Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Volume 55 , Issue 6
Showing 1-33 articles out of 33 articles from the selected issue
EDITORIAL
REVIEW ARTICLES
  • Toshihiro Shirai, Hajime Kurosawa
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 559-566
    Published: 2016
    Released: March 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a noninvasive method with which to measure respiratory system resistance and reactance during tidal breathing. Recently, its clinical application has spread worldwide with the expansion of commercially available broadband frequency FOT devices, including MostGraph and Impulse Oscillometry. An increasing number of reports have supported the usefulness of the FOT in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the FOT is not a surrogate test for spirometry, but should be used complementarily. Furthermore, reference values are not necessarily available and the interpretation of some measured data is controversial. There is a need to update the international statement for not only technical aspects but also the clinical use of the FOT. In this review, we summarize the previously published studies and discuss how to use the FOT in a clinical setting.
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  • Shimon Takada, Sho Fujiwara, Toshiya Inoue, Yuki Kataoka, Yoshiro Hada ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 567-572
    Published: 2016
    Released: March 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    We mainly refer to the acute setting of meningococcemia. Meningococcemia is an infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis, which has 13 clinically significant serogroups that are distinguishable by the structure of their capsular polysaccharides. N. meningitidis, also called meningococcus, is a Gram-negative, aerobic, diplococcus bacterium. The various consequences of severe meningococcal sepsis include hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiple organ failure, and osteonecrosis due to DIC. The gold standard for the identification of meningococcal infection is the bacteriologic isolation of N. meningitidis from body fluids such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), synovial fluid, and pleural fluid. Blood, CSF, and skin biopsy cultures are used for diagnosis. Meningococcal infection is a medical emergency that requires antibiotic therapy and intensive supportive care. Management of the systemic circulation, respiration, and intracranial pressure is vital for improving the prognosis, which has dramatically improved since the wide availability of antibiotics. This review of the literature provides an overview of current concepts on meningococcemia due to N. meningitidis infection.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Yutaka Nagata, Tetsuo Watanabe, Kazuhiko Nagasaka, Masaaki Yamada, Min ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 573-581
    Published: 2016
    Released: March 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Mesenteric phlebosclerosis (MP) is a disease characterized by calcification of the mesenteric vein, which causes chronic mesenteric ischemia. Recently, the long-term intake of gardenia fruit ('Sanshishi' in Japanese) has been attracting attention as a possible cause. Usually, only advanced, severe MP cases get reported. However, we suspected that some latent cases of this disease may exist.
    We performed this study in order to determine the prediagnostic cases at our outpatient departments of herbal (Kampo) medicine, with particular attention paid to the initial changes, such as any slight color change of the colon, as shown in colonoscopy.
    Methods We recommend colonoscopy and computed tomography (CT) scans for patients with a long-term history of taking herbal medicines containing gardenia fruit. Clinical examinations were performed upon receiving patients' consent from December 2013 to November 2014.
    Results Of the 103 patients who took gardenia fruit long-term, 29 agreed to be checked for MP. 14 patients underwent colonoscopy. Four patients were confirmed to have MP due to the presence of fibrotic deposition of the colonic membrane on histological inspection. Twenty-one patients underwent abdominal CT screening. Characteristic calcification of the mesenteric vein was observed on CT scans in 2 patients. All 4 MP patients took Kampo formulas containing gardenia fruit for more than 6.8 years. The other patients did not develop MP, despite long-term gardenia fruit intake.
    Conclusion We detected the latent and undiagnosed MP cases. All diagnoses were made while paying careful attention to any slight changes in colonoscopy and CT scans.
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  • Yutaka Murata, Yoko Kudo, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Kumiko Abe, Takeshi Kobay ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 583-587
    Published: 2016
    Released: March 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Steroid pulse therapy is used to relieve pancytopenias in our hospital and is effective in some patients. However, it is unclear which patients will benefit from such therapy. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who received steroid pulse therapy to facilitate recovery in their blood cell counts.
    Methods Between 2004 and 2012, 24 patients underwent steroid pulse therapy and the medical records of 17 of these evaluable patients (11 men, 6 women) were retrospectively reviewed. Bone marrow smears were assessed to calculate the proportion of hemophagocytic macrophages just prior to receiving pulse therapy.
    Results Steroid pulse therapy was started at a median of 15 days after transplantation (range, 10-28 days). The median white blood cell count was 0.02×103/μL (range, 0.01-0.4×103/μL). Eight patients responded to pulse therapy and subsequent engraftment was achieved in all responders. None of the patients who underwent cord blood transplantation responded to the pulse therapy. Among the non-responders, only two patients achieved engraftment and four of nine non-responders died within one month. When evaluating the efficacy of steroid pulse therapy according to the ferritin level and proportion of hemophagocytic macrophages among patients undergoing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, both values were higher in responders than in non-responders.
    Conclusion We speculate that responders have a hemophagocytic syndrome which is responsive to steroid pulse therapy. Thus, our results imply that the use of ferritin levels in combination with the proportion of hemophagocytic macrophages may be useful for the early detection of potential hemophagocytic syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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  • Koji Habe, Hideo Wada, Takeshi Matsumoto, Kohshi Ohishi, Makoto Ikejir ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 589-595
    Published: 2016
    Released: March 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a well-known complication of habitual abortion and/or thrombosis and is frequently associated with autoimmune diseases.
    Methods We retrospectively investigated the relationships between the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) and the incidence of thrombotic events (THEs) in 147 patients with various connective tissue diseases (CTD) suspected of having APS and 86 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). THEs were observed in 41 patients, including 14 cases of venous thrombosis, 21 cases of arterial thrombosis and eight cases of complications of pregnancy.
    Results The prevalence of THE was significantly high in the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with the other CTD patients and ITP patients. The frequency of lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL)-β2-glycoprotein (GPI) complex IgG and aPL was significantly high in the SLE patients compared with the ITP patients. Subsequently, the rate of development of THE was significantly high in the patients with aPLs. In particular, the incidence of THE was significantly high in the SLE or ITP patients with LA, aCL-β2GPI IgG or aPL. The optimal cut-off values for LA, aCL IgG and aCL-β2GPI complex IgG for the risk of THEs were higher in the SLE patients in comparison to the values obtained when using the kit provided by the manufacturer.
    Conclusion Although aPLs is frequently associated with SLE and is a causative factor for thrombosis, the optimal cut-off value for aPL for predicting the occurrence of THEs varies among different underlying diseases.
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  • Yongmei Jiang, Linghan Kuang, Haijuan Wang, Lingping Li, Wei Zhou, Min ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 597-603
    Published: 2016
    Released: March 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective To identify the pathogens responsible for neonatal sepsis in a high-volume women and children's hospital in Southwest China.
    Methods We retrospectively studied 133 neonates who were admitted to the West China Women and Children's Hospital between 2008 and 2012 for sepsis. The clinical characteristics of the patients were recorded, and the antibiotic sensitivities of the isolated bacteria were determined.
    Results All of the included patients had clinical symptoms of sepsis, and subsequent blood cultures confirmed the infection. Almost 80% of patients were infected with coagulase-negative staphylococci (52.8%), Escherichia coli (23.6%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.0%) or Staphylococcus aureus (7.5%). Neonates who were infected with gram-negative bacteria, particularly K. pneumoniae, had lower birth weights and were admitted to hospital within 24 hours of birth. Additionally, 87.5% of the isolated K. pneumoniae strains were resistant to third generation cephalosporins.
    Conclusion Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common pathogens found in neonatal sepsis. Moreover, neonatal sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria was more often observed in newborns of low birth weight. The isolated strains of gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to cephalosporins. This observation highlights the issue of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in the clinical setting, which poses an added risk to infants presenting with sepsis.
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  • Kenichiro Yaita, Yoshiro Sakai, Kenji Masunaga, Hiroshi Watanabe
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 605-608
    Published: 2016
    Released: March 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective To clarify the current situation concerning drug fever (DF) in Japan, we retrospectively analyzed patients undergoing infectious disease consultation at our institution.
    Methods Between April 2014 and May 2015, we extracted the records of DF patients from among 388 patients who had obtained infectious disease consultations in Kurume University Hospital. We reviewed their medical charts and summarized the characteristics of DF.
    Results This study included the records of 16 patients. Clinical signs (relative bradycardia, the duration of the drug administration before becoming febrile, and the interval between the discontinuation of a drug and the alleviation of a fever), and laboratory tests (varied white blood cell count, low level of C-reactive protein, and a mild elevation of transaminases) were compatible with those from previous reports. Among the drug-confirmed cases, five involved the use of glycopeptides (vancomycin: 3, teicoplanin: 2), which were considered to be uncommon causes, and the another five cases involved the use of β-lactams. In addition, the procalcitonin levels were either negative or low (≤0.25 ng/mL) in 10 of the 11 procalcitonin-measured cases.
    Conclusion Our findings demonstrated that glycopeptides, similar to β-lactams, may be the origin of DF. Furthermore, procalcitonin may be helpful in the diagnosis of DF, but only in combination with other detailed examinations.
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