Objective With the advent of capsule endoscopy (CE) and double-balloon endoscopy (DBE), the diagnosis and treatment of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have markedly progressed. However, rebleeding sometimes occurs and is difficult to diagnose and treat. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical features of OGIB and risk factors for rebleeding in our hospital.
Methods A total of 195 patients who underwent CE and/or DBE for OGIB in our hospital from January 2009 to July 2016 were included in the present study. We analyzed 168 cases of small intestinal OGIB, after excluding 27 cases of extra small intestinal bleeding. The clinical characteristics and risk factors related to rebleeding were retrospectively studied.
Results Among the 168 patients who were included in the analysis, 95 patients (56.5%) were male. The mean age was 64.5 years (range, 8 to 87 years). Hypertension (31.0%) was the most frequent comorbidity, followed by chronic kidney disease (19.0%). The final diagnoses were ulcerative lesions (n=50, 29.8%), vascular lesions (n=30, 17.9%), tumors (n=7, 4.2%), and diverticula (n=2, 1.2%). The bleeding source was undetermined in the remaining 79 cases (47.0%). Rebleeding was confirmed in 29 cases (17.3%). In a univariate analysis, chronic kidney disease, vascular lesions, and overt previous bleeding were significantly associated with the risk of rebleeding. A multivariate analysis showed that chronic kidney disease, vascular lesion, and overt previous bleeding were significantly associated with the risk of rebleeding.
Conclusion Patients with OGIB with overt previous bleeding, vascular lesions, and/or chronic kidney disease had a higher risk of rebleeding.
Objective The decision to perform medical or mechanical therapy in patients with aborted sudden cardiac death (ASCD) due to coronary spasm is controversial. The Japanese Circulation Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary spastic angina mentioned that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is one option in patients with ASCD due to coronary spasm. We investigated the usefulness of spasm provocation tests under medications in five patients with ASCD due to coronary spasm.
Methods We performed the spasm provocation tests under medications in five ASCD patients due to coronary spasm. Pharmacological spasm provocation tests, including five acetylcholine (ACh) tests, two ergonovine (ER) tests, and two ACh added after ER tests, were performed to estimate the effect of medications to suppressing the next fatal spasms.
Results ACh tests under medications did not provoke spasm in one patient but did provoke in two patients. In the remaining two patients, neither the ACh test nor the ER test provoked spasm, but the ACh added after ER test induced a focal spasm in one coronary artery. We increased the medication dosage in four patients. An ICD was implanted in two patients, including one with refractory spasm and one with left main trunk spasm. One patient died due to pulseless electrical activity without ventricular fibrillation, while the remaining four patients survived.
Conclusion Spasm provocation tests under medication in patients with ASCD due to coronary spasm may be an option when deciding on medical or mechanical therapy.
Objective There is no report on the risk stratification of major cardiac events (MCEs) with a combination of the Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score and ischemic reduction detected with rest 201Tl and stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) after revascularization in Japanese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods This was a retrospective study. The patients were followed up to confirm their prognosis for at least one year. Ischemia was evaluated based on the summed difference scores converted to the percentage of the total myocardium Safety Data Sheet (SDS%). The SYNTAX score and SDS% were calculated before and after revascularization. The endpoint was the occurrence of MCEs.
Patients Study subjects were 293 patients who had a ≥75% stenotic lesion detected with coronary angiography following confirmation of ≥5% ischemia with SPECT, underwent revascularization, and thereafter received a re-evaluation with SPECT and coronary angiography.
Results During the follow-up, 25 patients experienced MCEs of cardiac death (n=2), non-fatal myocardial infarction (n=3), and unstable angina pectoris (n=20). A receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the best cut-off values of the residual SYNTAX score and ΔSDS% were 12 and 5%, respectively, for the prediction of MCEs. The patients with a low residual SYNTAX score (<12) and high ΔSDS% (≥5%) had the best prognosis, while those with a high residual SYNTAX score (≥12) and low ΔSDS% (<5%) had the worst prognosis.
Conclusion The combination of the residual SYNTAX score and ischemic reduction detected with nuclear cardiology is useful for predicting MCEs after revascularization.
Objective Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is the most frequent autoinflammatory syndrome, and its frequency is reported to be increasing in Japan. We studied the clinical features and genetic background of patients with FMF in our hospital.
Methods We analyzed the clinical features and genomic variants of MEFV, as well as 10 genes related to other autoinflammatory syndromes, in 22 Japanese patients with FMF. A genetic analysis was performed with a next generation sequencer.
Results The patients were classified into the typical FMF (n=16) and atypical FMF (n=6) groups. Fever, abdominal pain, thoracic pain, and arthralgia were observed in 22, 12, 8, and 10 patients, respectively. MEFV variants were found in 19 patients (86.4%). Two cases had no MEFV variants and one case only had a variant in the 3′ untranslated region (3′-UTR) of MEFV. Genomic variants were found in genes other than MEFV in 7 patients (31.8%); however, none met the diagnostic criteria for autoinflammatory syndromes with disease-related gene variants, and all were classified as typical FMF. Moreover, none of the 6 patients with atypical FMF had any variants among the 10 disease-related genes. All cases in which the onset occurred before 20 years of age were classified as typical FMF.
Conclusion The clinical features of FMF recorded in our hospital coincided with those from the Japanese national epidemiological survey of FMF in Japan. More than 30% of the patients with FMF had non-MEFV genes, related to other autoinflammatory syndromes, thereby suggesting that variants of these genes may act as a disease-modifier in FMF.
A 13-year-old boy presented to the hospital with a 3-month history of repeated vomiting and abdominal pain. Results of esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE). We initiated a short-term six-food elimination diet (SFED) and reintroduction therapy over five days. On the third day of SFED, the patient's abdominal symptoms completely disappeared. However, he experienced unbearable abdominal pain six hours after the reintroduction of milk and peanuts. His symptoms remain completely controlled at present after eliminating milk and peanut products. The SFED and reintroduction therapy for EGE may be effective even for short-term treatments over a five-day period.
We herein report a rare case of cutaneous and lymph node metastases that recurred 12 years after radical total gastrectomy for stage IIA gastric cancer. A 62-year-old man had undergone total gastrectomy for stage IIA gastric cancer 12 years earlier without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. At 12 years after the surgery, he was admitted for left jugular swelling. Computed tomography revealed supraclavicular lymph node swelling and precordial subcutaneous edema. The lymph node specimens and cutaneous biopsies indicated late recurrence of the gastric cancer. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy was administered effectively, but after eight months, the patient died due to deterioration in his general condition.
Colorectal involvement is very rare in cases of follicular lymphoma. Colonoscopy of a 69-year-old man revealed an aggregation of multiple whitish nodules in the sigmoid colon. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging demonstrated a coiled and elongated microvascular pattern on the surface and crystal violet staining showed a type I pit pattern. A biopsy showed follicular lymphoma (Grade 1), and no other involvement of lymphoma was detected. Following a diagnosis of primary colorectal follicular lymphoma stage I (Lugano classification), the patient was monitored by watch-and-wait therapy. We documented the endoscopic images of colorectal follicular lymphoma in the present case.
A 69-year-old man was referred to our department with acute hepatitis. He had been newly treated with benidipine hydrochloride for two months. His blood test results were as follows: aspartate aminotransferase, 1,614 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase, 1,091 IU/L and anti-smooth muscle antibody, ×80. Needle liver biopsy specimen showed interface hepatitis with mainly lymphocytic infiltration and bridging fibrosis in the periportal area. Immunohistochemistry revealed lymphocytic infiltration positive for IgG4. We diagnosed him with IgG4-related AIH with an etiology that was suspected of being drug-induced. Oral prednisolone was started and then tapered after achieving biochemical remission. Hepatitis recurred after the cessation of steroids; however, remission was achieved with ursodeoxycholic acid.
We herein report a 52-year-old man with multiple hypoechoic lesions in the body and tail of the pancreas detected during a screening ultrasound. Computed tomography (CT) showed no lesions other than those in the pancreas and peripheral lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced CT identified hypovascular tumors in the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) demonstrated partial fibrosis and noncaseating granulomas with Langhans giant cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolated pancreatic sarcoidosis diagnosed by EUS-FNA. Although pancreatic sarcoidosis is very rare, clinicians should be aware of this possibility in patients presenting with multiple hypovascular pancreatic tumors.
We herein report a 79-year-old man with recurrent atrial flutter (AFL) following catheter ablation for pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and block line of the cavotricuspid isthmus. An electrophysiological study and three-dimensional mapping results revealed left atrium (LA)-PV macroreentrant flutter caused by a conduction gap, possibly correlated to prior application, which mimicked cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent AFL. This LA-PV flutter was terminated after applying radiofrequency to the gap at the antrum near the bottom left inferior PV in the posterior LA wall. During follow-up, the patient did not present with atrial tachyarrhythmias; antiarrhythmic drugs were therefore not administered.
A 67-year-old man with a pulmonary cavity was admitted to our hospital. Mycobacterial culture of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid sample obtained from the right upper pulmonary lesion tested positive for mycobacterium, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, hsp65, and rpoB revealed that the cultured mycobacterium was Mycobacterium parascrofulaceum. Treatment with antimycobacterial agents was ineffective, and repeated culturing of bronchoscopic specimens revealed that the specimens were positive for Aspergillus fumigatus. Combination treatment of antimycobacterial agents and voriconazole improved the lung lesion. This is the first report of a patient with pulmonary M. parascrofulaceum infection complicated with chronic progressive pulmonary aspergillosis.
A 78-year-old man with a history of surgical resection for ameloblastoma 31 years earlier visited our hospital for prolonged cough. Chest computed tomography showed multiple nodules in both lungs. Although there was no local recurrence in the mandible, the specimen taken from a transbronchoscopic bronchial biopsy showed recurrent ameloblastoma. Despite receiving no treatment, the disease in our patient remained clinically stable for 8.4 years. Chest physicians should be aware that pulmonary malignant ameloblastoma can first relapse several decades after curative surgery. In addition, pulmonary malignant ameloblastoma without local recurrence may be associated with a good prognosis.
A 65-year-old woman presented to a hospital with complaints of dyspnea and lumbar pain. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed left pleural effusion. Thoracentesis showed pleural effusion with elevated levels of amylase. Enhanced CT showed fluid accumulation from the thoracic crus of the diaphragm to the left iliopsoas muscle. Based on the postoperative notes following left nephrectomy performed 29 years ago, we suspected that the internal pancreatic fistula had resulted from the postoperative scar. Conservative management was performed. However, occlusion of the pancreatic fistula failed. Subsequently, she underwent pancreatic body tail spleen merger resection, and the pleural effusion disappeared.
We herein report a 66-year-old woman with advanced lung adenocarcinoma [programmed cell death and its ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion score 60%] lacking driver oncogenes in whom meningeal carcinomatosis, along with sudden onset dizziness, deafness, and consciousness disturbance, appeared after second-line chemotherapy. Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) and Pembrolizumab were subsequently administered, and third-line chemotherapy with Pembrolizumab is now ongoing. At the time of writing, the patient has achieved a 23-month survival without disease progression. Our findings suggest that the combination of WBRT and an immune checkpoint inhibitor is effective for non-small-cell lung cancer patients lacking driver oncogenes who develop meningeal carcinomatosis.
Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is rare and known to have a predilection for central nervous system (CNS) relapse. A 70-year-old man with a 2-year history of primary aldosteronism presented because of a fever. He was hypotensive, and his adrenal glands were unequivocally enlarged. PAL was diagnosed. Despite showing an initial response to immunochemotherapy, progressive paralysis ensued. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were negative, and rituximab was ineffective. His debilitated condition hindered further chemotherapy. A postmortem examination revealed lymphoma relapse in the systemic peripheral nerves. The sequential presentation of two rare lymphomas implies that PAL might have a predilection for not only the CNS but also peripheral nerves.
Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies have been associated with steroid-responsive cortical encephalitis and comorbid generalized epilepsy. A 44-year-old woman developed repeated epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) without generalized seizures and was anti-MOG antibody-positive. Radiological abnormalities were detected in the bilateral medial frontoparietal cortices, but there were no cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities. She achieved remission with anti-epileptic drugs alone. However, encephalitis recurred four months later when pleocytosis appeared, and steroid therapy was effective. Altogether, EPC without typical cerebrospinal fluid features can be an early sign of anti-MOG antibody-positive encephalitis. Thus, patients with EPC of unknown etiology need to be screened for anti-MOG antibodies.
A 48-year-old man presented with a sustained fever. Abdominal computed tomography revealed multilocular liver abscesses. He underwent percutaneous needle aspiration, yielding straw-colored pus. Gram staining revealed Gram-negative coccobacilli. The organism grew only on chocolate II agar in a 7% carbon dioxide atmosphere. Identification of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus was confirmed using mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. He was successfully treated with antibiotics. Liver abscess caused by A. aphrophilus is extremely rare. We herein report the first such case in Japan. Even fastidious organisms, such as A. aphrophilus, should be correctly identified using mass spectrometry or 16S rRNA gene sequencing for adequate treatment.
We herein report a 26-year-old woman with sudden cardiac arrest who had no remarkable medical history. While resuscitation was successfully performed with adrenalin administration and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, the cause of cardiac arrest could not be determined for over two weeks. Given the presence of autoimmune disease along with the findings of refractory renal insufficiency and thrombocytopenia, a kidney biopsy and blood examinations, including lupus anticoagulant testing, were performed, which proved the presence of antiphospholipid syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with steroid pulse therapy. This drastic case scenario highlighted the fact that autoimmune disease can be the cause of sudden cardiac arrest.