fukushima Prefecture during the two months following the disaster and the corresponding period of the year before and the year after the disaster were enrolled in this study. Changes by period and region in the number of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examinations and the number of peptic ulcer patients were evaluated as the primary endpoints. Changes in the frequencies of hemorrhagic ulcers were evaluated by period and by region as secondary endpoints.
Results The numbers of EGDs and peptic ulcer cases compared to the previous year decreased in 2011 and then increased in 2012. However, the ratio of hemorrhagic ulcers to peptic ulcers was higher in 2011 (51.9%) than in 2010 (38.1%) and 2012 (31.1%), and the 2011 hemorrhagic ulcer ratio was the highest at 63.6% in the coastal area. Regarding bleeding cases during 2011, the rate at 1 month after the disaster (64.1%) was higher than the rate at 2 months after the disaster (40.5%) (p=0.033).
Conclusion The number of patients with peptic ulcers did not increase immediately following the disaster in Fukushima Prefecture. However, the rate of bleeding patients increased soon after the disaster, especially in the coastal area.
Objective There are no reports on whether or not trainees can safely carry out endoscopic procedures for the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic treatments for CBD stones by trainees.
Methods Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in 1,016 consecutive patients at our institution during the 6-year study period. The endoscopically treated patients with CBD stones were included in this study. Physicians who had experienced ≥300 ERCP procedures were defined as experts, while those who had experienced <300 procedures were defined as trainees. The trainees were replaced by an expert when they could not achieve the established criteria. Patients were divided into the following three groups to retrospectively examine the patients' backgrounds, details of endoscopic treatments, and intra-/post-operative complications: Group A, completed by trainees under supervision of an expert; B, treated by an expert who switched in for a trainee in the middle of the procedure; and C, completed by an expert.
Results A total of 325 patients with CBD stones underwent endoscopic treatments. The number included in Groups A, B, and C was 176, 102, and 47, respectively. The bile duct catheter insertion successes rates for Groups A, B, and C were 99.0%, 97.1%, and 100% (p=0.09), and the complete stone removal rates were 94.2%, 94.8%, and 100%, respectively (p=0.07), showing no significant difference among the three groups. Furthermore, the frequency of intra-/post-operative complications was not significantly different among the three groups (p=0.48, p=0.12, respectively).
Conclusion This study showed that trainees could safely perform endoscopic procedures in accordance with our facility's criteria during ERCP.
Objective An image analysis of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) can provide objective quantitation of the disease status in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, to our knowledge, no reports have investigated the utility of the normal lung volume for evaluating mortality from IPF. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the normally attenuated lung volume on HRCT as a percentage of whole-lung volume (NL%) and IPF mortality.
Methods The NL% was determined by HRCT (between -950 and -701 Hounsfield units) using a density mask technique and volumetric software. The NL%, visual assessments of the normal lung by two radiologists, pulmonary function variables, and the gender, age, and physiology (GAP) index were retrospectively evaluated for 175 patients with IPF. Uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses and C statistics for mortality were performed.
Results The univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified the NL% as a prognostic factor [hazard ratio, 0.949; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.936-0.964; p<0.0001]. In the multivariate analysis, the NL% was a prognostic factor, but the radiologists' visual assessment scores of normal lung were not. The C index increased when the NL% was included in the models of the pulmonary function variables. Furthermore, the C index for a combined model of GAP stage and categorized NL% (0.758; 95% CI, 0.751-0.762) was higher than for the model with the GAP stage alone (0.689; 95% CI, 0.672-0.709).
Conclusion The NL% was a prognostic factor in our study population. Quantification of the normal lung using our method may help improve the IPF staging systems.
Objective Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological cancer. An attempt to treat MM using a topoisomerase I inhibitor was made based on our previous non-clinical studies suggesting the usefulness of an SN-38 derivative. Our aim was to conduct a phase I/II study of NK012, a micelle-forming SN-38 conjugate, in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM).
Methods NK012 was administered at doses of 12-24 mg/m2 and the safety, pharmacokinetics and preliminary efficacy were evaluated.
Results Neutropenia was the most common grade 3 or 4 adverse drug reaction. Grade 4 neutropenia accounted for the majority of dose-limiting toxicities and only appeared at a dose of 24 mg/m2. The maximum concentrations and the area under the concentration-time curves from time zero to infinity for both NK012 and its active metabolite SN-38 increased in a dose-dependent manner. The best overall response was stable disease, which was achieved in 12 out of 16 patients.
Conclusion The recommended dose of NK012 monotherapy for RRMM patients was concluded to be 20 mg/m2. However, this phase I/II study was terminated at the end of the phase I stage because no patients showed an objective response. Additional clinical studies of combination therapy with NK012 and other agents are warranted.
A 76-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma associated with alcoholic cirrhosis was hospitalized for lightheadedness and melena. He had undergone multiple surgeries and had been treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and sorafenib. Neither upper nor lower gastrointestinal endoscopy detected the source of bleeding. Oral double-balloon enteroscopy revealed a mass lesion in the upper jejunum, 20 cm from the Treitz ligament on the anal side, which was identified as the source of bleeding. Subsequently, a biopsy was performed. A histopathological examination detected a hepatocellular carcinoma, and a final diagnosis of jejunal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma was established.
There have been few studies on relapse after a sustained virological response in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients treated with interferon-free regimens. Thus, the risk of late relapse in patients treated with interferon-free therapy remains unclear. A 67-year-old woman with HCV genotype 1b and liver cirrhosis received oral daclatasvir and asunaprevir. Combination therapy was stopped after 4 weeks because of an episode of encephalopathy. Nonetheless, an HCV polymerase chain reaction at 24 weeks posttreatment was negative. However, HCV ribonucleic acid was detectable at approximately 62 weeks posttreatment. Very late HCV relapses may occur in patients with liver cirrhosis who receive an interferon-free regimen when the treatment period is insufficient.
A 52-year-old man presented with a fever and malaise. Transthoracic echocardiogram was performed because of a holosystolic murmur, which showed mitral valve prolapse and a regurgitation jet toward the posterior wall of the left atrium. There was no apparent vegetation at any valves. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus mitis/oralis. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed vegetation only at the posterior wall of the left atrium exposed to the mitral regurgitant jet. We diagnosed this condition as infective mural endocarditis. This case highlighted the need for a detailed observation of the valves and the atrial wall when infective endocarditis is suspected.
An 82-year-old man with a permanent pacemaker (PM) implanted for sick sinus syndrome complained of palpitation due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and flutter. During extensive pulmonary vein isolation, the atrial lead was dislodged to the level of the tricuspid annulus. Radiofrequency energy delivery to the cavotricuspid isthmus reproducibly caused twitching of the PM pocket. The atrial lead was repositioned to the right atrial appendage, PM check revealed no functional change in the PM or lead performance. This is the first reported case of twitching of the PM pocket due to electromagnetic interference.
A 72-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and who was on dialysis was admitted with fever and chills. Two years previously, he had been diagnosed with caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA). Blood cultures revealed Staphylococcus aureus, and echocardiography revealed vegetation attached to the CCMA lesion, progressing to both the anterior and posterior annulus. Infective endocarditis (IE) was diagnosed and antibiotic (ampicillin) treatment was initiated. Emergent mitral valve replacement was performed after the occurrence of multiple cerebral infarctions. During surgery, we identified vegetation attached to the CCMA lesion. After surgery, the patient showed a good recovery and was discharged. This case demonstrates that IE can be complicated with CCMA.
Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare condition that is characterized by dyspnea and arterial oxygen desaturation, which worsen on standing and which are relieved by recumbency. We treated an 80-year-old woman with an atrial septal defect (ASD) who demonstrated POS following thoracic and lumbar vertebral compression fractures. The surgical closure of the ASD relieved her symptoms. The etiology might have been multiple compression fractures causing kyphosis and aortic distortion producing right atrial compression and increased right-to-left flow through the ASD. POS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who develop dyspnea after vertebral compression fractures. The careful assessment of the patient's history and clinical condition helps in the diagnosis of POS.
A 55-year-old man presented with dyspnea, edema, and appetite loss. He had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting 8 years previously. He had jugular venous distention and Kussmaul's sign. Contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) demonstrated an intrapericardial mass compressing the right ventricular (RV) cavity. T1- and T2-weighted black-blood images showed a mass with heterogeneous high signal intensity and a thick and dark rim. The mass was considered to be a chronic hematoma. After pericardiotomy with surgical removal of the hematoma, CMRI showed the marked improvement of the RV function. Late intrapericardial hematoma is rare and CMRI is useful for making a differential diagnosis.
We herein report a case of pheochromocytoma occurring in the course of Parkinson's disease. The coexistence of these two disease is extremely rare, with only four cases hitherto reported across the public databases. It is also noteworthy that biochemical tests, which are critical for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, are severely confounded by dopaminergic medications for Parkinson's disease, highlighting the importance of image-based modalities in this setting. We further attempted to gain insight into the potential molecular mechanisms, proposing that hypoxia-inducible factor signaling could make these two diseases mutually exclusive, while excessive reactive oxygen species could enable their coexistence.
Pazopanib has been reported to induce proteinuria; however, no pathological findings have been reported. We herein report the case of a 31-year-old man with rhabdomyosarcoma treated with pazopanib who developed nephrotic syndrome. A renal biopsy revealed endothelial injury with podocyte changes. Based on the biopsy findings, we diagnosed the patient with nephrotic syndrome caused by pazopanib. Following the discontinuation of pazopanib, the patient's proteinuria gradually decreased without any specific treatment. We should be careful when encountering drug-induced proteinuria in patients taking pazopanib.
The uncommon mutations in the EGFR (the epithelial growth factor receptor) gene include a heterogeneous group of genomic alterations within exons 18-21. The clinical response of patients with such mutations to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment, however, remains unclear. We herein report a case of advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring complex exon 18 G719X (Gly719Xaa) and exon 20 S768I (Ser768Ile) mutations. The patient started to receive afatinib and has exhibited good response without progression for 12 months. Second-generation EGFR-TKIs might be an optimal treatment option for non-small cell lung cancers harboring these types of rare EGFR mutation.
M. abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and is the most common cause of pulmonary RGM infection. M. abscessus pleurisy is extremely rare. We herein report the case of a young patient with M. abscessus pleurisy without any lung lesions. A laboratory analysis of the pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte predominance and increased adenosine deaminase, similar to the findings observed in tuberculous pleurisy. The patient was initially treated for tuberculous pleurisy, which resulted in the partial improvement of the patient's symptoms and pleural effusion. M. abscessus pleurisy should be considered, especially in immunocompromised individuals, even in the absence of pulmonary involvement.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) with kyphoscoliosis-related alveolar hypoventilation is uncommon, so little is known about the effectiveness of treatments for this condition. A 66-year-old man with kyphosis who had been treated with nocturnal noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation developed PH with a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) of 32 mmHg and a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) of 5.95 Wood units. After addition of oxygen therapy and tadalafil, his condition improved. One year later, his mean PAP and PVR were 25 mmHg and 3.62 Wood units, respectively. This case shows the therapeutic potential of vasoactive medications for alveolar hypoventilation-related PH.
A 69-year-old man with post-operative recurrence of lung adenocarcinoma was treated with multiple chemotherapies, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. A second biopsy revealed an EGFR T790M mutation. As 10th-line chemotherapy, osimertinib was initiated. After 24 weeks, chest computed tomography (CT) revealed asymptomatic ground-glass opacities in both lobes. After four weeks of osimertinib discontinuation, imaging revealed rapid lung cancer progression. Osimertinib was resumed. After 11 weeks, CT revealed decreased lung nodules with no exacerbation of interstitial lung disease. We describe a patient who experienced transient asymptomatic pulmonary opacities during treatment with osimertinib, which was successfully managed by a "stop-and-go" approach.
We report a rare case of anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) encephalitis presenting clinical relapse in association with recurrence of thymoma. Anti-AMPAR encephalitis is an autoimmune-mediated neurological disease, frequently accompanied by the presence of neoplasms, thus comprising the spectrum of paraneoplastic syndrome. A patient had been in remission for 34 months showed clinical relapse 3 months after the detection of recurrent thymoma. Clinical relapse of anti-AMPAR encephalitis after the recurrence of an initially detected neoplasm has not been previously reported. Our case therefore highlights the pathogenic relevance of specific tumor antigens as a trigger of anti-AMPAR antibody production and induction of the disease.
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare reversible neurological syndrome that causes subcortical vasogenic brain edema and which is associated with the use of target-specific agents. Lenvatinib is a target-specific agent that was recently approved for inoperable thyroid cancer. We herein describe the case of a 66-year-old woman with anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) who was treated with lenvatinib and who subsequently developed PRES. The clinical and radiological findings improved after suspending therapy for 1 week, and there was no recurrence with intermittent lower-dose lenvatinib treatment. Lenvatinib may prolong survival in patients with ATC and can be administered intermittently, even after PRES onset.
Based on the hypothesis that autoimmunity plays a role in the pathogenesis of neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), immunotherapy is sometimes administered. Early intervention is recommended for a good prognosis. We herein report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with neuralgia, weakness, and muscle atrophy in his right shoulder girdle and upper arm, which progressed for ten months following a marine sports accident. The patient was diagnosed with NA. His neurological deficits gradually improved after several courses of immunotherapy, suggesting that in addition to being effective for treating early-stage disease, immunotherapy may be effective for treating chronic cases.
Thalamotomy is effective in treating refractory tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). We herein report a PD patient who underwent left ventral intermediate nucleus and ventro oralis posterior nucleus thalamotomy using magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). Right-side resting tremor and rigidity were abolished immediately following the ultrasound energy delivery. In addition, left-side resting tremor and rigidity also improved. No adverse events occurred during the procedure. We observed the exacerbation of bradykinesia, which might have been caused by edema around the target. This is the first report of thalamotomy using MRgFUS for PD patient from Japan. Further investigations concerning the efficacy and safety of this procedure are necessary.
Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by fever, arthritis and rash. Corticosteroids represent a promising therapeutic option for AOSD; however, some resistant cases require immunosuppressants and biologic agents. We herein report the case of a 29-year-old Japanese man with severe AOSD, accompanied by constrictive pericarditis (CP) and pleuritis. Although 2 courses of steroid pulse and subsequent high-dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine A improved the patient's CP and pleuritis, his fever and inflammatory responses persisted. Tocilizumab (TCZ) was added to his treatment, which resulted in a rapid remission. This case suggests the usefulness of TCZ in the treatment of severe AOSD with CP and pleuritis.
We describe a case of a woman who presented with a persistent cough, general fatigue, and a fever. Interstitial lung disease was rapidly progressive and resistant to high-dose steroid therapy. She tested positive for the presence of anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) antibody, although she had no skin manifestations of dermatomyositis. She was eventually diagnosed with unclassifiable idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and was successfully treated with intensive immunosuppressive therapy including intravenous cyclophosphamide. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-MDA-5 antibody in a patient with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.
A 60-year-old man developed pneumonia after undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for diffuse large-B cell lymphoma. A urinary antigen test and sputum culture were both negative for Legionella pneumophila; however, a sputum sample that was examined by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was positive for Legionella spp. On admission, the results of blood culturing using a BACTEC system were negative for 7 days. However, L. pneumophila serogroup 5 was detected in a blood subculture using WYOα medium. The patient was successfully treated with a fluoroquinolone-based regimen. LAMP is useful for the diagnosis of Legionella spp.