Objective The recently reported endoscopic finding of black spots is defined as black pigmentation in gastric mucosa. We attempted to clarify the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection status and black spot occurrence.
Methods The study subjects were 1,600 individuals who underwent an annual medical checkup and whose H. pylori status could be determined. Upper endoscopic examinations were performed in all, and the presence of black spots in the stomach as well as the degree of gastric mucosal atrophy were determined.
Results Among the 1,600 enrolled subjects, 784 underwent eradication for H. pylori, of whom 144 were originally H. pylori-positive and 672 H. pylori-negative. Black spots in the stomach were observed in 156 (9.8%). The rate of prevalence of black spots in the H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative subjects was 2.1% and 1.5%, respectively, while that in subjects after undergoing eradication of H. pylori was 18.2%. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that an older age and post-eradication status were significant factors for black spot occurrence, while proton pump inhibitor treatment showed a tendency to be a risk factor. In subjects with post-eradication status, a higher grade of gastric mucosal atrophy was a significant risk factor for the occurrence of black spots.
Conclusion H. pylori post-eradication status and an older age were significant factors related to the appearance of black spots, and a higher grade of gastric mucosal atrophy was also a significant risk factor in subjects who had undergone successful eradication.
Objective The vertical margin of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) removed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is often tumor-positive. We examine the treatment results of endoscopic mucosal resection with a ligation device (EMR-L) for the removal of duodenal NETs located in the submucosal layer without metastasis. EMR-L can be performed with less technical skill, and the ligation device reduces the rate of positive vertical margin.
Methods Ten consecutive patients with 10 duodenal NETs resected by EMR-L were enrolled. All of the lesions were located in the submucosal layer, were assessed to be free of metastasis, and were confirmed to be NETs pathologically by an endoscopic biopsy. The endoscopic results, pathological results, and prognosis were all examined.
Results The en bloc resection rate and endoscopic complete resection rate were both 100%. Complete resection was achieved pathologically in 7 lesions (70.0%). The vertical margins were negative in all cases. Lymphatic vessel invasion was observed in three patients, all of whom underwent additional surgery with lymph node dissection (one of them also exhibited blood vessel invasion and a positive horizontal margin). No evidence of residual tumors or lymph node metastasis was observed in any of the patients. No recurrence was observed in any of the 10 patients (mean follow-up period: 18.6 months). One patient (10.0%) experienced intraoperative bleeding. Perforation occurred in 1 patient (10.0%), but the condition was managed well by conservative therapy.
Conclusion EMR-L was an acceptable method for endoscopically resecting submucosal duodenal NETs, and the NETs resected by EMR-L were tumor-negative in the vertical margins.
Objective The detection of early gastric cancer (GC) after Helicobacter pylori eradication is expected to increase in Japan. However, the predictive markers for early GC detected after H. pylori eradication have not been extensively studied. We conducted a retrospective, single-center observational study to investigate the predictive markers for early GC detected after H. pylori eradiation.
Methods A total of 421 patients underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for early GC at NTT West Osaka Hospital between June 2006 and August 2017. Data from patients with GC (Group C; n=70) and without GC (Group NC; n=114) after H. pylori eradication were analyzed.
Results The proportion of men was significantly higher in Group C than in Group NC (92.9% vs. 65.8%; p<0.0001). Complications with other malignant diseases were more prevalent in Group C than in Group NC. A significantly greater proportion of patients had gastric xanthoma (GX) in Group C than in Group NC (64.3% vs. 14.9%; p<0.0001). Regarding scores for endoscopic findings related to the risk of GC, the atrophy score, intestinal metaplasia score and total score were significantly higher in Group C than in Group NC. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified male sex, atrophy (open type), the presence of intestinal metaplasia and GX as independent predictors for early GC detected after H. pylori eradication. An atrophy-matched control analysis also identified GX as an independent predictor.
Conclusion GX is a novel predictive marker for early GC detected after H. pylori eradication.
Plummer-Vinson syndrome is a rare entity, characterized by dysphagia, esophageal web formation, and iron deficiency anemia. The patient was a 63-year-old woman with a clinical history of iron deficiency anemia and glossitis in her 20s to 40s and who had experienced swallowing difficulties for the past 20 years. A membranous stricture was found in the cervical esophagus during a fluoroscopic examination. An endoscopic examination conducted under general anesthesia revealed an oblique linear scar on the proximal surface of the stricture. Sequential balloon dilation was performed successfully. We suggest that the esophageal web formation might have been related to the healing of an esophageal ulcer.
Hypothyroidism is a frequently occurring complication in patients on lenvatinib treatment. However, little is known about lenvatinib-induced thyrotoxicosis and destructive thyroiditis. We herein report the cases of three patients who developed hyperthyroidism during the course of lenvatinib treatment. All patients had multiple hepatocellular carcinoma of Child-Pugh class A. Two patients required beta blockers for the management of palpitations. One patient developed hyperthyroidism only one week after the initiation of lenvatinib treatment. Thus, the possibility of hyperthyroidism developing within one week after the first administration should be kept in mind, and periodic surveillance of the thyroid function should be performed during the early period of lenvatinib therapy (within the first two weeks or so after the initial administration).
The efficacy and safety of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in Japanese patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or genotype 3 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet to be clarified. This is because no or only a few patients have been included in Japanese phase 3 trials. We herein report for the first time the successful treatment of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir in three Japanese patients with HIV and genotype 3 HCV coinfection as well as hemophilia. Glecaprevir and pibrentasvir treatment is safe and effective for Japanese patients with genotype 3 HCV and HIV coinfection.
We present an extremely rare case of amyloid A (AA) deposition in the gallbladder and review the literature on similar cases. The patient was a 76-year-old man who had been diagnosed with mild bronchiectasis three years previously, who was admitted to the hospital with right upper quadrant pain and fever. Computed tomography revealed swelling and wall thickening of the gallbladder with a small gallstone. The patient was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and cholelithiasis and underwent open cholecystectomy. A postoperative histological examination revealed extensive AA deposition in the gallbladder wall. Thus, the definitive diagnosis was acute cholecystitis with AA amyloidosis.
A 58-year-old woman complained of general fatigue and was diagnosed with sick sinus syndrome (SSS) by ambulatory electrocardiogram, which demonstrated sinus arrest at midnight and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) at nighttime. Since her plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity had been persistently zero, she was diagnosed with ChE deficiency. She refused permanent pacemaker implantation, and treatment with positive chronotropic drugs is ongoing. A novel association of ChE deficiency with SSS is theoretically possible rather than coincident, considering that ChE plays a key role in cholinergic influences on the sinus node leading to sinus bradyarrhythmia and on the atria, causing vagally mediated AF.
Citrobacter species can cause severe infection in immunocompetent patients. A 78-year-old man visited our hospital because he had had a fever lasting one day each month for the past 3 months. Antibiotics were initiated for suspected bronchial pneumonia, but the C-reactive protein level remained high. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed saccular brachiocephalic artery aneurysm. Citrobacter koseri was isolated from a blood culture, and he was diagnosed with infectious brachiocephalic artery aneurysm. He underwent endovascular aneurysm repair after one month of intravenous cefepime and metronidazole. We herein report for the first time an immunocompetent patient with infectious aneurysm caused by C. koseri periodontal infection.
We herein report a 75-year-old woman with insulin-treated diabetes and metastatic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer who received ceritinib, a second-generation ALK inhibitor, and achieved dramatic tumor reduction. However, her fasting blood glucose increased, particularly markedly in the first two weeks after ceritinib administration, and did not normalize even increasing the total insulin dose. After discontinuing ceritinib, her glucose levels rapidly reduced. Ceritinib can aggravate hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes who lack compensatory insulin secretion, due to its inhibitory effects on the insulin receptor. Careful monitoring for ceritinib-induced hyperglycemia should be performed, especially in the first two weeks after ceritinib administration.
A 68-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic hepatitis B infection was referred to the nephrology department before planned surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) for 11 years. Laboratory findings revealed impaired re-absorption in the proximal renal tubules. He had been diagnosed with diabetic kidney disease and osteomalacia due to vitamin D deficiency; thus, ADV was not discontinued until he was referred to us. In this case, concomitant diabetes mellitus and vitamin D deficiency might have prevented the early diagnosis of ADV-induced Fanconi syndrome.
A 73-year-old man who was a current smoker complained of weakness in his limbs and slow movement and was diagnosed with primary lung melanoma with brain metastases. Following stereotactic brain radiotherapy, nivolumab was administrated. After the first cycle of nivolumab, his blood neutrophil count and hemoglobin levels started to decline. Excluding other possible causes, nivolumab was considered the most probable cause of bicytopenia. Nivolumab was not restarted, and the bicytopenia gradually recovered with no corticosteroid administration for this event. While serious hematological adverse events regarding immune checkpoint inhibitors have been assumed to be rare, severe neutropenia and anemia should be considered in patients receiving immune checkpoint therapy.
We herein report a rare case of diffuse pulmonary metastasis occurring approximately one year after surgical excision of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma that had been thought to be stage I with a free margin of healthy tissue. In addition, this case had chest imaging findings unusual for a skin cancer patient, showing a miliary pattern on computed tomography (CT). Distant metastases may develop even if early-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is completely resected. When observing a miliary shadow on chest CT, metastatic lung tumor from skin cancer should be considered as a differential diagnosis.
Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) antibody is associated with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) in patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) or dermatomyositis (DM). We herein report three Japanese cases of anti-MDA5 antibody-positive RP-ILD without signs of CADM or DM. High-resolution computed tomography revealed patchy or subpleural distribution of consolidations and/or ground-glass opacities accompanied by traction bronchiectasis. All patients succumbed to respiratory failure within two months. Anti-MDA5 antibody-positive RP-ILD without signs of CADM or DM should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute/subacute ILD. Measurement of anti-MDA5 antibody and an intensive immunosuppressive regimen might rescue these patients from RP-ILD.
We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with multiple myeloma (MM) during treatment with daratumumab, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (DRd). A 62-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with IgGλ type MM, was treated with three cycles of bortezomib and dexamethasone and subsequently treated with three cycles of DRd before admission. She reached a stringent complete response and presented with lethargy and seizure. Laboratory findings revealed severe CD4 lymphopenia, and Cryptococcus neoformans was detected in her cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture. The risk of developing an opportunistic infection should be considered in patients treated with daratumumab.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) can share clinical features and may be indistinguishable, even after brain biopsy. We encountered a case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV+) PCNSL recurrence in a patient with clinical features of CLIPPERS, and repeat brain biopsy was required to reach the correct diagnosis. Four years after the initial diagnosis and treatment of PCNSL, "peppering" punctate enhanced lesions with transient steroid responsiveness were detected during brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A second brain biopsy supported a diagnosis of CLIPPERS, while a third biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of recurrent PCNSL.
We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with severe chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) who developed progressive tetraplegia with respiratory failure despite receiving a standard dose of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg), steroid pulse therapy, plasma exchange, and cyclosporine. We administered high-dose IVIg (3 g/kg; 0.6 g/kg/day for 5 consecutive days at monthly intervals). The patient's muscle weakness gradually improved after IVIg. She recovered completely 2 years after the onset of symptoms. The effects of IVIg treatment in individuals with CIDP may vary in each patient. In patients with refractory CIDP receiving standard-dose IVIg, repeated high-dose IVIg treatment can be considered.
A 70-year-old woman presented with a fever and pain in both lower extremities and the right shoulder and right upper arm continuously for approximately 3 months. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG/PET-CT) revealed the accumulation of FDG in the right shoulder, lumbar spinous processes, both ischial tuberosities, and both hips and greater trochanters, indicating polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). In addition, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed esophageal carcinoma. After endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed, her musculoskeletal symptoms spontaneously improved, and the 18F-FDG/PET-CT findings decreased. In light of these findings, she was diagnosed with paraneoplastic syndrome. When atypical features of PMR, such as asymmetric symptoms occur, we should search for malignancies.
A 53-year-old Japanese man experienced fever/neck pain, and neck magnetic resonance imaging revealed a spinal epidural abscess. The following day, he developed a palpable mass with evident inflammatory signs in the right sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) with severe pain. Ultrasound revealed synovitis with remarkable power Doppler signals in the right SCJ. Blood cultures yielded Streptococcus agalactiae growth. After 12 days, ultrasound showed right distal clavicle bone erosion. His symptoms improved with long-term parenteral antibiotic treatment, but the right SCJ joint destruction progressed for several months. We diagnosed him with sternoclavicular septic arthritis complicated with a spinal epidural abscess and bacteremia.
A 78-year-old woman with fever of unknown origin that had persisted for 3 months, systemic edema, and cervical lymphadenopathy was admitted to our hospital. Skin purpura and jaw claudication were subsequently observed. Histopathological examinations of the lymph nodes, skin, and temporal artery revealed findings characteristic of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). However, she had no past medical history of asthma with modest eosinophilia. Although EGPA is a systemic vasculitis characterized by asthma and eosinophilia, various limited forms have been described. This was therefore considered to be an atypical form of non-asthmatic EGPA complicating with temporal arteritis (TA) diagnosed by tissue biopsy.
We herein report a case of systemic phaeohyphomycosis by Exophiala dermatitidis (E. dermatitidis) with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The patient had been taking oral corticosteroids for years to control the GVHD. Yeast-like fungi were identified in a blood culture, so treatment with micafungin (150 mg/day) was begun, with no improvement. The patient passed away on hospital Day 12. A sequence analysis of rRNA revealed the isolate to be E. dermatitidis. This report brings attention to an emerging mycosis of community-acquired Exophiala species infection in the very-late phase after allogenic HSCT in patients with chronic GVHD.