Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a group of clinical syndromes typically characterized by bilateral reversible vasogenic edema of the subcortical white matter in the parieto-occipital region on neuroimaging that causes a wide variety of acute or subacute neurological symptoms, including headache, mental status alteration, seizures, and visual dysfunction. PRES is classically suspected in patients with severe hypertension, renal failure, autoimmune disorders, eclampsia, or immunosuppressant medications. Frequent neurological evaluations and neuroimaging examinations by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are required for both the diagnosis and assessment of the condition. Early detection of the disease is key for a rapid recovery and good prognosis.
We encountered a 30-year-old woman who developed dermatomyositis during pregnancy and was positive for anti-Mi-2 antibodies. She was successfully treated with prednisolone and tacrolimus and delivered a healthy child. We reviewed the cases of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) that developed during pregnancy that were published after the year 2000 to elucidate the profile of myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) in them and to evaluate their obstetric outcomes. In cases with IIM that developed during pregnancy, anti-Mi-2, anti-TIF1-g, anti-Jo-1, and anti-EJ antibodies was detected in one case each. The obstetric outcomes of the IIM-complicated pregnancies were poor, especially when complicated with active maternal myositis. Further studies focusing on the possible causal relationships between MSAs and cases with IIM that developed during pregnancy are needed. For better obstetric outcomes, appropriate suppression of the maternal disease activity using immunosuppressants and vigilance regarding the patient's requirement of Caesarean section is important.
Objective Human microRNA-185 (miR-185) has been reported to act as a regulator of fibrosis and angiogenesis in cancer. However, miR-185 has not been investigated in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We hypothesized that the changes in miR-185 levels in STEMI patients are related to the processes of myocardial healing and remodeling.
Methods Between January 2011 and December 2013, 145 patients with STEMI (65.9±11.6 years old; 41 women) were enrolled. Initial and discharge serum samples collected from 20 patients with STEMI and mixed sera from 8 healthy controls were analyzed by a microarray. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis of miR-185 was performed in all 145 patients. The correlation between the miR-185 levels and the clinical, laboratory, angiographic, and echocardiographic parameters was analyzed.
Results The microarray analysis revealed a biphasic pattern in miR-185 levels, with an initial decrease followed by an increase at discharge. The miR-185 levels at discharge were significantly correlated with the troponin-I, CK-MB, and area under the curve of CK-MB levels. There was a positive correlation between the transforming growth factor-β and miR-185 levels at discharge (ρ=0.242, p=0.026). A high wall motion score index and a low ejection fraction, as measured by echocardiography, and high B-type natriuretic peptide level at one month after STEMI were related to high miR-185 levels.
Conclusion Our results showed that elevated miR-185 levels at the late stage of STEMI were related to a large amount of myocardial injury and adverse remodeling.
Objective To examine the continuation of antibody prevalence and background factors in antibody-positive subjects after asymptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Methods A study was carried out to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) prevalence. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG) were measured and analyzed with immunochromatographic tests.
Patients Among 1,603 subjects, comprising patients, physicians, and nurses at 65 medical institutes in Kanagawa, Japan, 39 antibody-positive subjects received follow-up for 6 months.
Results Of the 33 subjects who consented to the follow-up (23 patients and 10 medical professionals), continued positivity of IgG antibodies was confirmed in 11 of 32 cases (34.4%) after 2 months, 8 of 33 (24.2%) after 4 months, and 8 of 33 (24.2%) after 6 months. A significant difference was found in the sleeping time, drinking habits, hypertension, and use of angiotensin-receptor blockers on comparing subject background characteristics among three groups: patients with antibody production that continued for six months after the first detection of positivity, patients in whom antibody production stopped at four months, and patients in whom antibody production stopped at two months.
Conclusion The continuation rate of IgG antibody prevalence was 24.2% at 6 months after the first detection of antibody positivity in cases with asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. This percentage is low compared with the antibody continuation rate in patients who have recovered from symptomatic COVID-19 infection.
Objective We recently reported a novel score for the detection of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) overestimation using a creatinine-based equation. We examined the utility of this score in patients with cardiovascular/renal diseases and diabetes mellitus.
Methods We enrolled 1,425 patients (65±15 years old; 37% women) who were admitted to our hospital for the management of cardiovascular and renal diseases and their risk factors. Overestimation of the GFR (OE) was defined as a creatinine-based GFR (eGFRcre) ≥120% of the cystatin C-based estimated GFR. The OE score was calculated as the sum of the scores for the body weight, hemoglobin concentration, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)/serum creatinine (Scr), totaling 1 point if the body weight was <63.0 kg in men or <42.0 kg in women, 1 point if the hemoglobin concentration was <12.4 g/dL in men or <11.0 g/dL in women, and 1 point if the BUN/Scr was >26.5.
Results The proportion of patients with OE was 14.2%. The score predicted OE with a sensitivity of 70.8% and a specificity of 99.6%, and the sensitivity was increased in patients ≥75 years old (88.3%) and decreased in diabetics (58.6%). When patients were divided into subgroups by the total score, the frequencies of OE were 8% (59/754), 14% (72/502), 38% (58/151), and 72% (13/18) in patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
Conclusion The OE score is useful for detecting elderly cases of cardiovascular and renal diseases in which eGFRcre overestimates the GFR, although its utility is limited in diabetics.
Objective Older adults have many health conditions that do not require hospitalization, such as cognitive decline and progression of frailty, so it is necessary to prevent avoidable emergency visits for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions (ACSCs) in this population. We therefore examine Freund's classification of reasons for hospitalization owing to ACSCs to identify factors involved in elderly patients visiting emergency departments in Japan.
Methods This retrospective case-control study included patients who received emergency transport for medical treatment at Yushoukai Home Care Clinic Shinagawa in Japan between January 1, 2016, and April 30, 2019. We examined patients' medical records and categorized the reasons for emergency visit by ambulance in accordance with Freund's categories (physician related level, medical causes, patient level, and social level). In addition, we classified and compared patients who lived at home (Group A) with those living in a care facility for older adults (Group B).
Results A total of 365 patients visited the emergency department (298 in Group A and 67 in Group B). Among these, we determined that emergency visits were potentially avoidable in 135 patients from Group A and 28 from Group B. The patient and social level categories accounted for 81% of potentially avoidable emergency visits. Confirmed advanced care planning (ACP) was significantly associated with avoidable emergency visit by ambulance in multivariate analyses.
Conclusion To prevent emergency visits for ACSCs among older people, ACP should be encouraged.
Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) consists of type I allergy to pollen and multiple food items that are cross-reactive to the pollen. PFAS typically occurs in the oral cavity and can co-occur with eosinophilic esophagitis. However, it is infrequently reported to present with symptoms of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE), such as abdominal pain and eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. We herein report a patient with a condition initially suspected of being EGE based on symptoms and pathological findings that was later diagnosed as PFAS associated with birch pollen. PFAS should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with EGE-like symptoms.
There are few case reports of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis to the skeletal muscle. A 78-year-old man developed a mass in the right shoulder. Washout of contrast medium during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in both the primary HCC and the metastatic site was detected. Several nodules were scattered throughout the liver on an autopsy. In addition, the moderately differentiated HCC had metastasized to the right teres major muscle. Rare muscular metastasis should be considered if a hepatic tumor is moderately or poorly differentiated HCC. Early washout during CEUS is consistent with a pathological diagnosis of moderately or poorly differentiated HCC.
A 49-year-old man developed severe hyponatremia associated with transient headache and was diagnosed with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Fluid restriction and sodium supplementation corrected the hyponatremia. However, several days later, the patient exhibited hypernatremia with thirst and polyuria. A detailed examination indicated central diabetes insipidus (CDI) with an intrasellar cystic lesion indicative of Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC). A case of RCC exhibiting headache, hyponatremia, and subsequent hypernatremia has been reported. Our case shows that CDI may appear after SIADH in patients with RCC, especially in those with serum sodium levels that unexpectedly increase rapidly beyond the reference range.
We herein report a case of Carney complex (CNC) complicated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) after unilateral adrenalectomy. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for PPNAD surgery. She had previously undergone surgery for cardiac myxoma and had a PRKAR1A mutation with no family history of CNC. She had Cushing's signs, but her metabolic abnormalities were mild. Adrenal insufficiency due to poor medication adherence was a concern, so she underwent unilateral adrenalectomy. Cushing's signs improved postoperatively and without recurrence for five years. Treatment plans for PPNAD should be determined based on the patient's condition, medication adherence, and wishes.
A 94-year-old man was diagnosed with immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV), and losartan was initiated. His renal function rapidly deteriorated over a month; therefore, methylprednisolone was administered intravenously for three days followed by oral prednisolone. Renal function improvement and both proteinuria and hematuria remission were observed within six months. Prednisolone tapering was completed at eight months. In this case, we monitored the patient carefully and started glucocorticoids as soon as the patient's renal function deteriorated. We were thus able to treat the patient with a relatively small dose of glucocorticoids in a short treatment period without any adverse events due to glucocorticoids.
We herein report a case of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in a 77-year-old woman with ovarian cancer who was receiving olaparib therapy. After the patient's second relapse of ovarian cancer, she was administered olaparib as maintenance therapy following successful completion of docetaxel and carboplatin therapy. On receiving olaparib, she showed symptoms of a fever and malaise. Based on laboratory and imaging findings, she was diagnosed with PCP. After treatment with corticosteroids and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole followed by atovaquone, the patient's general condition improved. The lymphocytopenia observed after olaparib administration may have been associated with the development of PCP.
We herein report a rare case of fast-growing benign metastasizing leiomyoma. A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with abnormal chest shadows. Chest computed tomography showed well-circumscribed cystic tumors. Because malignancy could not be completely distinguished in fast-growing tumors, video-assisted thoracic surgery was performed. The pathological findings revealed many cysts and the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. According to the Stanford criteria, the tumor was diagnosed as benign metastasizing leiomyoma. One possible reason for the fast growth of the tumor was enlargement of the cysts. Malignant diseases characterized by cystic tumors are rare but occasionally reported. Therefore, differentiation by a pathological examination is essential.
Lung cancer complicated with Trousseau syndrome (TS) or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has a severe prognosis. We herein report an elderly lung cancer patient who presented with a critically ill condition due to concomitant TS and DIC and responded dramatically to alectinib. There are no rules regarding treatment indications based on the age or severity of critically ill patients. If the patient's cancer cells are positive for anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement, alectinib is worthwhile to administer, even in a critically ill condition. In our patient, anticoagulation failed to suppress the TS complications. We also report how to prevent the recurrence of TS.
We herein report a case of acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) triggered by COVID-19. An 87-year-old woman tested positive for COVID-19 on a polymerase chain reaction test, and computed tomography revealed ground-glass opacity (GGO) superimposed on a background pattern consistent with usual interstitial pneumonia. Considering these data, we diagnosed her with AE-IPF. She experienced worsening of dyspnea and expansion of the GGO. Therefore, we introduced high-dose steroids (methylprednisolone 250 mg/day for 3 days). After the treatment, the pulmonary infiltrates improved. She was discharged from our hospital without severe disability. High-dose steroids can be a viable treatment option for AE-IPF triggered by COVID-19.
A 71-year-old woman was admitted for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the ileum. She had been taking lansoprazole but was switched to vonoprazan due to epigastric discomfort. Three weeks after starting vonoprazan intake, she had a convulsive seizure, and a blood test showed hypomagnesiemia. The cause of hypomagnesemia was considered to be malabsorption of magnesium from the intestinal tract associated with vonoprazan. After discontinuation of vonoprazan, the magnesium level quickly recovered, and the seizures did not relapse. It is important to consider the risk of hypomagnesemia in patients taking vonoprazan, even for a short period of time.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been increasingly reported to develop various neurological manifestations. We herein present a rare case of bilateral facial nerve palsy in a patient that occurred 5 weeks after the onset of COVID-19. The patient had no motor or sensory deficits in his extremities, and there were no other diseases that may have resulted in bilateral facial palsy. Based on these findings, we concluded that the facial palsy in this case may have been triggered by COVID-19.
A 68-year-old woman presenting with rheumatoid arthritis was admitted due to pancytopenia caused by methotrexate. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia was diagnosed based on the abnormal shadows observed on chest computed tomography, the presence of serum β-D-glucan, and positive P. jirovecii-DNA results in a sputum analysis. Subsequently, after treatment with leucovorin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, lung consolidation was found to be aggravated, along with a rapidly increasing leukocyte count. In addition, cytomegalovirus colitis was diagnosed. Both conditions were associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome caused by recovery from leukopenia. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and ganciclovir.
Patients with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) colonization should be managed in an isolation room with contact precautions. We herein report a patient whose colorectal carriage of VRE was successfully decolonized using concomitant bowel irrigation with polyethylene glycol, probiotics, and oral antimicrobials, linezolid and orally-administered daptomycin, for release from isolation and contact precautions. We therefore would like to suggest a potential strategy for managing patients with VRE colonization.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne infectious disease caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). There is no specific treatment for SFTS, although several reports have indicated that plasma exchange (PE) can be an effective therapy for severe SFTS. However, whether or not PE can reduce the viral load is unclear. We herein report a woman with SFTS who had her SFTSV viral load measured just before and after PE. While the patient recovered, there was no significant difference in the SFTSV viral load after PE. Our results confirmed that PE itself does not reduce the SFTSV viral load.
Cytopenia is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Identifying the cause is demanding because of the wide range of possible diagnoses. We herein report an HIV-infected patient with disseminated cryptococcosis involving multiple organs including the blood, brain, lungs, and bone marrow, who developed progressive pancytopenia after initiation of anti-fungal treatment with liposomal amphotericin-B (L-AMB) and flucytosine (5FC). The pancytopenia persisted despite early 5FC discontinuation. A bone marrow biopsy revealed cryptococcal infiltration and the blood examination findings recovered quickly after resuming L-AMB. Thus, this HIV-infected patient's pathological findings and clinical course suggested that the primary cause of the pancytopenia was bone marrow cryptococcosis.