The different prevalences of iron overload syndromes between Caucasians and Asians may be accounted for by the differences in genetic background. The major mutation of hemochromatosis in Celtic ancestry, C282Y of HFE, was reported in a Japanese patient. Five patients of 3 families with the hepatic transferrin receptor gene (TFR2)-linked hemochromatosis were found in different areas of Japan, suggesting that TFR2 is a major gene in Japanese people. Three patients with mutations in the hemojuvelin gene, HJV, showed also middle-age-onset hemochromatosis. A heterozygous mutation in the H ferritin gene, FTH1, was found in a family of 3 affected patients. Another autosomal dominant SLC40A1-linked hyperferritinemia (ferroportin disease) was found in 3 patients of 2 families. Two patients with hemochromatosis were free from any mutations in the genes investigated. In conclusion, the genetic backgrounds of Japanese patients with primary iron overload syndromes were partially clarified, showing some phenotype-genotype correlations.
Objective. Elderly people at nursing homes often suffer from malnutrition, which is characterized by a loss of muscle mass and hypoalbuminemia. This malnourished state is closely associated with an impaired activity of daily living (ADL). We analyzed the nutritional state of such elderly individuals longitudinally over 3 years by anthropometry, serum albumin, and muscle and fat volume as estimated by MRI. Patients and Methods. The subjects consisted of 16 elderly women aged 83 ± 7 (mean ± SD) years who resided at a nursing home in an urban area of central Japan. We determined their ADL levels using the Barthel Index (BI) at entry. Seven women belonged to group A (BI; 65-100), thus implying either a mild or no decline in ADL, while the other 9 were in group B (BI; 0-60) and they demonstrated a severe decline in ADL. We measured the following parameters every year from 2000 to 2003; anthropometry including height, body weight, arm circumference (AC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC), thigh muscle and fat volume as estimated by MRI [thigh muscle volume (TMV) and thigh fat volume (TFV)], serum albumin, and plasma amino acid levels by blood biochemistry. The anthropometric values were converted into percentages of the age-and sex-matched reference values for Japanese. Results. In all subjects, the TMV, %AMC, and serum albumin level decreased significantly during the three-year period (p<0.05, respectively). The change in TMV correlated significantly with those in the %AC and %AMC (p<0.05, respectively). Group B showed significantly larger decreases in the %AMC and serum albumin level than group A. Conclusion. Both the muscular and visceral protein levels were found to decrease with aging in the subjects at the nursing home. This decrease depends partly on the ADL level of each subject.
Objective: To clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) in a large number of patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods: Subjects comprised 611 patients with OSAS registered from 7 sleep centers and clinics and analyzed according to the definitions of the Respiratory Failure Research Group of the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare. Baseline characteristics, polysomnographic data during sleep, laboratory blood examinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, pulmonary functions, and arterial blood gases were compared between OHS and non-OHS patients. Determinants of daytime hypercapnia were also examined in OHS patients. Results: OHS was identified in 55 of the 611 patients with OSAS (9%). OHS patients were younger, heavier, and more somnolent than non-OHS patients and displayed more severe OSAS, liver dysfunctions, higher total cholesterol, and impaired pulmonary function. However, these differences were resolved except for pulmonary function after correction for obesity. Daytime hypercapnia was associated with impaired pulmonary function. Percent vital capacity (%VC) was most closely correlated with PaCO2 in OHS. Conclusion: OHS patients display numerous abnormalities due to obesity compared with non-OHS patients. Impaired pulmonary function, particularly %VC, may play an important role in the development of daytime hypercapnia independent of obesity in OHS patients.
Object. To evaluate a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Hitazyme C. pneumoniae) detecting Chlamydophila pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody, we compared the assay with culturing, immunoblotting and the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test. Patients and Methods. Two hundred five patients with stable chronic lung diseases without acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and 116 healthy volunteers without ARTIs were enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens and sera were obtained from all subjects for isolation and serological testing of C. pneumoniae. Results.C. pneumoniae IgM-positive results were observed in 16.5% of patients with stable chronic lung diseases and in 8.6% of asymptomatic healthy subjects. However, there were no positive cases with cell culture, immunoblot or MIF test. In addition, no cases with a significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody titer for the ELISA kit and MIF test between paired sera were observed in the followed-up groups. IgM-positive cases were more frequent among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.1566), collagen disease-associated interstitial lung disease (p<0.0001) and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (p=0.0199) than among the healthy subjects. Conclusion. Our results indicate that IgM-positive results with the ELISA kit do not always reflect acute C. pneumoniae infections. Further studies are needed, to determine an appropriate cut-off level and the possible causes of the false-positive results in the ELISA kit, such as other underlying conditions.
We describe a 40-year-old male patient with Hunters syndrome. His main manifestations were ascites and esophageal varices due to cirrhotic liver. We obtained hepatic biopsy samples and examined them. Ultrastructurally, the features of the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells were the same as those reported in young patients. The passage of 40 years led to gradual progression to fibrosis, and ultimately liver cirrhosis. Namely, with a longer survival time, the complications of liver cirrhosis become more remarkable. Hepatic fibrosis in Hunters syndrome is slowly progressive and patients who are expected to have a longer life span should be continuously monitored for hepatic complications.
The patient, a 43-year-old Japanese man suffering from duodenal ulcer and reflux esophagitis, was admitted to our hospital because of submucosal tumor in the antrum and obstructive stenosis of duodenum. Several imaging tests could not rule out the possibility of malignant disease. Therefore, the patient was surgically treated. Pathohistological examination of resected tissue demonstrated Heinrich type I heterotopic pancreas in the gastric lesion and submucosal abscess in the duodenal lesion with stenosis . In this case, it was considered that the heterotopic pancreas caused chronic inflammation to form the gastric tumor, and submucosal abscess leading to the severe duodenal stenosis.
Abstract: A 27-year-old woman presented with acute paresis after taking an oral polio vaccine (OPV). Deep tendon reflexes were preserved, needle electromyography showed no neurogenic changes, and there were no lesions on spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), suggesting that motor neurons of the spinal cord were not affected. Brain MRI showed abnormal lesions in the tegmentum of the upper pons, left cerebral peduncles, truncus of the corpus callosum, and right parietal lobe. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed mild pleocytosis. The most probable diagnosis was acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with OPV.
An increasing number of patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are reaching older age. We encountered a 75-year-old woman with uncorrected TOF and concomitant severe coronary artery disease (CAD) with congestive heart failure. Her CAD risk factor was hyperlipidemia, which had been untreated. Successful percutaneous coronary interventions have improved her clinical condition and provided long-term survival. Although CAD is considered to be a rare complication in adults with TOF, both strict modification of CAD risk factors and early detection of CAD would be also required in this population, given the residual TOF lesions relating to acute exacerbation of clinical presentation.
Leukocytopenia can be caused by depressed production, increased peripheral destruction, or excessive peripheral pooling. Leukocyte margination is one of the mechanisms responsible for excessive peripheral pooling. A reversible leukocyte margination is caused by an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, there are limited data for this phenomenon in clinical conditions. We describe a case of unexpected transient leukocytopenia after exchanging an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) system used to treat severe cardiogenic pulmonary edema. To assess the cause of the leukocytopenia, the serum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and selectins were measured. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 were markedly, but transiently, elevated in relation to the leukocytopenia. The transient leukocytopenia with pulmonary margination appeared to be caused by a steep surge of pro-inflammatory cytokines stimulated by hypoxia/reoxygenation during the exchange of the ECMO system. This case may suggest the mechanisms responsible for leukocytopenia in the clinical entity referred to as "systemic inflammatory response syndrome"
A 45-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bone pain and hypophosphatemia. He had undergone surgery 2 years previously for a "benign unclassified mesenchymal tumor" in the skull, but there were no clinical symptoms related to osteomalacia. His laboratory examination revealed low serum phosphate, high alkaline phosphatase, and normal calcium levels. The diagnosis of tumor-induced osteomalacia due to phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT) was made by re-examining the pathologic specimens. Oral supplementation with phosphate and 1-25-dihydroxyvitamin D relieved his clinical symptoms and laboratory values returned to normal. However, subcutaneous administration of octreotide had no clinical effect. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the existence of PMTMCT especially nonphosphaturic or asymptomatic variants of this disorder.
We report on 2 successful pregnancies in a young woman who has essential thrombocythemia. The platelet count remained well controlled with interferon-alfa administration together with acetylsalicylic acid in each pregnancy. The present case and the published series suggest that close monitoring of the platelet count is crucial and that interferon may be the preferred therapeutic option in the management of pregnancy in patients with essential thrombocythemia.
The majority of patients with type I Gaucher's disease never develop neurological signs or symptoms. However, several case reports of Parkinson's disease associated with type I Gaucher's disease have been published, suggesting a genetic link between the two diseases. Hence, detailed clinical investigations are required when the two diseases occur simultaneously, in order to determine whether this is coincidental or whether a true association is present. We present a Japanese man in whom parkinsonism was associated with type I Gaucher's disease. Findings of brain positron tomography (PET) and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) cardiac scintigraphy are presented.
The perinuclear antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (p-ANCA) is closely associated with rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis, microscopic polyangiitis, and allergic granulomatous angiitis. While mononeuropathy due to vasculitis is a well- known neurological manifestation of these conditions, manifestations involving the central nervous system (CNS) have rarely been reported. Our patient presented the very characteristic CNS lesion of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) which has often been associated with hypertension, eclampsia, cyclosporine neurotoxicity, and other diseases (1). The patient also developed the recently established disease entity, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (2).
Previously no functional study has been available for the mechanism of constipation in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP). We performed a gut function test in a 78-year-old woman with transthyretin-type FAP who had severe constipation. The gut function test showed a prolonged colonic transit time, a low anal pressure at rest and upon squeezing, loss of the spontaneous phasic rectal contractions, and weak abdominal strain. All these abnormalities suggested a peripheral autonomic dysfunction, corresponding to the enteric neuropathy that was confirmed upon autopsy.
The patient was a 42-year-old woman diagnosed as having MCTD and Sjögren's syndrome in 1989, and who was taking oral prednisolone. Proteinuria and microscopic hematuria were pointed out for the first time in December 2004. She was referred to our hospital because of massive hemoptysis. Advanced renal failure, anemia and pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage were diagnosed on admission. She was positive for serum MPO-ANCA. The patient was started on a therapy that included steroids, cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis. However, her respiratory condition was untreatable and she died on the 16th day of hospitalization. The autopsy revealed alveolar hemorrhage in the lungs and crescentic glomerulonephritis. This patient was considered as a rare case of MCTD associated with MPO-ANCA-positive microscopic polyangiitis.
A 40-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to Oita University Hospital with progressive dyspnea, consciousness disturbance and severe cytopenias. Her chest roentgenogram showed diffuse bilateral infiltrates. She was therefore forced to receive mechanical ventilation. Bone marrow aspiration disclosed numerous hemophagocytic histiocytes, thus suggesting her condition to be hemophagocytic syndrome. In addition, she also developed myocarditis and renal failure. Pulsed methylprednisolone, gamma-globulin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and sivelestat sodium hydrate were administrated, and thereafter the patient recovered from cytopenia and organ failure. Afterwards, influenza A H3N2 was detected from bronchial extracts. We should recognize that an influenza A virus infection can induce hemophagocytic syndrome and acute respiratory failure as the initial manifestations of multiple organ failure.