Attention was focused on whether the incidence of gastric cancer could be decreased by eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection after H. pylori infection was found to be an important risk factor for gastric cancer,. The Japan Gast Study Group (JGSG) planned a randomized study, with the primary endpoint being the development of gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication. To design a study with a fairly small sample size and short follow-up period, the conclusion was reached that the study should be conducted in patients who had undergone endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for early gastric cancer because they have the highest incidence of recurrent gastric cancer. There were no differences of age, gender, tumor site, histology, tumor depth, and tumor size between the two groups. The incidence of metachronous gastric cancer in eradication group was significantly lower than in control group in the analysis ignoring observation period (Odds ratio: 0.353, 95% CI: 0.161-0.775, p=0.009). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the cumulative incidence of gastric cancer was different between the two groups. The Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research has published a guideline recommending that H. pylori infection should be treated by eradication therapy following this study. New evidence obtained from our study in Japan may be helpful for the prevention and eventually elimination of gastric cancer worldwide.
Objective In hypertensive patients, primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most prevalent type of secondary hypertension, and screening for PA has become very important. Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are widely used to treat hypertension, but most CCBs stimulate plasma renin activity (PRA) and increase plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), both of which are used in the screening for PA. The aim of this study was to determine whether the newly introduced CCB, azelnidipine, affects PRA and PAC. Methods 40 hypertensive patients were treated with 16 mg of azelnidipine for 4 weeks. Results Azelnidipine treatment in drug-naïve (DN) cases significantly decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR). PRA and PAC in the DN group on azelnidipine treatment were indistinguishable from those in the DN group before treatment. Compared with other CCB treatments such as amlodipine, manidipine and slow-release nifedipine, azelnidipine showed comparable or significant reductions in SBP, DBP and HR. In patients who were switched from other CCBs to azelnidipine, PRA and PAC were decreased, except for PAC on amlodipine treatment. Since the PRA reduction rate exceeded that of PAC, the aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) was significantly increased in those on azelnidipine treatment who had been switched from manidipine or nifedipine treatment, suggesting the restoration of possibly underestimated ARR values. Conclusion These data indicate that azelnidipine does not affect PRA or PAC, suggesting that azelnidipine could be a useful antihypertensive CCB while undergoing PA screening.
Multiple liver metastatic lesions were shown by computed tomography and scintigraphy with 123I- metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in a 76-year-old woman 2 years after resection of a pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland. Transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) was performed for the liver metastasis, with blood pressure strictly controlled by administration of doxazosin and phentolamine for the prevention of hypertensive crisis after TACE. There were no severe adverse events associated with the treatment, and the number and size of the lesions were decreased. TACE with strict blood pressure control was an effective and safe therapy for multiple liver metastatic lesions related to malignant pheochromocytoma.
Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the liver is rare. Here, we report a case presenting with rupture of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the liver. She had a past history of multiple myeloma with IgA λ type. Her serum was positive for hepatitis C virus infection and exhibited elevated levels of serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II. She was initially diagnosed as rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and then treated with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) since bloody ascites and formation of hematoma were seen around hyper-vascular liver tumors on computed tomography. However, the clinical course of this case after TACE was atypical for HCC rupture, as shown by the development of a huge intra-abdominal abscess extending from the liver tumor. Immuno-histochemical analysis of the tumor biopsy specimen revealed massive infiltration of plasma cells expressing IgA and λ chain. To our knowledge, this is the first case of rupture of extramedullary liver plasmacytoma.
A 40-year-old man with acute coronary syndrome underwent coronary angiography, which showed a somewhat irregular contour with radiolucent lines in the left anterior descending artery. Intravascular ultrasound disclosed that the arterial lumen was separated by confining walls, yielding multiple inner lumens. Implantation of drug eluting stents resulted in slow coronary run-off, which was restored soon after intra-aortic balloon pumping support. The multiple inner lumens correspond to the histopathological finding of "arteries within the artery". While "arteries within the artery" is seen exclusively in children with a history of Kawasaki disease, it is rare in adults with undiagnosed Kawasaki disease.
Localized pretibial myxedema (PTM) is a sign of Graves' disease. A 53-year-old man with Graves' disease was admitted with the development of PTM following radioisotope 131I treatment for Graves' hyperthyroidism. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) titer was also increased after 131I treatment. TRAb was measured as thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) or TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII). PTM was noted several months after 131I treatment. The PTM-development seems to be associated with the increased TRAb-activities. The localized pretibial myxedema was effectively treated with topical steroid (triamcinolone acetonide) ointment application with sealing cover (steroid occlusive dressing technique: steroid ODT). We also report our experience of PTM-treatment with steroid ODT in 5 other PTM patients with positive TRAb. PTM was successfully treated with steroid ODT in two patients. In these two patients, the treatment was started within several months of the appearance of PTM. In the other 4 patients, the treatment was started 5-10 years after the appearance of PTM without any beneficial effects. Early detection and early treatment are necessary for the remission of PTM.
Malignant mesothelioma typically shows either diffuse tumors or multiple pleura-based nodules. Localized malignant mesothelioma is rare. In this case report, a 70-year-old man with left chest wall tumor underwent tumor resection, and the lesion was pathologically diagnosed as biphasic malignant mesothelioma. Tumor recurrence was detected in the stomach due to vomiting of blood, and also spread to the mediastinal lymph node, and bone 3 months postoperatively. Total gastrectomy was performed and the histopathological diagnosis of metastasis of mesothelioma was made. In the previously reported cases, all of the localized malignant mesothelioma arose in the pleural space and there was no metastasis of localized malignant mesothelioma to the stomach. In the present case, gross and histological examinations were performed for both the primary lesion and gastric metastatic tumor. Though it was very difficult to distinguish mesothelioma from sarcoma and other chest wall tumors, immunochemical staining was able to facilitate making the diagnosis. This case suggests that localized malignant mesothelioma is capable of showing multiple forms and a variety of clinical courses. Localized malignant mesothelioma can arise primarily from the chest wall.
We herein present a quite atypical case of primary gastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the transverse colon. Computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed diffuse thickening of the wall, and colonoscopy showed a white-colored mucosa with reduced superficial vessels in the entire transverse colon. The lesion was diagnosed as MALT lymphoma by pathological examination of the biopsied specimen. Secondary macroglobulinemia of IgM-κ type was also found in the present case. After chemotherapy and radiation, the lesions in the transverse colon improved and the patient has been in good condition without any evidence of recurrence for more than 1 year.
The development of autoimmune disease after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is very rare in multiple myeloma (MM). We describe the first case of Evans syndrome after ASCT for MM. A 60-year-old man with MM received ASCT and subsequently developed Evans syndrome following two febrile episodes. The syndrome was refractory to conventional therapies but it was managed with a second ASCT. This unique complication was thought to have been triggered by an infection during the recovery of the immune system. We assumed that reconstructing the immune system via ASCT might eliminate infection-induced autoantibodies to platelets and erythrocytes.
A 68-year-old Japanese woman infected with influenza A developed thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) 2 days after having a fever. Routine laboratory tests on admission suggested a diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, ADAMTS13 assays showed an extremely low level of plasma ADAMTS13 activity with a high titer of anti-ADAMTS13 inhibitor (IgG). Despite high-dose methylprednisolone therapy with daily plasma exchange for 3 consecutive days, the patient died of pulmonary congestion complicated by cardiac failure. Our experience here provides the first evidence that influenza A infection is sufficient to trigger TTP by producing the anti-ADAMTS13 IgG inhibitor.
The clinical symptoms of Takayasu's arteritis (TA), which mainly affects the aorta and major aortic branches, vary widely depending on the site and degree of arterial lesions. We present herein the case of a young man whose initial symptom was pulmonary artery occlusion and who manifested TA 6 years later as cerebral embolism. Angiography confirmed bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) occlusion and a well-developed collateral circulation. The stump of the occluded CCA has both proximal and distal ends. The possibility of emboli from the occluded CCA (distal stump) seems to be the most probable explanation, as turbulent flow was detected at distal stump on color Doppler sonography. The carotid stump can be a potential source of emboli in TA as well as in atherosclerosis.
Patients with hematological malignancies may develop white matter lesions, which are usually associated with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice for identifying chemotherapy-induced, or "toxic", leukoencephalopathy. Brain biopsy in patients with hematological malignancies suspected of sustaining toxic leukoencephalopathy has rarely been performed, because its characteristic MRI findings are considered pathognomotic. Biopsy may be indicated in atypical cases, however, and it may yield unexpected results. We describe a case with white matter lesions that developed in an elderly man treated for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The lesions, initially diagnosed with toxic leukoencephalopathy based on MRI findings, turned out to be gliomatosis cerebri.
Although immunosuppressive effects of antiepileptic drug are well known, serious complications of antiepileptic drug are rare. We report a case of hypogammaglobulinemia associated with aplasia of B lymphocytes after carbamazepine treatment. Despite repeated intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy, this condition persisted for more than three months. The present case suggested that routine monitoring of the blood cell count and serum levels of immunoglobulin are important in patients treated with carbamazepine, and a lymphocyte subpopulation study is valuable in cases of hypogammaglobulinemia.