Objective It has been discussed whether IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), including autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), is associated with malignancy; however, the issue has not been clarified. Methods We analyzed 113 patients with IgG4-RD in whom malignancy was not diagnosed at the time of IgG4-RD onset and the follow-up period was longer than six months. A total of 95 patients had AIP. The mean follow-up period was 73 months. The incidence of the observed malignancies was compared with the expected incidence in an age- and sex-matched general Japanese population based on the Vital Statistics of Japan. Results There were 15 malignancies (lung cancer in five patients, pancreatic cancer in two patients, gastric cancer in two patients, bile duct cancer in one patient, renal cancer in one patient, breast cancer in one patient, tongue cancer in one patient, malignant melanoma in one patient and acute myeloid leukemia in one patient) in 14 patients during the follow-up period. The calculated standardized incidence rate of the total malignancies was not significant, that is, 1.04 (95% CI 0.57-1.75). Conclusion The incidence of total malignancies in IgG4-RD patients is similar to that observed in the general population. At present, it is reasonable to conclude that IgG4-RD is not associated with an increased incidence of total malignancies.
Objective The plasma eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratio (EPA/AA), which is determined only by dietary intake, has been attracting attention as a new risk marker for coronary artery disease (CAD). A Japanese inland prefecture, Tochigi, ranks higher mortality rate from CAD and lower seafood consumption, compared to other prefectures. The aim of this study was to investigate the EPA/AA ratio in residents of Tochigi prefecture. Methods We measured the EPA/AA ratio in patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, because of suspicion for having CAD, all of whom were residents of Tochigi prefecture or its bordering area. Patients A total of 428 patients were enrolled in 5 centers. Results The median value of the EPA/AA ratio in the study patients was 0.37, which seems to be lower than the value of the whole Japan. The EPA/AA ratio was similar in patients with and without CAD. Female patients had lower EPA/AA ratios than male patients. When subjects were divided into 10-year age groups, 30- to 39-year-old male and female patients displayed similar EPA/AA ratios. However, the ratios of 50- to 59-year old female patients (p=0.001) and 60- to 69-year old female patients (p=0.034) were significantly lower than those of age-matched male patients. Conclusion In female residents of Tochigi prefecture, and particularly in menopausal female patients suspected of CAD, the EPA/AA ratio might be lower than male patients. EPA intake can help prevent cardiovascular events, especially in menopausal female residents of an area where the fish intake is low.
Objective Routine delays in the diagnosis of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) are well known and conceivably attributable to the absence of cues, other than anti-adrenal autoantibodies, to pursue subclinical PAI. Subclinical PAI is latent unless the afflicted patient encounters stress such as an acute illness, surgery, psychosocial burden, etc. It remains to be demonstrated whether a history of stress-related health changes is a useful cue to pursue a diagnosis of latent PAI. Methods The patients were selected for a history of recurrent symptoms, i.e., gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, or lassitude, aggravated by stress and alleviated by the removal of stress, and signs, i.e., weight loss, hypotension, and hyperpigmentation. As the early morning cortisol levels were low or low-normal and the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were within the reference ranges, provocation tests, i.e., insulin-induced hypoglycemia tests and low-dose (1 μg) corticotropin tests (LDTs), were used to estimate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis status. Patients with the HPA axis dysfunction on two provocation tests were supplemented with physiologic doses of glucocorticoids (GCs). The effects of GC supplementation on stress-related health changes were observed. Results The ACTH levels after insulin-induced hypoglycemia were higher and the cortisol levels were lower in the patients than in the control subjects. The cortisol levels in the patients were increased less significantly by LDT than those observed in the control subjects. Stress-related health changes ceased to recur and signs, i.e., a low body weight, hypotension, and hyperpigmentation, were ameliorated following GC supplementation. Conclusion A history of stress-related health changes is useful as a cue to pursue latent PAI in patients with low or low-normal early morning cortisol levels.
Objective The elevated plasma glucose level and/or insulin resistance in diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance play important roles in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness. The present study investigated whether insulin resistance correlated with arterial stiffness before the development of glucose intolerance. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in 872 young to middle-age individuals with normal glucose tolerance (aged 36.2±8.5 years, BMI 24.6±3.1 kg/m2 [mean±SD]). The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index was used as a quantitative assessment of the fasting insulin resistance (FIR), and the plasma insulin level after glucose loading was adopted as an index of the post-challenge insulin resistance (PIR). The Matsuda index [ISI (composite)] was used as a measurement of the insulin sensitivity. The arterial stiffness assessed by the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was adopted to quantify its independent associations with insulin resistance. Results The univariate linear regression analysis indicated that the fasting plasma glucose level (FPG, β=68.2; 95%CI 40.9, 95.6; p<0.001), post-challenge plasma glucose level (PPG, β=25.3; 95%CI 15.6, 35.0; p<0.001), FIR (β=24.5; 95%CI 14.1, 35.0; p<0.001), PIR (β=1.30; 95%CI 0.87, 1.73; p<0.001) and ISI (composite) (β=-3.55; 95%CI -5.02, -2.07; p<0.001) were all significantly correlated with the baPWV. After adjustment for sex, age, BMI, heart rate, smoking, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and family history of diabetes, the multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the PIR (model 1, β=0.39, p=0.038; model 2, β=0.39, p=0.035; model 3, β=0.39, p=0.035) was an independent contributor to the baPWV, while the FIR, FPG, PPG and ISI (composite) failed to show any significant contribution. Conclusion The insulin resistance correlated with the arterial stiffness before glucose intolerance.
Objective Diabetes is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we examined the effects of alogliptin on blood glucose control and the renal function in type 2 diabetes CKD patients. Methods We recruited 36 CKD patients with type 2 diabetes. The patients were followed up for six months after adding alogliptin. Blood biochemical, urine test and office BP values were obtained six months before and after the start of treatment. Results The mean HbA1c value was not decreased; however, the 1,5-AG values tended to improve (p=0.1023). The mean eGFR was unchanged. There were no significant changes in the patients with an eGFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or more (25 patients) or in the patients with an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (11 patients). A total of 15 patients were identified to have rapidly declining diabetic nephropathy, with an annual reduction in eGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 or more. The slope of the regression line for eGFR (-1.296 before starting treatment with alogliptin) was positive, increasing up to 0.08786. The eGFR values appeared to stop decreasing and positively reversed. The urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio exhibited a downward trend. The effect on the renal function was independent of the levels of blood sugar, blood pressure and lipids. Conclusion We examined the ability of alogliptin to maintain the renal function in patients with CKD complicated by type 2 diabetes. Our study suggests that alogliptin can be safely administered in patients with CKD. However, although we expected alogliptin to demonstrate renal protective effects, were unable to detect statistically significant differences. One reason for this finding is that there are few registered cases.
Objective Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a clinical condition with high mortality that is characterized by the systemic activation of coagulation pathways resulting in multiple organ failure. Although no standard treatment for DIC has been established, recent reports have indicated that recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) is effective against DIC. Methods To elucidate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of DIC, we retrospectively analyzed 92 DIC patients who were treated with rTM at Miyazaki Prefectural Hospital over a 4-year period (62 patients had infectious diseases and 30 patients had hematological diseases). A diagnosis of DIC was made based on the diagnostic criteria of the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) and Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW) for infectious diseases and hematological diseases, respectively. In addition to treating the underlying disease, rTM was administered for six consecutive days. Results In this study, 49 of the 92 DIC patients (53.3%) experienced resolution of DIC seven days after administration (46.8% patients with infectious disease and 66.7% with hematological disease). A higher survival rate was observed after a 28-day observation period in 69 of the 92 patients (75.0%) (72.6% of the patients with infectious disease and 80.0% of the patients with hematological disease). A lower DIC score at the initiation of rTM treatment was closely related to a higher rate of resolution of DIC. Conclusion Our findings indicate that rTM therapy is an effective, safe and feasible treatment for DIC patients. Furthermore, making an accurate and early diagnosis of DIC and providing subsequent immediate treatment with rTM may improve the resolution of DIC.
Objective Noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are known to have a greater rate of ischemic stroke recurrence than those without. Although clopidogrel is often used to prevent the recurrence of noncardiogenic ischemic stroke, the relationship between the response to clopidogrel and CKD is unclear. In the present study, the relationship between the response to clopidogrel and the presence of CKD was investigated in noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients. Methods A total of 129 noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients receiving 75 mg/day of clopidogrel for ≥1 week were evaluated. The VerifyNow P2Y12 Assay was used to measure the level of platelet aggregation induced by 20 μM of adenosine diphosphate, and the degree of platelet aggregation and frequency of clopidogrel resistance were compared between 34 patients with CKD and 95 patients without CKD. Clopidogrel resistance was defined as a P2Y12 Reaction Units (PRU) value of >230 and/or % inhibition <20%. Results The PRU value was 201.9±91.3 in the patients with CKD and 163.3±86.4 in the patients without CKD (p=0.035). The frequency of a PRU value of >230 was 44.1% (15 patients) among the patients with CKD and 17.9% (17 patients) among those without CKD (p=0.002). The percent inhibition was 29.9%±28.1% among the patients with CKD and 41.1%±28.0% among the patients without CKD (p=0.030). The frequency of % inhibition <20% was 47.1% (16 patients) among the patients with CKD and 26.3% (25 patients) among those without CKD (p=0.026). Conclusion The present study showed that noncardiogenic ischemic stroke patients with CKD have a greater frequency of clopidogrel resistance, thus suggesting that the response to clopidogrel is diminished in these patients.
Three patients diagnosed as having remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema syndrome, pemphigus erythematosus and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were treated with oral prednisolone. Several weeks after starting the treatment, they experienced repeated chest pain attacks between midnight and early morning, although none of the patients had a past history of ischemic heart disease. One of the patients exhibited aggravation of symptoms soon after increasing the dose of prednisolone. A definitive diagnosis of vasospastic angina was made using electrocardiograms, coronary angiography and vasospasm provocation tests. These cases emphasize that clinicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of vasospastic angina following the initiation of corticosteroid therapy.
A 69-year-old woman was admitted for further examinations and treatment of chest pain. Emergency cardiac catheterization showed no significant stenosis on coronary angiograms; however, diffuse wall hypokinesis was observed on a left ventriculogram. After treating the patient's heart failure, cardiac catheterization was performed again. A spasm provocation test showed coronary spasms of the right and left coronary arteries. A right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy revealed denaturation and fibrosis of the myocardium under the endocardium, thus suggesting the presence of myocardial ischemia. This case highlights coronary spasms as a cause of heart failure.
We herein present the case of a 58-year-old Japanese man with Fanconi's syndrome with a 13-month history of bone pain in his ribs, hips, knees and ankles. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for the treatment of lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B virus infection for eight years and subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple insufficiency fractures in the ribs, ileum, tibia and calcaneus. Whole-body bone scintigraphy demonstrated increased uptake in those areas. Following dose reduction of ADV and the administration of treatment with calcitriol and phosphates, the patient's serum phosphate level increased and his clinical symptoms improved. Physicians prescribing ADV should carefully monitor the renal function and serum phosphate level.
An 86-year-old woman who had been treated for tuberculous peritonitis and pulmonary tuberculosis, exhibited a disturbance of consciousness and tonic-clonic convulsions seven days after the administration of the antituberculous drug isoniazid. As her serum vitamin B6 level was remarkably low, she was diagnosed with convulsive seizures due to vitamin B6 deficiency associated with isoniazid treatment. Seizures refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy were controlled with the administration of pyridoxine. Most reported cases of isoniazid-induced convulsive seizures occurred as a result of an overdose due to attempted suicide. This report presents a case of convulsive seizures that occurred in association with the short-term administration of a therapeutic dose of isoniazid.
A 64-year-old man who had been exposed to asbestos was referred to our hospital for a detailed examination of left pleural effusion. A laboratory examination of the urine and blood revealed nephrotic syndrome. A thoracoscopic examination did not yield a definitive diagnosis. Twenty months later, a left pleural tumor became apparent, and the patient died of respiratory failure and cachexia. An autopsy revealed epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma. The glomeruli appeared normal under light microscopy. A review of the English literature revealed only three reports of malignant mesothelioma associated with minimal-change nephrotic syndrome. The natural course of malignant mesothelioma with nephrotic syndrome has not been previously reported.
We herein present the case of a 30-year-old man who developed recurrent pancreatitis and chronic graft-versus-host disease following unrelated bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(16;21)(p11;q22). Autoimmune pancreatitis was initially suspected due to the radiological findings and lack of response to gabexate mesilate and antibiotics. An examination of specimens successfully obtained via endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) demonstrated invasion of AML cells in the pancreatic tissue. EUS-FNA is a less invasive method and a particularly useful diagnostic tool in severely ill patients.
High-molecular-weight kininogen (HMWK) deficiency is a very rare hereditary disorder. We herein report a case of HMWK deficiency with splenic infarction. The HMWK activity of the proband was markedly decreased (0.9%). Direct sequencing of his HMWK gene showed a homozygous "TC" insertion at c523-524 in exon 4. This insertion led to an amino acid substitution, Ser175Ser, resulting in a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon in amino acid 183. Furthermore, the HMWK activity was also reduced in the patient's three children, who exhibited the heterozygous "TC" insertion at c523-524 in exon 4. This is the first report of this gene alteration in a patient with HMWK deficiency.
We herein report the first case of glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve palsies that appeared after an influenza vaccination. A 15-year-old boy developed dysphagia and dysarthria seven days after receiving an inoculation of the inactivated influenza vaccine. Massive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment was applied, as the patient's symptoms were considered to be immunological adverse effects of the influenza vaccine. He responded well to IVIg, and the symptoms immediately diminished. The mechanisms underlying the development of neurologic symptoms following vaccination are difficult to determine; however, providing immediate immunological treatment, such as IVIg, is effective and beneficial in countering these symptoms.
We herein report the case of a Japanese man with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) accompanied by multiple myeloma (MM). The patient was diagnosed with PAN. Concurrently, IgG kappa paraprotein was detected, and bone marrow changes indicative of MM were observed. Prednisolone (PSL) administered at a dose of 30 mg/day was initiated; however, the serum creatinine level increased. In spite of increasing the dose of PSL to 45 mg/day and initiating treatment with double filtration plasmapheresis, the patient's renal dysfunction continued to progress and haemodialysis was introduced. He died from pneumonia 12 months after admission. We conclude that renal failure is an important risk factor in the prognosis of PAN accompanied by MM.
We herein present the case of a 47-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complicated by Kartagener's syndrome (KS). Although her RA disease activity score (DAS28-CRP) decreased following the administration of periodontitis treatment and etanercept, she did not achieve symptom relief or DAS28-CRP remission. After undergoing surgery for chronic sinusitis, her articular symptoms improved and the DAS28-CRP declined to the level of remission. Patients with KS may develop respiratory infections due to an impaired defense mechanism against microbes in the airway. Therefore, in patients with RA complicated by KS, comprehensive management of infection, including surgical therapy for sinusitis, is needed to reduce the RA disease activity.
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) with positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) has been reported in several cases. We herein present the case of a 52-year-old woman who was diagnosed with mediastinal fibrosis (MF) on a thoracoscopic surgical biopsy. The patient had positive myeloperoxidase ANCA and thereafter developed crescentic glomerulonephritis, which was considered to be a form of ANCA-related nephritis. Both the MF and crescentic glomerulonephritis favorably responded to immunosuppressive therapy. These findings suggest a common pathogenesis of these disorders involving ANCA positivity, as reported in patients with RPF.
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius occasionally causes meningitis associated with iatrogenic or traumatic events. We herein describe a case of meningitis caused by this organism in a patient without any apparent risk factors. In an assay of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid, cross-reaction occurred with Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen-coated latex particles in the PastorexTM Meningitis Kit. In the in vitro assays, three of the five clinically isolated S. salivarius strains showed cross-reactions with the kit, indicating that these strains expressed pneumococcal antigen-like antigens. This case shows that meningitis caused by S. salivarius can occur spontaneously and it may sometimes be misdiagnosed as S. pneumoniae infection.