Objective Immunoglobulin (Ig) A vasculitis (IgAV) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by purpura and gastrointestinal involvement showing abdominal pain that usually occurs after the emergence of purpura. Criteria for evaluating gastrointestinal manifestations of IgAV are unavailable at present, so we conducted a study to investigate the usefulness of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) for detecting gastrointestinal manifestations of IgAV.
Methods The clinical data of 10 patients who underwent VCE for IgAV at our hospital from 2012 to 2017 were collected. Nine patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy, and five underwent colonoscopy. We compared the endoscopic severity determined by VCE to the findings of esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy.
Results The rates of positive findings of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, VCE, and colonoscopy were 56%, 100%, and 80%, respectively. In 70% of cases, the most severe gastrointestinal findings were detected by VCE. VCE was performed on average 16.8 days after the emergence of purpura, and in 8 of 10 patients, its result triggered the initiation of steroid therapy or the control of the steroid dose.
Conclusion VCE is very useful for confirming gastrointestinal involvement in IgAV and may be used to determine the timing of steroid therapy initiation. We recommend performing VCE when IgAV is suspected in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.
Objective Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT-2i), recommended for patients with type 2 diabetes, has been reported to improve the liver function test results in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the long-term effects of SGLT-2i on the liver function and body weight in NAFLD patients have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of SGLT-2i in NAFLD patients.
Methods Twenty-two diabetic patients with NAFLD were enrolled in this study. We assessed the body weight, liver enzyme levels, metabolism, and glucose levels at 12 months (22 cases) and 24 months (15 cases) after the initiation of SGLT-2i. The changes in controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness in 20 of the 22 patients were evaluated using transient elastography (TE) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography before the initiation of treatment and 1 year later.
Results Body weight and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were significantly decreased at 12 and 24 months after SGLT-2i treatment. The decrease in the levels of ALT at 12 and 24 months was significantly correlated with the level of ALT at the initiation of SGLT-2i (r=0.813, p=0.001 and r=0.867, p=0.0001, respectively). SGLT-2i also reduced the CAP and velocity of shear wave (Vs) values at 12 months (CAP 315.1±43.4 db/mL→293.1±27.2 db/mL, p=0.027; Vs 1.87±0.8 m/s→ 1.48±0.6 m/s, p=0.011).
Conclusion SGLT-2i treatment improved the liver function test results and reduced the body weight in NAFLD patients over a period of 12-24 months. This improvement was greater in patients with higher ALT values at baseline than in those with lower values.
Objective Although modified FOLFIRINOX (mFOLFIRINOX, mFFX) is widely used for patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), maintenance of the standard dose intensity is often difficult due to the high incidence of neutropenic events. Pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (Peg G) is a long-lasting G-CSF agent that is applicable for prophylaxis against neutropenic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical safety and efficacy of mFFX combined with secondary prophylaxis using Peg G in advanced PDAC patients.
Methods Advanced PDAC patients who had received more than two cycles of mFFX were analyzed. The clinical safety and efficacy were compared between patients in the Peg G group and those in the non-Peg G group in a retrospective manner.
Results Among 45 patients treated with mFFX, 28 exhibited grade 3-4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia. Among these 28 patients, 4 who received only 1 or 2 mFFX cycles were excluded from this study. Finally, 11 patients in the Peg G group and 13 in the non-Peg G group were enrolled. The combination therapy with Peg G and mFFX markedly prolonged the progression-free survival compared with the non-Peg G group, and its effects were associated with a reduced incidence of neutropenic events as well as lower rates of dosage reduction, delayed chemotherapy due to neutropenic events and altered blood cell counts after chemotherapy.
Conclusion The scheduled administration of secondary prophylactic Peg G prolonged the progression-free survival in patients treated with mFFX. The combination therapy of Peg G and mFFX may be recommended in patients who exhibit grade 3-4 neutropenic events after prior mFFX cycles.
Objective Intestinal tuberculosis (ITB) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently present with similar clinical, endoscopic and pathological features, therefore it is difficult to differentiate between them. The aim of this study was to elucidate the diagnostic delay and prognosis of ITB cases, initially misdiagnosed as IBD.
Methods ITB cases were selected from the hospitalized patient list between April 2004 and March 2017 in a tuberculosis center in Japan. We retrospectively evaluated the initial diagnosis, clinical characteristics, endoscopic and pathological findings, bacterial examinations, treatment and prognosis.
Results Among 66 ITB patients, ten patients were initially misdiagnosed as IBD. Seven patients were male and the median age was 60.5 years (23-74 years). After the diagnosis of IBD, all the patients were treated with mesalazine, in addition to corticosteroids in two patients and sequential azathioprine and infliximab in one. The median duration of diagnostic delay was 5.5 months (range 0.5-17 months). Eight patients had active pulmonary tuberculosis at the diagnosis of ITB. Acid-fast bacilli were confirmed in four of seven patients by reevaluation of the pathological specimens at the IBD diagnosis. Two patients needed intestinal resection and one with erroneous corticosteroid use for IBD died due to respiratory failure in spite of receiving appropriate treatment for tuberculosis.
Conclusion ITB patients were frequently misdiagnosed and treated as IBD, thus resulting in a poor clinical outcome even after finally making a correct diagnosis and administering appropriate treatment. On diagnosis of IBD and/or treatment failure, chest radiograph and acid-fast bacilli of the pathological specimens should be carefully evaluated in order to rule out tuberculosis.
A 57-year-old female was referred to our department for treatment of a duodenal submucosal tumor (SMT), which had been growing over the last five years. Computed tomography demonstrated a marginally enhanced mass, measuring 36 mm in diameter, containing internal multiple hypovascular areas. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle biopsy was performed using a 20-gauge core trap needle, and the specimens showed benign Brunner's glands. She underwent laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery and the SMT was completely removed without any adverse events. Histology of the resected tumor showed Brunner's gland hyperplasia (BGH). BGH is generally a benign lesion. However, an accurate diagnosis is required to avoid overtreatment when it mimics malignancy.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy of a 45-year-old woman revealed a submucosal tumor in the gastric antrum. Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the tumor was performed. The histological findings revealed a fibromyxomatous tumor composed of myofibroblastic cells with no evidence of malignancy. The growth pattern of the resected specimen was not multinodular or plexiform. We therefore tentatively referred to the present tumor descriptively as a gastric uninodular fibromyxomatous tumor, stressing its singular nodularity. It was initially roughly 10 mm in size but grew over a period of 4 years. A uninodular plexiform fibromyxoma might increase in size but might not become multinodular if it remains small.
We herein present the case of an immunocompetent 63-year-old man who had previously undergone resection of Crohn's disease (CD)-related small intestinal obstruction more than 30 years ago. He had not been receiving any medication for many years, but had recently started to suffer from ileus. A stenosed site of ileo-cecal anastomosis was identified and therefore was surgically resected, which was diagnosed as CD with small intestinal extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP). The subsequent progression of CD was successfully controlled by anti-TNFα agents without any recurrence of EMP for over 3 years, implying the clinical benefit and safety of the biological therapy. This was the first known case of a patient who received anti-TNFα agents after a resection of small intestinal EMP accompanied with CD.
A 37-year-old man developed abdominal pain and the frequency of severe abdominal pain steadily increased to once a month. He was therefore admitted to our hospital. Abdominal CT showed bowel obstruction. It revealed transient stenosis in the small intestine. There were no symptoms such as fever or weight loss, it seemed unlikely that the patient had inflammatory bowel disease. Considering the history of recurrent abdominal pain, Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) was considered. As a result, a genetic analysis revealed mutations in exons 3 and 8 of the MEFV gene. We herein report the first known case of FMF with transient small bowel stenosis in Japan.
Autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occur in association with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). MDS-associated IBD frequently demonstrates a complicated course. We herein report the first case with MDS-associated IBD that was successfully treated with ustekinumab (UST), an anti-interleukin (IL) 12/23p40 monoclonal antibody. A 63-year-old man with a 7-year history of MDS was referred for examination of diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever. A blood examination revealed a marked elevation of C-reactive protein. Colonoscopy showed multiple ulcers in the terminal ileum. He was resistant to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody and azacitidine. Subsequently, UST treatment reduced colonic IL-17 and IL-6 expression and the patient currently maintains a state of remission.
A 59-year-old man with a history of giant cell myocarditis was admitted to our hospital with recurrent giant cell myocarditis triggered by a 1 mg/day taper in his prednisolone dose. During the initial episode, he had undergone rescue implantation of a temporary left ventricular assist device followed by the administration of dual immunosuppressive therapy with prednisolone and concomitant cyclosporine. Triple combination immunosuppressive therapy maintained with additional mycophenolate mofetil successfully controlled recurrent myocarditis, enabled a reduction in the prednisolone dose, and achieved the functional recovery of the left ventricle.
An 84-year-old man presented with syncope. Prior to admission, ambulatory electrocardiogram had demonstrated non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Echocardiography showed severe aortic stenosis. He was also diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) showing remarkable inhomogeneous left ventricular hypertrophy and extensive late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the lesions at the upper border and right-ventricular side of the basal-mid septal wall. Finally, he showed complete atrioventricular (AV) block followed by a long pause and syncope several times after admission. In this case with several possible causes of syncope, the CMR findings suggested a clue concerning the etiology of his syncope: complete AV block in HCM.
A 72-year-old woman with primary biliary cholangitis was admitted to our hospital with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction. An accidental right ventricular perforation that occurred during an endomyocardial biopsy precipitated cardiogenic shock. Despite successful surgical treatment, she demonstrated progressive hemodynamic deterioration, which was resistant to the administration of high-dose catecholamines. She was diagnosed with acute adrenal insufficiency, which was attributed to the discontinuation of Celestamine® (betamethasone/dextrochlorpheniramine combination) just after the perforation. Prompt intravenous administration of hydrocortisone (150 mg/day) led to hemodynamic stabilization. The serial noninvasive assessment of systemic vascular resistance using transthoracic echocardiography was instrumental in detecting acute adrenal insufficiency in this case.
A 21-year-old woman presented with renal dysfunction during macrohematuria. A kidney biopsy revealed IgA nephropathy with a small percentage of crescent formation and macrohematuria-associated tubular injury. Macrohematuria-associated acute kidney injury could explain her renal dysfunction. However, she was seropositive for myeloperoxidase (MPO)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and showed fibrin deposition around one arteriole. Corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil were administered as for ANCA vasculitis, and the serum creatinine, abnormal urinalysis and MPO-ANCA titer all gradually ameliorated. The presence of extra-glomerular vasculitis, which was probably induced by ANCA, suggested that MPO-ANCA was an exacerbating factor for her prolonged renal dysfunction. This condition has so far only rarely been addressed in ANCA-positive IgA nephropathy.
Several case series have suggested that rituximab is efficacious in adult patients with minimal change disease. We herein report a case of disseminated intravascular coagulation-like reaction after rituximab infusion in a patient with nephrotic syndrome. A 58-year-old Japanese man with minimal change disease diagnosed 15 years earlier was started on rituximab to prevent relapse of nephrotic syndrome when he presented to our clinic with low albuminemia, massive proteinuria, and leg edema. Eleven days after rituximab infusion, he presented with abdominal pain, appetite loss, and tarry stool. A laboratory examination revealed severe thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed multiple hemorrhagic ulcers in his esophagus and stomach. The patient died two days later. Physicians should consider disseminated intravascular coagulation-like reaction when encountering cases with thrombocytopenia after rituximab infusion for any disease.
A 71-year-old woman with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) presented with prolonged cough. No physical findings suggested the presence of any connective tissue diseases. Chest computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities and consolidations in the bilateral lower lobes. She had elevated serum Krebs von den Lungen-6, hypoxemia and positive serum anti-Jo-1 antibody. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lymphocytosis with a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. A transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed organizing pneumonia. Based on a diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF), systemic corticosteroids were administered, and a good outcome was obtained. A possible relationship between CRS and IPAF is herein discussed.
We herein report a case of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) diagnosed after one-time exposure to silica powder. Owing to the misuse of a silica-containing fire extinguisher and the inhalation of large amounts of its powder, the patient experienced prolonged cough and visited our hospital. The findings of chest computed tomography and surgical lung biopsy specimens led to the diagnosis of PAP. Interestingly, the presence of anti-GM-CSF antibody was detected; therefore, both autoimmune characteristics and exposure to large amounts of silica may have caused the development of PAP in this patient. This case provides important insight into the mechanisms leading to the onset of PAP.
Primary chest wall lymphoma is rare and typically associated with chronic pleural inflammation. Double-hit lymphoma (DHL), which is defined as aggressive mature B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangements, is a highly aggressive malignancy that tends to have extranodal involvement and is resistant to standard immunochemotherapy. We herein report a 55-year-old man with no history of chronic pleural inflammation, diagnosed with primary chest wall DHL with MYC/BCL6 rearrangement, and harboring a unique BCL6 translocation, t (3;7) (q27;p12). After six courses of intensive chemotherapy, he has achieved complete remission. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of primary chest wall DHL.
We herein describe a case of Sweet's syndrome (SS) in a patient being treated for pulmonary toxoplasmosis complicated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The patient's SS developed after the pulmonary toxoplasmosis improved following treatment. We searched his cytokine profiles comprehensively using a bead-based immunoassay. The results showed no elevation of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ or IL-17A, and IL-6 was only observed to have increased at the onset of SS, suggesting that the pulmonary toxoplasmosis had been well controlled and that chronic inflammation may have been the cause of SS. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis is an extremely rare occurrence. The cytokine profile can help to clarify the pathological condition of SS and MDS complicated with severely invasive infectious diseases.
Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a malignant lymphoma that lacks the expression of cell surface adhesion molecules so that cells fluidly migrate within the blood vessels. The patient in the present study had restricted eye movement caused by IVL, mimicking a cavernous sinus tumor. Because the cavernous sinus lumen is divided into multiple compartments by trabeculae and venous channels, IVL tumor cells were trapped in these compartments, thus forming a mass, which subsequently extended into the contralateral cavernous sinus via the anterior and posterior intercavernous sinuses. This is a rare case of IVL forming a mass inside the cavernous sinus.
A 33-year-old Japanese woman was referred for hoarseness. She had been diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease at age 3 and bilateral optic atrophy at age 15. Laryngoscopy revealed left vocal fold palsy. These findings suggested Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2; the diagnosis was confirmed by a mitofusin 2 mutation analysis. Her symptoms remained stable for almost 10 years. Although vocal fold palsy and optic atrophy have been previously reported in patients with mitofusin 2 mutations, detailed clinical information and clinical course have never been documented. These data might contribute to the elucidation of the pathological conditions associated with mitofusin 2 mutations.
A 66-year-old woman with symptoms of fatigue and headache was diagnosed with giant cell arteritis (GCA). Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) revealed the strong accumulation of FDG in the descending aorta, abdominal aorta, bilateral subclavian artery, and total iliac artery. Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) showed signal enhancement at the descending aorta and abdominal aorta. We repeated FDG-PET and DWIBS 2 months after the initiation of therapy with prednisolone. In line with the FDG-PET findings, the signal enhancement of the aortic wall completely vanished on DWIBS. DWIBS may be a novel useful tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of GCA treatment.
A 43-year-old man with malignant lymphoma who had been treated with the cyclosphamide, vincrstine, procarbazine, and prednisolone (C-MOPP) regimen was admitted to our hospital with skin eruption. He was diagnosed to have varicella, and treatment with acyclovir and immune globulin was started. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple nodules in the both lung fields. Diagnostic thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens revealed granuloma formation, and polymerase chain reaction testing revealed the presence of varicella-zoster virus DNA in the granulomatous tissue. It was unusual for the lung nodule in varicella pneumonia to increase in size over time in a patient who had undergone antiviral therapy, while also demonstrating multiple granulomas.
A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to difficulty in moving her limbs. She had trismus and a necrotic and contaminated wound in her left lower leg. A diagnosis of tetanus was confirmed and intensive care was started. On the second day, her blood pressure fell and a ST segment elevation on electrocardiography (ECG) was detected. She was diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathy by echocardiogram and improved undergoing conservative therapy.