Objective The Suita score is used to predict the 10-year prognosis of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). This study examined the association between the Suita score and stroke recurrence within one year in Japanese patients who experienced first-ever ischemic stroke.
Methods This prospective cohort study at a stroke center in Japan included patients who experienced first-ever acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or a transient ischemic attack (TIA). During hospitalization, the Suita score was measured as the main exposure. Patients with a ≥5% predicted CHD risk were classified into the high-risk group. The primary outcome was stroke recurrence within one year of the stroke onset. A multivariate Cox regression analysis was conducted and adjusted for confounding and prognostic factors.
Results Among the 1,204 patients evaluated, 937 (78%) were classified as having a high risk of developing CHD. Stroke recurrence was observed in 66 patients during the follow-up period. In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for confounding and prognostic factors, such as non-small vessel occlusion and prescription of lipid-lowering agents at the time of discharge, a ≥5% predicted CHD risk was associated with the 1-year stroke recurrence after the initial onset [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) =2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.00-4.91, p=0.049; adjusted HR=2.00, 95% CI=1.01-4.14, p=0.048; adjusted HR=0.42, 95% CI=0.24-0.73, p=0.002].
Conclusion The Suita score, adapted for use in ischemic stroke with the same mechanism, correlated with the short-term recurrence within one year. Our findings suggest that the Suita score may be useful for predicting the long-term prognosis of developing CHD as well as the short-term recurrence for patients with first-ever AIS and TIA.
Objective This study aimed to reveal the screening performance of a color-changeable chewing gum test for a decreased masticatory function in the assessment of oral hypofunction in patients with metabolic diseases.
Methods We analyzed 1,000 patients with metabolic diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia. A decreased masticatory function was diagnosed by a gummy jelly test. Patients were asked to chew a test gum, which changed from green to red by thorough mastication, 60 times for 1 minute. The color change was visually evaluated using the color scale, from 1 (green-dominant) to 10 points (red-dominant), and was colorimetrically quantified as delta E in the L*a*b* color space. The screening performance for a decreased masticatory function was evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.
Results Seventy-seven patients (7.7%) were diagnosed with a decreased masticatory function. The mean color scale and delta E of the gum test were 6.7±1.8 points and 42.9±6.7 units, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.822 (95% confidence interval, 0.768-0.872) for the color scale and 0.838 (0.781-0.890) for delta E (p=0.41). The optimal cut-off point of the color scale was 5.5 (5.0-6.5) points, whereas that of delta E was 37.7 (35.5-38.8) units. The optimal cut-off points were not significantly different between the subgroups divided by clinical characteristics.
Conclusions A color-changeable chewing gum test using the color scale as well as delta E would be a useful tool for screening patients with metabolic diseases for a decreased masticatory function in the assessment of oral hypofunction.
Objective To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmorary disease (COPD) in a real-world setting in Japan.
Methods This 52-week, multicentre, post-marketing surveillance conducted in Japan between December 2013 and August 2019 included patients using IND/GLY for the first time to relieve airway obstructive disorder-related symptoms. Safety outcomes included the incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs), adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and serious ADRs during the 52-week period. The incidence of priority variables, including cardiovascular/cerebrovascular (CCV) AEs, β-adrenergic-related or anticholinergic AEs and cough, was also assessed. Safety outcomes were also evaluated in elderly patients. Efficacy outcomes included a physician's global assessment, COPD assessment test (CAT) and lung function test.
Results Of the 1,167 patients registered, 1,108 were included in the safety and efficacy analysis. In the safety analysis population, the incidence of AEs was 13.54%, that of SAEs was 4.69%, that of ADR was 3.61%, and that of serious ADRs was 0.36% over 52 weeks. CCV AEs, β-adrenergic-related and anticholinergic AEs and cough were reported as 2.62%, 1.99% and 0.63%, respectively. The physician's global assessment showed that the overall response rate at the last assessment was 74.19%. The mean (95% confidence interval) CAT scores decreased from the start of treatment to Week 52 with IND/GLY [-6.9 (-7.8 to -6.1)]. The lung function (FEV1 and FVC) improved over time from the start of IND/GLY to Week 52.
Conclusion IND/GLY demonstrated a good long-term safety profile in a real-world setting in Japanese patients with COPD, with beneficial effects in terms of the lung function and symptoms in clinical use.
Objective Limited data exist regarding the comparative detailed clinical characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) receiving oral anticoagulants (OACs).
Methods The prospective analysis of stroke patients taking oral anticoagulants (PASTA) registry, a multicenter registry of 1,043 stroke patients receiving OACs [vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOACs)] across 25 medical institutions throughout Japan, was used. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to analyze differences in clinical characteristics between IS/TIA and ICH patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who were registered in the PASTA registry.
Results There was no significant differences in cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, or alcohol consumption (all p>0.05), between IS/TIA and ICH among both NOAC and VKA users. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) [odds ratio (OR), 4.77; p<0.0001] were independently associated with ICH, and high brain natriuretic peptide/N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide levels (OR, 1.89; p=0.0390) were independently associated with IS/TIA among NOAC users. A history of ICH (OR, 13.59; p=0.0279) and the high prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) (OR, 1.17; p<0.0001) were independently associated with ICH, and a history of IS/TIA (OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.34-8.49; p=0.0101) and high D-dimer levels (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.05-5.82; p=0.0377) were independently associated with IS/TIA among VKA users.
Conclusion The presence of CMBs, a history of stroke, natriuretic peptide and D-dimer levels, and PT-INR may be useful for risk stratification of either IS/TIA or ICH development in patients with AF receiving OACs.
Objective This study assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody responses to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in Japanese healthcare workers.
Methods In this prospective cohort study, participants received two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine on days 0 and 21 and provided blood for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing before the first vaccine and on days 21 and 35 after vaccination. Anti-spike protein immunoglobulin G (S-IgG) was measured using Abbott and Fujirebio chemiluminescent immunoassays.
Patients One hundred healthcare workers (median age: 39 years old, interquartile range: 30-48 years old), including 6 who had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and 3 individuals taking immunosuppressive drugs, participated in the study.
Results The S-IgG antibody titers (AU/mL) measured using both the Abbott and Fujirebio assays increased significantly (p<0.001) over time, both with a prevalence of 100% at 35 days after the first vaccination. The multivariate log-normal linear regression analysis indicated the effect of immunosuppressant medication using both the Abbott (p=0.013) and Fujirebio (p=0.039) assays on S-IgG levels after complete vaccination. Pearson's correlation coefficient between the Abbott and Fujirebio S-IgG results in all 300 samples collected before and after vaccination and 50 positive controls from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 were 0.963 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.954-0.970, p<0.001] and 0.909 (95% CI: 0.845-0.948, p<0.001), respectively.
Conclusion The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was effective at increasing S-IgG levels in Japanese immunocompetent healthcare workers. The Fujirebio S-IgG assay showed high diagnostic accuracy, using the Abbott S-IgG assay as the reference test.
Although trichuriasis, a zoonotic disease, has recently become rare in Japan due to improved environmental hygiene, we herein report a 79-year-old man in whom a worm was incidentally found in the ascending colon during colonoscopy for positive fecal occult blood and was endoscopically removed. A genetic analysis identified the worm as Trichuris trichiura possessing mixed sequences from non-human primate and human origins. Despite controversy regarding Trichuris trichiura infection originating from Japanese macaques, according to some studies, it originates primarily from humans. This report suggests the efficacy of a genetic analysis for identifying infection sources.
We herein describe three patients whose endoscopic images from over 15 years prior to their diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis (AIG) were available for review. All patients had corpus-dominant atrophic gastritis at the time of the diagnosis of AIG. Previous endoscopic images without severe atrophy showed erythema restricted to the fundic mucosa. These findings are suggestive of ongoing gastritis in patients with AIG. Initial endoscopy in Patient 2 showed multiple hyperplastic polyps that decreased in size and number over the course of 15 years. In this patient, circular wrinkle-like patterns and remnant oxyntic mucosa were visible after the atrophy had become quite prominent.
Transileocolic obliteration (TIO) is a useful treatment for gastric, duodenal, or rectal varices. However, TIO for esophageal varices has not yet been reported. We herein report successful TIO performed for refractory esophageal varices with a large paraesophageal vein, with no subsequent recurrence of varices.
We encountered a 47-year-old woman with polycystic liver disease (PLD) and severe malnutrition successfully treated by living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Her PLD became symptomatic with abdominal distension and appetite loss. Transcatheter arterial embolization and percutaneous cyst drainage failed to improve her symptoms. ABO-incompatible LDLT from her husband was performed after rituximab administration and mycophenolate mofetil introduction. Although she showed severe postoperative complications, she ultimately regained the ability to walk and was discharged. Because advanced PLD cases are difficult to treat conservatively or with surgery, like fenestration and hepatectomy, liver transplantation should be considered before it becomes too late.
The closure of small/coincidental atrial septal defects (ASDs) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been described in recent major guidelines as useless or even contraindicated. We confirm the effectiveness of "Treat and Repair" for ASD closure through one patient diagnosed with idiopathic PAH with small ASD, under careful observation with right heart catheterization and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The clinical decision concerning the closure of ASD with PAH should be made not only by referring to the guidelines but also by evaluating the benefits and risks specific to that case.
Cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) is a serious complication that occurs after cardiac and vascular procedures. CCE involves multiple organs, and the prognosis and renal function of patients is poor. Although the efficacy of steroid, statin, and low-density lipoprotein apheresis has been reported, no definitive treatment has been established. We herein report three consecutive cases treated with conventional steroid therapy with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor after catheterization. The renal function was preserved, steroid therapy was stopped, and wound healing of blue toes was achieved. PCSK9 inhibitor therapy was safe in the present patient and may be a potential treatment option for CCE.
A 58-year-old Japanese man was brought to the emergency room due to disturbance of consciousness. He regained consciousness on the day of admission and started taking hospital meals, but he needed intravenous glucose administration for eight days. The total amount of glucose administration was 4,464 g. It took over three weeks for exogenous insulin to be almost undetectable. While degludec binds to albumin and exerts glucose-lowering effects for a long time, the above-mentioned period of three weeks was consistent with the half-life of albumin. Hypoglycemia induced by massive dose of insulin degludec is persistent and prominent.
We herein report a 43-year-old woman with Buerger's disease who presented with nephrotic syndrome, renal dysfunction, and mild hypertension. A kidney biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but there were no findings associated with frequent secondary FSGS or a history of long-term hypertension. A small focal renal infarction was seen on 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy, suggesting that FSGS was due to renal microinfarction associated with Buerger's disease. After the commencement of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy, the hypertension immediately improved, along with significant attenuation of proteinuria. Renal ischemia by vasoconstriction of the glomerular efferent arterioles in association with Buerger's disease may result in glomerular hyperfiltration followed by FSGS.
A 70-year-old woman with complaints of edema, general malaise, and hypotension was diagnosed with renal amyloidosis, and laser microdissection mass spectrometry revealed her amyloidosis to predominantly comprise the apolipoprotein A-IV type. The M-protein turned from negative to positive during the course, and a bone marrow biopsy showed smoldering myeloma. Treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasone failed to save her from heart failure six months after the onset. Western blotting of urine samples at the time of the renal biopsy showed that amyloid light-chain κ amyloidosis had been present since the onset. Unlike the myeloma, Congo red staining was positive in the plasma cells of the bone marrow.
Amyloidosis is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of abnormal proteins in extracellular tissues. We herein report a case with instructive radiologic features of nodular pulmonary amyloidosis associated with Sjögren's syndrome. A 67-year-old woman was referred to our department because of an abnormal chest radiograph. Chest computed tomography revealed multiple round cysts accompanied by calcified nodules. The patient was clinically diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome and pathologically diagnosed with nodular pulmonary amyloidosis (light chain, kappa). Although multiple lung cysts have many etiologies, the presence of calcified nodules associated with multiple lung cysts is useful for narrowing down the differential diagnosis.
A 71-year-old man presented with cough and bloody sputum. Computed tomography showed a mass in the lower lobe of the left lung. Histological findings in biopsy tissue revealed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). The patient was diagnosed with primary lung MPNST based on a systemic examination. Although initial chemotherapy treatment with doxorubicin failed to control the disease, radiotherapy considerably shrank the tumor. Primary lung MPNSTs are rare, and there is no established treatment for inoperable cases. This case suggests that radiotherapy is a treatment option for primary lung MPNST.
The patient had suffered from both proximal and distal limb weakness since her early childhood, without the involvement of ocular or respiratory muscles. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) at 3 Hz showed significant decrement in the area and amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) on the right abductor digiti minimi (26%) and trapezius (17%). Whole-exon sequencing revealed two novel heterozygous mutations (p.Q1406Rfs*29 and p.R1521H) in the LG1 domain of agrin, which were deemed likely pathogenic for congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) according to a bioinformatics analysis. The patient showed remarkable improvement after treatment with salbutamol. This case expanded the mutation spectrum of AGRN.
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is often associated with peripheral neuropathy, but reports of central nervous system involvement are quite rare. We herein report a patient with EGPA first identified as having hypereosinophilia who later developed asthma, eosinophilic otitis media, sinusitis, and hemorrhagic colitis. She subsequently developed hemiparesis. Head magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple cerebral infarctions with subcortical and subarachnoid hemorrhaging colocalized at the bilateral border zone areas. She was diagnosed with EGPA-induced stroke and successfully treated with oral prednisolone. Inflammation in the small cerebral arteries in EGPA may induce bilateral border zone infarction with colocalizing subcortical and subarachnoid hemorrhaging.
Restricted lower limb vasculitis is a type of localized muscle vasculitis limited to the lower limbs. The usefulness of fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the diagnosis of this entity has not yet been reported. We herein report three patients with a fever and persistent lower limb pain. FDG-PET revealed linear and patchy FDG uptakes in their lower limbs. Combined with magnetic resonance imaging and histological findings, they were diagnosed with lower limb vasculitis. Linear and patchy FDG uptakes are considered to reflect the presence of muscle vasculitis. The characteristic "ant-farm"-like FDG-PET images can be a diagnostic clue for the currently overlooked vasculitis.
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by stiffness and aching mainly in the shoulders, neck and hip girdles. The underlying pathogenesis of PMR involves myeloid lineage activation with a high expression of pattern recognition receptors. In addition, vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with mRNA-1273 functions as both an immunogen and intrinsic adjuvant. It leads to the activation of innate immunity, resulting in antibody production. We herein report the first case of PMR-like syndrome seven days after mRNA-1273 vaccination. Reassuringly, the symptoms, such as pain of the neck, shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle, as well as elevated inflammatory markers were resolved within a month without glucocorticoid or immunosuppressant administration.
A 61-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a fever, nausea, diarrhea, and back pain. Her condition rapidly deteriorated, and she was transferred to the intensive-care unit for mechanical circulatory support and antibiotics, but she died 40 hours after admission. Autopsy findings showed necrotic and suppurative myocardial changes due to group B Streptococcus (GBS). To date, only one case of bacterial myocarditis caused by GBS has been reported. We herein report a case of GBS myocarditis, the etiology of which is poorly understood due to the limited number of cases. Bacterial myocarditis should be considered in patients with sepsis and myocardial dysfunction.
A 33-year-old woman with a fever, cough, and pharyngitis was admitted after left-sided pleural effusion was detected. The fever and upper respiratory symptoms were confirmed, and she was diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) after showing a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. After thoracentesis, pleural fluid revealed elevated adenosine deaminase values and a positive QuantiFeron test; tuberculous pleurisy was thus suspected. Subsequent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG tests were negative, suggesting that the initial PCR result had been erroneous. However, we were unable to confirm this. Data concerning COVID-19 diagnostics are insufficient at present. It is important to make comprehensive judgments regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients as well as public health.
A 50-year-old man developed a sterile cavernosal abscess followed by prominent features of necrotizing neutrophilic dermatosis. We conducted a literature review, which revealed that aseptic abscesses in the corpus cavernosum occur in association with neutrophilic dermatosis. Patients with this condition frequently receive unnecessary antibiotic treatment and surgical interventions. Although this condition responds to systemic corticosteroids, the functional prognosis of the penis is poor. Abscess formation may be the initial presentation of neutrophilic dermatoses, and underlying conditions may even be absent. Clinicians need to be aware of this condition to distinguish it from bacterial infection and initiate early disease-specific treatments.