Objective Acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) are fatal episodes of acute respiratory worsening of unknown etiology. Previous studies on acute respiratory distress syndrome have shown that direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX-DHP) can have a beneficial effect on the respiratory status. This retrospective study investigated the prognosis and survival outcome of patients with AE-IPF who underwent PMX-DHP.
Methods We examined the records of 50 patients with AE-IPF treated in our hospital. All patients received corticosteroid pulse therapy. We compared the disease outcome between 27 patients who underwent PMX-DHP (PMX group) and 23 patients who did not (non-PMX group). The independent predictors of survival were determined using Cox proportional hazards analyses.
Results A multivariate analysis of all patients revealed that PMX-DHP therapy was a significant predictor of survival (HR=0.442, 95% CI 0.223-0.873; p=0.019). The 12-month survival rate was significantly higher in the PMX group than in the non-PMX group (41.7% vs. 9.8%; p=0.040). According to a subanalysis of the PMX group, the time from AE-IPF onset to PMX-DHP was a significant predictor of survival (HR=1.080, 95% CI 1.001-1.166; p=0.049).
Conclusion PMX-DHP improved the prognosis of AE-IPF. The time from AE-IPF onset to PMX-DHP may therefore be informative for predicting the patient outcome.
Objective Conditioning regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are well known to cause severe gastrointestinal toxicities that often disturb the oral intake of the patients followed by poor nutrition and life-threatening infection. An oral elemental diet (ED) is an easily consumed and assimilated form of liquid nutrients mainly composed of amino acids. It alleviates the digestive loading from the intestine and is mainly used for enteral nutritional support in patients with Crohn's disease. We herein report, for the first time, the efficacy of ED for patients undergoing HSCT.
Methods We evaluated the efficacy of ED in a prospective cohort study. The primary endpoint for this study was the hospitalization period. The secondary endpoint was the occurrence of oral mucositis, nausea, diarrhea and fever.
Patients A total of 73 patients were consecutively enrolled between March 2011 and March 2013. Twenty-three patients underwent autologous HSCT and 50 patients underwent allogeneic HSCT. The first 21 patients did not receive ED (non-ED group; NEG) while in the successive 52 patients (ED group; EG), oral ED was started before conditioning and was continued until 28 days after transplantation.
Results The patient characteristics were similar between the two groups. The mean duration of ED administration for EG was 28.7 days (range, 3-37 days), and the mean total-dose of ED administration was 1904 g (range, 240-2,960 g). The median hospitalization period was significantly shorter in EG compared to NEG, (34 days vs. 50 days; p=0.007). Grade 3-4 oral mucositis occurred less in EG than NEG (25% vs. 48%; p=0.06).
Conclusion Oral ED may promote an early mucosal recovery and thereby shorten the duration of hospitalization.
Objective Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful in the early diagnosis of dementia. We aimed to investigate the association between the rCBF and various domains related to the memory function in elderly subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI).
Methods Thirty-two subjects with SCI were included in the present study. Patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were excluded based on the presence of logical memory impairment. N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine SPECT was performed and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was administered to all subjects (mean age, 68.4 years; average Mini-Mental State Examination score, 27.6). The SPECT results were analyzed using the easy Z-score imaging system and the voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation method. Correlation analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between the mean positive Z-scores in the decrease of the rCBF and the WMS-R indices.
Results The SPECT study indicated marked hypoperfusion in some areas, including the bilateral temporal areas, the caudate, and the thalamus, in these subjects in comparison to the normal database. The decrease in the rCBF that was observed in several regions, including the left precuneus and left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), showed a significant negative correlation with several indices of the memory function, particularly visual memory.
Conclusion The regional hypoperfusion observed in the study using the voxel-based stereotactic extraction estimation method suggest that the regional cerebral dysfunction is associated with the memory function of patients with SCI, even though the subjects in the present study were cognitively intact. The correlation analysis with the WMS-R suggested the contribution of the LIFG to the memory function and indicated the significance of visual memory dysfunction in the neuropsychological assessment to determine the stage of SCI.
Objective This study evaluates the difference between winter influenza and summer influenza in Okinawa.
Methods From January 2007 to June 2014, weekly rapid antigen test (RAT) results performed in four acute care hospitals were collected for the surveillance of regional influenza prevalence in the Naha region of the Okinawa Islands.
Results An antigenic data analysis revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa, creating synchronized seasonal patterns and a high genetic diversity of influenza A. Additionally, influenza B viruses play a significant role in summer epidemics, almost every year. To further understand influenza epidemics during the summer in Okinawa, we evaluated the full genome sequences of some representative human influenza A and influenza B viruses isolated in Okinawa. Phylogenetic data analysis also revealed that multiple H1N1 and H3N2 viruses consistently co-circulate in Okinawa.
Conclusion This surveillance revealed a distinct epidemic pattern of seasonal and pandemic influenza in this subtropical region.
A 56-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a growing gastric submucosal tumor. An upper endoscopic examination revealed two gastric tumors, an original polypoid tumor and a newly diagnosed superficial tumor. Boring biopsied specimens of the submucosal tumor showed gastric plasmacytoma; however, the other specimens showed no malignancy. Blood diseases were ruled out using various examinations; therefore, we diagnosed the tumor as extramedullary gastric plasmacytoma. The patient underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, and both tumors were thus revealed to be plasmacytomas. We experienced a rare case with two differently shaped extramedullary gastric plasmacytomas without significant morphologic change during the follow-up.
Epidermoid cysts arising from both the pancreas and spleen are rare. We herein report a case of a surgically resected epidermoid cyst in the pancreatic tail invaginated from the spleen. A multi-locular cyst, 2 cm in diameter, without a solid component was discovered incidentally in the pancreatic tail. During the 11-year follow-up, the emergence of satellite cystic lesions with distinct appearances was seen, and surgical resection was selected despite the lack of any associated symptoms or evidence of cytological abnormalities. Histologically, these cysts were lined with benign multi-layered flattened epithelium surrounded by a thin layer consisting of cells positive for CD8 and CD68 and connecting to the spleen.
A 70-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C was admitted to our hospital due to liver injury, cholecystitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation with a fever and skin rash. She had been on a combination regimen of daclatasvir and asunaprevir for 2 weeks of a 24-week regimen. Because of the symptoms, laboratory findings, results of a drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test, and pathological findings of liver biopsy, we diagnosed her with drug-induced liver injury. Although daclatasvir and asunaprevir combination therapy is generally well-tolerated, some serious adverse effects have been reported. Our findings indicate that immunoallergic mechanisms were associated with daclatasvir and asunaprevir-induced liver injury.
A 60-year-old man was prescribed oral desmopressin (1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin acetate trihydrate; DDAVP) for nocturnal polyuria. One week after starting to take desmopressin, he frequently felt chest pain while resting. Coronary angiography revealed no organic stenosis; however, an acetylcholine provocation test showed severe coronary spasm with ST elevation. He was diagnosed with coronary spastic angina, and we stopped the oral desmopressin and added diltiazem. While DDAVP should dilate the coronary vessels in healthy subjects, it may provoke coronary vasospasm in patients with endothelial dysfunction. We should be careful to avoid triggering coronary spasm when administering DDAVP to patients that may have potential endothelial dysfunction.
A 73-year-old man who had been transferred to our emergency room due to sudden chest pain was diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed. A long, white object which looked like a parasitic worm was retrieved via intracoronary aspiration and revascularization was successfully completed. Contrast computed tomography revealed a huge 7×6 cm mass in the right upper pulmonary lobe with direct pulmonary vein invasion. Histopathologic examination of the aspirated coronary object revealed pleomorphic lung carcinoma. This is an unusual case of STEMI caused by lung tumor embolization via direct pulmonary vein invasion to the left side of the heart.
Composite pheochromocytoma (cPC) is extremely rare, arising in the adrenal medulla as a mixture of PC and other tumors of neural origin. We herein report on a case of adrenal incidentaloma post-operatively diagnosed as cPC with ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL). The PC component had 7 points on the PASS, a Ki-67 index of 5.1%, a focal absence of sustentacular cells, and no genetic aberrations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B. The GNBL component exhibited no N-myc amplification. Tumor cells of both components were stained positively for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 and ankyrin repeat domain 1. The aberrant activation of growth signaling may play a role in the marginal malignancy of cPC.
A 78-year-old Japanese man showed suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during maximum androgen blockade (MAB) therapy including chlormadinone acetate (CMA) for prostate cancer. After stopping the MAB therapy, both the basal ACTH level and the response to CRH recovered. While no reports have indicated that CMA suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with prostate cancer, CMA has been shown to inhibit this axis in animals. These observations suggest that we must monitor the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients treated with CMA, especially under stressful conditions.
We herein report the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with antithyroid arthritis syndrome who experienced severe migratory polyarthritis after the initiation of thiamazole therapy. The patient's symptoms promptly disappeared without any sequelae after the withdrawal of the drug. Antithyroid arthritis syndrome is poorly characterized, and the findings from our literature review indicate that this syndrome exhibits serological features that are distinct from those of antithyroid agent-induced vasculitis syndrome. The absence of autoantibodies, especially anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, may help characterize and diagnose antithyroid arthritis syndrome. Furthermore, physicians' awareness of this syndrome is essential for its diagnosis in clinical practice.
We herein report a rare case of acute bilateral renal and splenic infarctions occurring during chemotherapy for lung cancer. A 60-year-old man presented with acute and intensive upper abdominal and back pain during chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for lung cancer. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral renal and splenic infarctions. After the administration of unfractionated heparin his pain was relieved with a clearance of the infarctions in the CT findings and a recovery of renal dysfunction. Enhanced coagulation by lung cancer and arterial ischemia by chemotherapy may therefore contribute to the development of these infarctions.
An 80-year-old man who had suffered from chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and achieved complete remission was admitted to our hospital due to right pleural effusion. Thoracentesis revealed that the effusion was chyle. Lymphoscintigraphy showed an obstruction of the thoracic duct below the sternum. CD45-gated flow cytometry of the pleural effusion showed elevated numbers of CD5- and CD23-positive lymphocytes and a high serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor. These results suggested that the chylothorax was caused by the obstruction of the thoracic duct by the sludging of either abnormal lymphocytes of CLL or transformed malignant lymphoma cells.
We report two cases of organizing pneumonia (OP) secondary to the inhalation of the dried tsunami sludge which formed during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the consequent tsunami. After the disaster, both of these patients had been engaged in the restoration work. About half a month later, they developed shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates. These patients were diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia. Their biopsy specimens revealed multifocal peribronchiolitis and OP. An electron probe microanalysis of these specimens demonstrated the presence of elements from the earth's crust in the inflammatory lesions. These two cases indicate that exposure to dried tsunami sludge can cause OP.
A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a solitary right lung nodule. She had no symptoms and no abnormal physical findings except for bladder cancer. Tumor markers were mildly elevated but no other abnormal laboratory data were found. The nodule was diagnosed to be pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma on computed tomography-guided needle biopsy. Thereafter, she first underwent surgery for bladder cancer. The lung nodule was found to have slightly increased at three months and then disappeared at 15 months after the biopsy. The notable clinical course of this rare disease suggests the effectiveness of a non-interventional treatment strategy.
Oxidative stress is closely related to iron overload in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and induces DNA damage. We evaluated the oxidative stress markers derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (dROM) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) during azacitidine treatment in an MDS patient. Simultaneous with an increase in the expression of Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) gene in the peripheral blood, the serum dROM level was elevated, and this increase was observed earlier than the increases in ferritin and 8-OHdG. Throughout the clinical course, dROM and 8-OHdG correlated significantly with WT1 and with ferritin, suggesting that changes in the oxidative stress marker levels reflect not only iron overload but also disease progression of MDS.
A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a history of bacterial meningitis (BM). He was admitted to our department with a one-day history of headache and was diagnosed with relapse of BM based on the cerebrospinal fluid findings. The conventional imaging studies showed serial findings suggesting left otitis media, a temporal cephalocele, and meningitis. Three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3D-MDCT) showed left petrous bone defects caused by the otitis media, and curative surgical treatment was performed. Skull bone structural abnormalities should be considered a cause of relapsed BM. 3D-MDCT was useful for revealing the causal minimal bone abnormality and performing pre-surgical mapping.
We herein report the case of a 25-year-old man who was referred to our hospital due to acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis. The initial blood tests showed that the patient had concurrent primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and severe thrombocytopenia. Raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) was initiated without the use of ganciclovir or corticosteroids and resulted in a rapid clinical improvement. Platelet transfusions were only necessary for a short period, and subsequent colonoscopy revealed a completely healed ulcer. This case implies that ART alone could be effective for treating severe thrombocytopenia during primary HIV and CMV coinfection.
Cases of sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan have sporadically been encountered since it was first reported in 2012, and their most characteristic manifestation is severe diarrhea. We herein report the first case of sprue-like enteropathy manifesting as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome due to vitamin B1 malabsorption with only minimally increased bowel movements. When patients are receiving olmesartan and they complain of nonspecific chronic gastrointestinal symptoms, it is important to consider changing the drugs before any serious malabsorption syndrome develops.