Helicobacter pylori can infect the gastric mucosa and cause chronic inflammation, resulting in various diseases, including gastric cancer. Eradication of H. pylori in all infected subjects is recommended; however, the number of H. pylori strains with antibiotic resistance has increased, and the eradication rate has decreased. Vonoprazan, a potassium-competitive acid blocker, produces a stronger acid-inhibitory effect than proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The H. pylori eradication rate with vonoprazan was found to be higher than that with PPIs. The H. pylori eradication rate with vonoprazan-based triple therapy (vonoprazan, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin) was approximately 90% and had an incidence of adverse events similar to that of PPIs. We review the current situation of H. pylori eradication in Japan, the first country in which vonoprazan was made available.
Systemic therapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically changed in the latest 15 years. Molecular-targeted therapy has brought about an era of precision medicine, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have brought hope for a cure for advanced NSCLC. In the wake of this remarkable advancement, lung cancer with comorbid interstitial pneumonia (IP) has been completely left behind, as most clinical trials exclude patients with comorbid IP. IP, especially idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is often accompanied by lung cancer, and acute exacerbation can develop during various cancer therapies, including surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacotherapy. In this review, we focus on the clinical questions concerning pharmacotherapy in cases of advanced lung cancer with comorbid IP and discuss what we can do with the currently available data.
Objective Despite recent advances in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, some HCV-positive individuals are unaware of their infection. The present study aimed to assess the rate and age distribution in Saga Prefecture regarding i) HCV infection and HCV screening and ii) direct acting anti-viral (DAA) treatment.
Methods HCV screening data collected at a medical institution or in the workplace were obtained from the administrative database in Saga Prefecture between April 1, 2008 and March 31, 2014. DAA treatment data from Saga Prefecture were obtained from the DAA treatment reimbursement recipient database between October 2014 and March 2017.
Results There were 35,625 individuals who underwent HCV screening, and the HCV positive rate was 1.18% (421 individuals), which increased in an age-related manner. The screening rate in the screened populations peaked at 45-74 years of age (approximately 6%) and decreased in the younger and older generations. The estimated percentage of DAA treatment peaked at 65-74 years old (65.8%) and significantly decreased inversely with age in the younger generations; only 9.4% of HCV carriers received DAA treatment in the 20- to 34-year age group. The proportion of subjects who received a complete physical examination for DAA treatment was higher in the subjects who were screened at a medical institution than in those screened at the workplace.
Conclusion The rate of subjects who underwent HCV screening and DAA treatment was not high, especially in the younger generation, in Saga Prefecture. This group should be targeted for HCV screening and treatment.
Objective The revised Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2018 recommend a less-intensive HbA1c target for elderly individuals than for younger ones. This study aimed to investigate the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) according to HbA1c levels separately for elderly and middle-aged individuals in a general Japanese population.
Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using health checkup data in Iki City, Japan. The participants of the study were 5,554 residents who attended health checkups more than 2 times over 8 years. This study consists of two sets of analyses to determine (1) the effects of HbA1c on the development of CKD among 4,570 subjects who did not have CKD at baseline and (2) the effects of HbA1c on the progression of CKD in 953 subjects with existing CKD at baseline.
Results After adjusting for various risk factors, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for development of CKD increased with the HbA1c level: 1.43 for 7-9% and 1.67 for >9% compared with the reference of <7% (p<0.306 for trend). Similar findings were also observed for the progression of CKD: hazard ratios of 2.48 for 7-9% and 2.46 for >9% compared with the reference of <7% (p<0.077 for trend). No significant differences in the effects of HbA1c level on the development or progression of CKD were observed between elderly and middle-aged individuals (p>0.3 for interaction).
Conclusion The risks of the development and progression of CKD increased from HbA1c levels of 7% in a general Japanese population. Similar associations were observed for both elderly and middle-aged individuals.
Objective Pneumonia develops in bedridden patients, even in those receiving oral care, and malnutrition is associated with the development of pneumonia. We examined the effects of nutritional treatment on the prevention of pneumonia.
Patients and Methods We retrospectively examined the effects of nutritional treatment on the prevention of pneumonia by analyzing the records of bedridden patients (n=68; mean age: 68.0 years) who stayed in a hospital for 2 years or longer.
Results Among the analyzed patients, pneumonia developed in 52 (76%) patients, and the mean frequency of pneumonia was 1.6 times per year during the first year of stay. In a multivariate analysis, the serum albumin level at admission in the pneumonia group was lower than that in the non-pneumonia group. The frequency of pneumonia during the second year of stay was lower than that during the first year of stay. Serum levels of albumin and total protein (TP) at one year after admission were higher than those at admission in all analyzed patients, and in all patients (n=52) and elderly (≥65 years) patients (n=31) in the pneumonia group. The proportions of patients with hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL) and hypoproteinemia (<6.5 g/dL) at one year after admission were lower than those at admission. The increases in the proportions of patients presenting a reduced frequency of pneumonia were correlated with increases in the proportions of patients presenting increased levels of albumin and/or TP.
Conclusion Nutritional treatment may reduce the frequency of pneumonia by improving malnutrition in bedridden patients receiving oral care.
Objective Hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) in severely immunocompromised patients has a very poor prognosis. However, the risk factors for hemorrhagic pneumonia are not clear.
Methods This study assessed the predictive factors of hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by SM. The medical records of patients admitted to Osaka City University Hospital with SM bacteremia between January 2008 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed.
Patients All patients who had positive blood cultures for SM were included in this study. They were categorized into two groups: the SM bacteremia with hemorrhagic pneumonia group and the SM bacteremia without hemorrhagic pneumonia group. The clinical background characteristics and treatments were compared between these groups.
Results The 35 patients with SM bacteremia included 4 with hemorrhagic pneumonia and 31 without hemorrhagic pneumonia. Hematologic malignancy (p=0.03) and thrombocytopenia (p=0.04) as well as the prior use of quinolone within 30 days (p=0.04) were more frequent in the SM bacteremia patients with hemorrhagic pneumonia than in those without hemorrhagic pneumonia. The mortality of the SM bacteremia patients with hemorrhagic pneumonia was higher than that of those without hemorrhagic pneumonia group (p=0.02).
Conclusion Patients with SM bacteremia who have hematologic malignancy, thrombocytopenia, and a history of using quinolone within the past 30 days should be treated with deliberation.
A small proportion of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are accompanied by type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP); however their clinical courses and image characteristics have not been fully reported. A 65-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the examination of a pancreatic head cyst that had shown exacerbation for two years. Several images demonstrated a multilocular cyst with a symmetrically thickened, enhanced, cyst wall. Cancerization of IPMN was suspected, and pancreatoduodenectomy was performed. The resected specimens showed a multilocular cyst with solid areas. The solid areas demonstrated pathological findings that corresponded with type 1 AIP. Papillary epithelia suggestive of IPMN was recognized in some parts of the cystic wall.
The appropriate management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during pregnancy has not been established in Japan. We herein report five HBV-infected pregnant Japanese women who received tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Two of them had been born after the introduction of nationwide immunoprophylaxis and were vertically infected with HBV, highlighting the need to address mother-to-child transmission further. In both entecavir-experienced and nucleoside/nucleotide analog-naïve mothers, TDF suppressed HBV replication without serious adverse events. All five children were free from congenital disorders, growth impairment, and HBV infection. TDF showed safety and efficacy for pregnant woman with chronic hepatitis B and might have helped prevent mother-to-child transmission.
A 73-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with dyspnea and left hemiplegia. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism, entrapped thrombus in patent foramen ovale (PFO), and internal carotid artery occlusion was made by imaging studies. We decided to perform endovascular treatment without the administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for cerebral embolism because of concern about further embolism caused by fragmented thrombi. After endovascular treatment, he successfully underwent surgical embolectomy for entrapped thrombus in PFO. Endovascular treatment without tPA administration and subsequent surgical embolectomy seems to be a viable treatment strategy for patients with occlusion of the large cerebral artery accompanied by entrapped thrombus in PFO.
The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarctions (MIs) is challenging when no significant ischemic ST-segment changes are noted on a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). We herein report two patients suffering from chest pain in whom non-gated enhanced computed tomography (CT) images were used to rule out aortic dissection and pulmonary embolism, aiding in the early diagnosis of an acute MI. Subsequently, urgent revascularization was successfully performed in these patients. In non-gated enhanced CT imaging, the infarcted myocardium is initially visible as a focal myocardial perfusion defect.
Pulmonary hypertension and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) have an association mediated by activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) gene pathogenic variants. A 30-year-old woman was previously admitted to a hospital due to lung hemorrhage, and was diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension, but stopped follow-up visits. At 48 years of age, she was admitted to our hospital and was diagnosed with HHT. Genetic testing revealed an ACVRL1 pathogenic variant. After the initiation of pulmonary vasodilator treatment, the patient's mean pulmonary artery pressure started to decrease from 43 mmHg, declining to 37 mmHg when she was 58 years of age. This is the first report describing the 28-year follow-up of an HHT and pulmonary hypertension patient with an ACVRL1 mutation.
Constitutive activation of the Janus kinase/signal transduction and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway plays a central role in the pathogenesis of myelofibrosis (MF) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a known complication of MF. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the JAK-STAT pathway, especially signal transducer and activation of transcription (STAT) 3 activation, protects cardiomyocytes from various stresses. We describe the case of a patient with MF-associated PH who developed left ventricular dysfunction after five years of treatment with the JAK 1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib. This is the first report with histopathological findings that demonstrate possible contradictory effects of a JAK 1/2 inhibitor: improvement of MF-associated PH and cardiotoxicity.
A 37-year-old woman developed deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the left lower extremity at 8 weeks of gestation during her second pregnancy. There was no personal or family history of thrombosis. She received intravenous heparin, but heparin resistance was noted. The plasma antithrombin activity decreased to 45% in the acute phase, and it remained low postpartum. Her mother also had low plasma antithrombin activity (46%), and genetic testing revealed a heterozygous SERPINC1 mutation. Even without a family history of thrombosis, we should suspect hereditary antithrombin deficiency in patients with initial DVT and perform thorough investigation.
A case of acute kidney injury due to reflex anuria that was caused by retrograde pyelography and required temporary hemodialysis is reported. An 83-year-old Japanese woman presented with anuria 2 days after undergoing bilateral retrograde pyelography for the investigation of gross hematuria. Retrograde pyelography showed no apparent abnormality, such as malignancy or urolithiasis, but pyelorenal extravasation of contrast medium was remarkable. Her anuria improved promptly after hemodialysis, allowing her treatment to conclude with only one hemodialysis session, and a normal renal function was restored with no sequelae. The details of this case and a review of the relevant literature are presented.
Studies reporting chest images of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-induced lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in an outbreak setting and their relationship to the clinical manifestation are limited. During a genetically confirmed RSV outbreak, eight patients underwent both chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT). Among these, 5 cases had newly appearing abnormalities on CT, although chest X-ray was able to detect abnormalities in only 2 cases (40%). Although bronchial wall thickening was common, other findings and their distribution were variable, even in an outbreak setting. All patients with both a history of anticancer chemotherapy against hematological cancer and lower respiratory symptoms, such as wheezing, sputum, and hypoxemia, had abnormalities on CT, suggesting that these two factors might be important for predicting the existence of LRTI in RSV-infected patients.
A 40-year-old Japanese man with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged was administered the selective ALK inhibitor ceritinib as a third-line treatment and continued treatment for nine months. After fourth-line treatment, we performed rechallenge with ceritinib as a fifth-line treatment. On day 54 after rechallenge, the patient developed acutely deteriorating dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed extensive ground-glass opacities. We diagnosed him with ceritinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD) and initiated methylprednisolone pulse therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ceritinib-induced ILD in a Japanese patient. Since it may newly emerge with rechallenge therapy, close attention is necessary.
A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with a 1-year history of dyspnea and persistent right-dominant bilateral pleural effusions. Chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed no notable findings apart from the bilateral pleural effusions. 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-CT showed no accumulation of FDG in the thorax and abdomen. Thoracoscopy revealed numerous small (approximately 2-3 mm in size), blister-like nodules on the left parietal pleura extending from the lower third of the chest wall to the diaphragm. A pathological examination revealed lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrates with increasing numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the fibrotic pleura, indicating IgG4-related pleuritis.
Mucormycosis has emerged as the third-most common fungal mycosis and is one of the most fatal molds. We herein report a case study of a 30-year-old woman who was a veterinarian, specializing in livestock, who developed disseminated mucormycosis during induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We successfully used a radical approach for treatment, including a surgical procedure and allogeneic transplantation, with continuous administration of antifungal agents. Reports of successful treatments are extremely rare, and our case has had the longest documented remission from disseminated disease. We speculate that our case's occupational environment may represent a risk factor for development of mucormycosis.
A healthy 28-year-old woman presented suddenly with intractable status epilepticus: a focal seizure evolved into a generalized seizure preceded by a high fever. Brain magnetic resonance imaging indicated bilateral hyperintensities in the hippocampus on T2-weighted imaging. Electroencephalograms continuously demonstrated diffuse sharp waves and poly-spikes. Comprehensive immunomodulation therapies and anti-epileptic drugs did not lead to any improvements. We therefore diagnosed her with cryptogenic limbic encephalitis and new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). We detected positive anti-ganglioside antibodies, IgG-GQ1b, GD1a, and GT1b, which were negative at six months after the onset. We emphasize the heterogeneous pathogenesis and intractable conditions of NORSE.
Anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 (anti-LGI1) encephalitis is a subgroup of autoimmune encephalitis. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with typical symptoms, including short-term memory loss, mental abnormalities, hyponatremia and seizures characterized by faciobrachial dystonic seizures and who was diagnosed with anti-LGI1 encephalitis. At the same time, he was diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia. A significant improvement was obtained by treatment with corticosteroid, immunoglobulin, mycophenolate mofetil, and hydroxyurea. Autoimmune diseases are associated with a significantly increased risk of developing myeloproliferative neoplasms, which may explain the coexistence of anti-LGI1 encephalitis and essential thrombocythema in this patient; however, but more cases and studies are needed to determine whether there is any correlation between these conditions.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 8 (SCA8) is a rare hereditary cerebellar ataxia showing mainly pure cerebellar ataxia. We herein report cases of SCA8 in Japanese monozygotic twins that presented with nystagmus, dysarthria, and limb and truncal ataxia. Their ATXN8OS CTA/CTG repeats were 25/97. They showed similar manifestations, clinical courses, and cerebellar atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging. Some of their pedigrees had nystagmus but not ataxia. These are the first monozygotic twins with SCA8 to be reported anywhere in the world. Although not all subjects with the ATXN8OS CTG expansion develop cerebellar ataxia, these cases suggest the pathogenesis of ATXN8OS repeat expansions in hereditary cerebellar ataxia.
Patients with HIV infection represent a high-risk group for medication overdose because of the high frequency of complicating psychiatric disorders. Raltegravir is well-known for its low frequency of adverse effects. We herein report a 42-year-old Japanese man with HIV infection who was hospitalized 6 hours after overdosing with 24,000 mg of raltegravir in a suicide attempt. No serious adverse events occurred, although the plasma concentration of raltegravir at 18 hours after the overdose was 79,871.1 ng/mL. Raltegravir may be well-indicated for HIV patients at risk of overdosing.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is a major pathogen causing gastroenteritis among immunocompetent adults. NTS infection is mainly transmitted by contaminated food and water, but some cases are transmitted by animal contact. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Poona (S. Poona) is an NTS usually transmitted by reptiles, and cases including outbreaks of gastroenteritis have been reported previously. However, invasive infections due to this organism among immunocompetent adults are rare. We herein report a case of a 39-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital for a fever and headache. Blood cultures were positive for S. Poona, although he did not recall any exposure to reptiles. He was treated successfully with intravenous ceftriaxone without any subsequent complications. This case implies that NTS bacteremia can occur in immunocompetent adults, and the diagnosis may be challenging since there may be no clear exposure or focal physical signs.
Opioid-induced-constipation (OIC) can be treated by naldemedine and other peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORA) via a novel mechanism. We describe the case of a 52-year-old female outpatient who developed OIC while receiving oxycodone for pain due to cancer with multiple bone metastases. Although she did not have brain metastasis, opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS) developed after taking naldemedine orally. Her Clinical Opiate-Withdrawal Score (COWS) was 19 (moderate symptoms). However, she recovered from OWS on intravenous fentanyl and a continuous infusion of oxycodone. She did not develop OWS thereafter and was discharged two days after recovery.
We herein report the case of a 14-year-old girl who had been experiencing chronic fatigue, febricula, and social withdrawal for 20 months. No notable abnormalities were identified during routine checkups at a general pediatric hospital; symptomatic treatments did not affect her condition. She was diagnosed with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Based on the concepts of Japanese traditional medicine, she was administered shosaikoto-based treatment. After several weeks of treatment, all of the symptoms had been dramatically alleviated, consequently resolving the issue of non-attendance at school. Shosaikoto-based medication may be a therapeutic option for treating ME/CFS in patients presenting with chronic febricula.