The goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain good glycemic control, prevent the development and progression of diabetic complications, and ensure the same quality of life and life expectancy as healthy people. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used as an index of glycemic control, but strict glycemic control using HbA1c as an index may lead to severe hypoglycemia and cardiovascular death. Glycemic variability (GV), such as excessive hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, is associated with diabetic vascular complications and has been recognized as an important index of glycemic control. Here, we reviewed the definition and evaluated the clinical usefulness of GV, and its relationship with diabetic complications and therapeutic strategies to reduce GV.
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the double-guidewire technique (DGT) using a new double-guidewire-supported sphincterotome (MagicTome) for patients who required endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for biliary cannulation.
Methods This prospective multicenter randomized feasibility trial involved patients with difficult biliary cannulation at any of the three study sites from June 2017 to October 2018. Patients were assigned to the DGT with MagicTome (MDGT) initially performed group and the conventional DGT (CDGT) initially performed group. The success rates of biliary cannulation by MDGT and CDGT and the ERCP-related complications were evaluated.
Results Twenty-eight patients were included in this study. No significant difference was observed in the success rates of first attempts and crossover attempts between the groups (p=0.69 and p=1.00). Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the success rate of biliary cannulation between MDGT and CDGT (62.5% and 75.0%, respectively; p=0.48). CDGT was successful in two of four patients with malignant biliary obstruction. MDGT was successful in all four patients with malignant biliary obstruction, including the two for whom CDGT was unsuccessful. Post-ERCP pancreatitis occurred in only one MDGT case.
Conclusion MDGT is safe for biliary cannulation and can be used in cases where biliary cannulation by CDGT is difficult.
Objective This study evaluated the lifestyle changes in patients with diabetes and their independent associations with glycemic and body weight control. In addition, the correlation between changes in mental health and lifestyles was evaluated.
Methods This single-center cross-sectional study included 340 patients with diabetes who periodically visited our department. Changes in dietary habits, activities of daily living, and mental health before and during approximately six months after the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic were evaluated using a questionnaire, including the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form.
Results Approximately 20%, 30%, and over 50% of patients had worsened dietary habits, decreased activities of daily living, and deteriorated mental health, respectively. A multiple regression analysis showed that irregular meal timing was significantly associated with change in HbA1c (β=0.328, p=0.001), and decreased walking time was significantly associated with changes in body weight (β=-0.245, p=0.025). The change in fear and anxiety was positively associated with changes in meal timing regularity (r=0.129, p=0.019) and carbohydrate consumption (r=0.127, p=0.021). Subsequently, the change in depressed mood was positively associated with changes in carbohydrate (r=0.142, p=0.010) and alcohol (r=0.161, p=0.037) consumption, and the change in psychological stress was positively associated with changes in carbohydrates (r=0.183, p=0.001) and snack (r=0.151, p=0.008) consumption as well as sedentary time (r=0.158, p=0.004).
Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable medium-term impact on the lifestyle and mental health of patients with diabetes. Lifestyle changes were associated with glycemic and body weight control, and mental health changes were associated with lifestyle changes. These findings may provide important information on diabetes care during the pandemic.
Objective To determine the differences between anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase (ARS) antibodies among line blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) anti-ARS tests, and RNA-immunoprecipitation (IP) assays.
Methods Sera from patients with confirmed or suspected antisynthetase syndrome (ASS) that were positive for either the anti-ARS test or the line-blot assay were used to perform an RNA-IP assay and ELISA to detect individual anti-ARS antibodies.
Results Among the 44 patients, 10 were positive only in line-blot assays, 6 were positive only in the anti-ARS test, and 28 were positive in both assays. We compared the accuracy of these assays against the gold standard RNA-IP assay. The κ coefficient was 0.23 in the line-blot assay, but this increased to 0.75 when the cut-off was increased from 1+ to 2+. The κ coefficient was 0.73 in the anti-ARS test. The κ coefficient was 0.85 for positivity in both assays. Patients with ASS that was positive in an RNA-IP assay more frequently had mechanic's hand (62.1% vs. 20%: p=0.031), myositis (51.7 vs. 10%: p=0.028) and more ASS symptoms than those who were positive only in line-blot assays (3.48 vs. 2.2: p=0.019).
Conclusions Clinicians need to understand the features of each assay and determine diagnoses by also considering clinical presentations. Diagnoses should not be judged based only on the results of line-blot assays due to the risk of a misdiagnosis from false positives.
Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disorder leading to manifestations of malabsorption syndrome. A 47-year-old Japanese man developed severe diarrhea after surgery for gastric cancer. The diarrhea persisted for seven months, leading to a state of malabsorption. Celiac disease was suspected based on small bowel capsule endoscopy findings. The duodenal findings observed during gastric cancer surgery were reassessed, and Marsh-Oberhuber classification type 3c celiac disease was diagnosed. The anti-tissue glutaminase antibody test results were positive. The patient was started on a gluten-free diet, following which the diarrhea resolved, and the nutritional status improved. Adjuvant therapy after gastric cancer surgery was initiated.
A 60-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with celiac disease (CeD) and treated with a gluten-free diet. For five years, she had a good clinical course. However, she complained of inappetence and nausea. Colonoscopy revealed ulcerative tumors in the terminal ileum. A histological examination of biopsy specimens from the ulcerative tumor showed diffuse infiltration of large atypical lymphocytes. Immunohistologically, the atypical lymphoid cells were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD) 10 and CD20. Many Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER)-positive atypical lymphocytes were detected by in situ hybridization. This represents the first reported case of Epstein-Barr virus-positive intestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma complicated with CeD.
A 77-year-old man complained of postmeal vomiting and sustained general fatigue. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed massive gastric expansion and fluid storage. Gastroscopy revealed four gastric bezoars that were considered to have caused pyloric ring obstruction. The patient was asked to drink 500 mL per day of Coca-Cola® for 4 days. On the fourth day, we performed endoscopic crushing and removal by injecting Coca-Cola®, cutting the softened bezoar with endoscopic snares, and collecting the pieces with endoscopic nets. We herein report (with a video presentation) a rare case of tannin-phytobezoars endoscopically removed with the administration and injection of Coca-Cola®.
Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis are opportunistic infections that occur during immunosuppressive treatments for ulcerative colitis (UC). The prognosis of PJP and CMV colitis is very poor. We herein report a rare case of a 74-year-old UC patient with PJP and CMV colitis that was successfully treated with intensive therapy. PJP progresses rapidly, so the timing and choice of treatment are critical. Furthermore, a literature review of similar cases suggested that prophylactic therapy for opportunistic infections might be important, especially in the elderly. This case will serve as a reference for successful treatment in future cases.
A 60-year-old man developed acute myocardial infarction from the total occlusion of the right coronary artery via metastatic squamous lung cancer and was treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Computed tomography and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a metastatic tumor, and three-dimensional TTE was useful for determining the size and location of the tumor in relation to the coronary artery. Six months after PCI, the patient died, and an autopsy confirmed extensive metastasis to the heart and nearby vessels as detected by three-dimensional TTE. Although rare, lung cancer metastasis to the heart may directly occlude the coronary artery.
Immunoglobulin-G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multi-organ systemic inflammatory disorder. The ideal treatment of coronary artery involvement in IgG4-RD remains uncertain due to its rarity. We herein report a case of coronary artery involvement with IgG4-RD, wherein mass lesions surrounded the coronary arteries with a moderate stenosis lesion in the right coronary artery (RCA). The fractional flow reserve (FFR) of the RCA was 0.76. After steroid therapy, the mass lesions around the coronary arteries improved. The FFR of the RCA also improved from 0.76 to 0.86. These findings suggest the efficacy of using steroid therapy for coronary artery involvement with IgG4-RD.
We herein report a case of large-vessel vasculitis in a 57-year-old woman who developed an intermittent fever and weight loss. While contrast-enhanced computed tomography was noncontributory, positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed the diffuse, intense uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the aorta and its branches. Although she had no signs of relapse after successful oral corticosteroid therapy, PET-CT at 30 months revealed a persistent FDG uptake in the large vessels, which warranted regular follow-up imaging for vascular complications. In cases with an intense FDG uptake at the diagnosis, PET-CT follow-up after clinical remission may help predict the risk of relapse and vascular complications.
Congenital afibrinogenemia is a rare autosomal recessive blood disorder that accompanies thrombotic complications and is associated with bleeding tendency. The management of these opposing complications remains a challenge. Endovascular treatment (EVT) for peripheral arterial thrombosis has not been described in previous studies. A 57-year-old man with congenital afibrinogenemia developed back pain and left lower leg pain. The cause of the pain was confirmed to be renal infarction and lower extremity arterial thrombosis by Doppler ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. He was treated with EVT for the lower extremity arterial thrombosis, leading to an excellent short-term improvement without bleeding.
A 21-year-old Japanese man without known diabetes mellitus had abdominal pain. The diagnosis was ketoacidosis and hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis. He had polydipsia and polyuria and had habitually drunk several soft drinks every day for two years. After hospitalization, despite adequate liquid intake, dehydration remained with hypotonic polyuria. Further examinations revealed the coexistence of central diabetes insipidus (CDI), possibly caused by lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis, based on anti-rabphilin-3A antibody positivity. Although CDI had been undiagnosed for two years, over-consumption of sugar-rich soft drinks to ease thirst caused ketoacidosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and acute pancreatitis. There are no previous reports of this three-part combination of symptoms caused by CDI.
We herein report two cases in which add-on acetazolamide to furosemide was effective for diuretic-resistant volume overload and hypercapnia. Case 1 was a woman in her 40s presenting with volume overload due to the nephrotic syndrome with diabetes mellitus. Case 2 was a man in his 60s with fluid overload and non-nephrotic proteinuria and sepsis. In both cases, although fluid overload was resistant to high-dose loop diuretics and complicated with hypercapnia due to pulmonary effusion, add-on acetazolamide administration resulted in symptom resolution. The additional effect of acetazolamide occurred regardless of the degree of proteinuria and kidney function.
A 16-year-old boy with asthma participated in recovery volunteer work following the 2018 heavy rains in Japan. One month later, he experienced chest pain and dyspnea. Chest computed tomography revealed a cavity with a fungal ball, and Aspergillus fumigatus was detected in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. He was treated with voriconazole, but new consolidations appeared rapidly. He also experienced allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. After prednisolone prescription, the consolidations improved; however, his asthma worsened. He underwent partial lung resection to avoid allergens, and his symptoms improved. We must recognize cases of infection after a disaster, especially in patients with chronic respiratory diseases.
Thymic adenocarcinomas are rare. We herein report for the first time a case of thymic adenocarcinoma with positivity for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and a BRAF V600E mutation. A 50-year-old woman had persistent suffocation and chest pain. Computed tomography revealed a 42×28-mm tumor in the anterior mediastinum. The patient underwent tumor resection using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Histopathological findings showed thymic papillary adenocarcinoma, Masaoka stage II. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for TTF-1. A sequencing analysis revealed a BRAF V600E mutation. The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy and was in good health without recurrence at five months after resection.
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder in which lipoproteinaceous materials accumulate in the alveolar compartments. A 72-year-old man was diagnosed with autoimmune PAP with severe respiratory failure. We decided to perform segmental lung lavage (SLL) with fiberoptic bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. If improvement was not significant, whole-lung lavage (WLL) would be done. SLL improved the respiratory failure and computed tomography findings. This case showed improvement in not only the area where lavage was done but also the non-lavaged area. SLL with fiberoptic bronchoscopy under general anesthesia might be an appropriate treatment option for patients with severe PAP.
A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with cough and fatigue. He had had long-term exposure to silica due to cement processing. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral centrilobular nodules, and hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy with calcification, suggesting chronic silicosis. Within a few months, these nodules enlarged, and bilateral patchy consolidations appeared. A lung biopsy revealed sarcoid-like granulomas with birefringent particles under polarized light without malignancy or infection. He was diagnosed with silicosis-associated sarcoid-like granulomatous lung disease, rather than sarcoidosis, according to the clinicopathological findings. His pulmonary manifestations improved after the discontinuation of silica exposure and combination therapy of corticosteroid and azathioprine.
A 78-year-old woman with multiple lung nodules, epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 20 insertion mutations, and diagnosed with advanced lung adenocarcinoma (cT4N3M1a, stage IVA), was referred to our hospital. She received immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. The therapy showed remarkable antitumor effects; only a single nodule remained in the right upper lobe. The nodule was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma through a biopsy. We subsequently performed right upper lobectomy for multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC). The surgical specimen contained EGFR exon 19 deletion mutations and not exon 20 insertion mutations.
A 57-year-old man without underlying diseases presented with fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice 1 week after receiving the first dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and showed hemolytic anemia with fragmented erythrocytes and severe thrombocytopenia 2 weeks after receiving the vaccine. An a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) activity level of <10% and ADAMTS13 inhibitor positivity confirmed the diagnosis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Combination therapy with plasma exchange, corticosteroid, and rituximab improved the clinical outcome. We herein report the first Japanese case of TTP possibly associated with vaccination. Physicians should be alert for this rare but life-threatening hematological complication following COVID-19 vaccination.
A 26-year-old woman with a history of migraine reported right-sided, severe stabbing orbital pain with cranial autonomic symptoms (CASs) for approximately 2 years. The attack duration was approximately 30 minutes, with a frequency of twice per day. Taking loxoprofen was ineffective. Six months earlier, moderate pressing continuous interictal pain without CASs had developed. Indomethacin farnesyl completely resolved the attacks but had no effect on the interictal pain. The patient was diagnosed with probable chronic paroxysmal hemicrania in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3) (third version). Continuous interictal pain gradually disappeared with a combination of indomethacin farnesyl and amitriptyline.
A 62-year-old man showed abnormal behavior. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multifocal lesions on T2-weighted images. Initial screening revealed that he was seropositive for antibodies against glutamate decarboxylase, which usually indicates treatment resistance to autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Intensive immunosuppressive therapies, however, improved the neurological symptoms. In line with this, we also detected seropositivity for antibodies against leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABAAR). Brain imaging and treatment responsiveness suggested that antibodies against GABAAR were the main cause of symptoms. Furthermore, the patient showed the presence of triple anti-neural antibodies in the absence of malignancy and had a favorable clinical course.
Takayasu's arteritis is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology that causes stenosis, occlusion, or dilatation of the aorta and its major branches, the pulmonary arteries, and the coronary arteries. The incidence of extracranial carotid artery aneurysm in patients with Takayasu's arteritis is reportedly 1.8-3.9%. We herein report a patient with Takayasu's arteritis who presented with transient left hemiplegia immediately after neck massage. Carotid ultrasonography revealed a thrombus within the fusiform aneurysm on the right common carotid artery. We speculated that fragmentation from the intra-aneurysmal thrombus was caused by neck massage.
Optic neuritis (ON) is a rare complication of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors. The autoantibody serostatus, treatment, and outcome of TNF-α inhibitor-associated ON remain unclear. We herein report a 50-year-old woman with ON following adalimumab therapy. The patient presented with decreasing visual acuity of the right eye, quickly diminishing to light perception. Anti-aquaporin-4 (anti-AQP4) and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies were negative. Adalimumab was discontinued, and intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) were administered. However, her visual acuity improved only up to counting fingers. IVIg may be ineffective depending on the pretreatment severity.
Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has spread worldwide. Although nearly all patients incur mild-to-moderate disease from this viral infection, some develop severe manifestations with a poor prognosis. COVID-19 can also induce autoimmune disease; several cases of arthritis following COVID-19 have been documented in the literature, such as reactive arthritis and chronic arthritis. We herein report a case of psoriatic arthritis triggered by COVID-19. Although the arthritis had been refractory to glucocorticoids and methotrexate, certolizumab pegol subsequently led to remission.