Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether lifestyle status affects the insulin resistance index or serum adiponectin level, which may be responsible for the development of insulin resistance syndrome that sometimes indicates lifestyle-related diseases. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. Patients Seven hundred thirty-eight males aged 30 to 65 years who had regular health checkups in our office were enrolled. Each subject’s lifestyle status, level of serum adiponectin, and serum insulin level were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire based on Breslow’s lifestyle index, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Moreover, their insulin resistance indexes were assessed by the homeostasis model. Results One-way ANOVA demonstrated an inverse correlation between Breslow’s index and the logarithmic insulin resistance index (p<0.0001), and a tendency of a correlation between Breslow’s index and the logarithmic serum adiponectin level (p=0.0681). Multiple logistic regression analyses demonstrated that, among the seven lifestyle items in Breslow’s index, body mass index of more than 26.1 kg/m2 and insufficient exercise style had 8.9 times and 2.1 times the risks for insulin resistance and the former also had 3.2 times the risk for hypoadiponectinemia. Partial correlation coefficients of these correlations were 0.336 (p<0.0001), 0.107 (p=0.0013), and 0.165, (p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion Unhealthy lifestyles may cause hypoadiponectinemia and insulin resistance followed by insulin resistance syndrome, i.e. lifestyle-related diseases. These findings present reasonable explanations for the relationships between lifestyles and lifestyle-related diseases. Improvement of unhealthy lifestyles, especially the control of body weight, may have beneficial effects against the development of lifestyle-related diseases.
A 54-year-old Japanese woman with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) was admitted to our hospital due to hepatic coma and refractory pleural effusion. The physical examination revealed clubbed fingers and collateral veins. The patient had an increased alveolar-arterial oxygen gas tension difference. The levels of anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) and AMA M2 was 80 times normal. A technetium 99m-labeled macro-aggregated human albumin scintigram showed uptake in the spleen and the kidneys. A diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) was made. HPS may be overlooked because of the lack of symptoms. We conclude that closer attention should be paid to the occurrence of HPS.
A 66-year-old man was hospitalized after vomiting blood after inducing vomiting using his fingers due to laryngeal discomfort. Upper digestive tract endoscopy revealed a large, dark red mass that connected from the upper esophagus to the lower esophagus. Esophageal submucosal hematoma was diagnosed using endoscopy, X-ray images, a small-diameter ultrasonic probe, and chest CT scanning. Pain from the epigastrium to the larynx disappeared after 3 days. Melena occurred on Day 3. Endoscopic examination revealed that the hematoma had collapsed over a wide area. Endoscopic examination after one week showed that the mucous membrane covering the hematoma had peeled away revealing an extensive shallow ulcer in the esophagus. Endoscopic examination after one month confirmed the ulcer had scarred and healed.
A 64-year-old woman who suffered intractable gastric ulcers with hemorrhaging showed huge submucosal hematomas in her stomach on the endoscopic examination. Since gastric mucosal biopsy revealed amyloid deposition and IgG λ type M protein was detectable in her serum, she was diagnosed as having primary AL systemic amyloidosis. The gastric hemorrhages did not improve despite intensive medication, so total gastrectomy was performed, resulting in an unfavorable outcome. Massive deposition of amyloid with A λ immunoreactivity was seen on the submucosal vessels in her stomach. This is a rare primary AL systemic amyloidosis case showing recurrent and fatal gastric submucosal hematomas.
Reports of spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery are rare. Diagnosis in the acute stage has been considered difficult, but we encountered four cases from November 1998 to November 2001. All four cases were diagnosed using abdominal CT scanning in the acute stage and could be treated conservatively. All patients were provided anticoagulation therapy upon fasting. The mean period of continuous abdominal pain was 10.2 days, the mean period of fasting was 27.2 days, and the mean number of in-hospital days was 44.5. There is no established opinion on treatment, but conservative treatment is considered possible if there are no symptoms or if it has not been aggravated.
A 63-year-old man on long-term hemodialysis therapy was hospitalized due to right lower abdominal pain. CT scan demonstrated a multiple concentric structure in the ileocecal region. Colonoscopy showed a polyp-like tumor arising from the expected location of the appendix, with a dimple at the top. Barium enema study revealed a submucosal tumor-like filling defect in the cecum with non-filling of the appendix. A diagnosis of intussusception of the appendix (IA) was made. During the follow-up, IA reduced spontaneously. The present case report is the first description of IA in a patient on hemodialysis therapy. Furthermore, spontaneous reduction of IA is indeed rare.
We encountered a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with adrenal gland metastasis, in whom splenic metastasis was diagnosed histopathologically. A 59-year-old man visited our hospital in May 2001 with chief complaints of abdominal distension and pretibial pitting edema. Multiple HCCs associated with HCV-positive liver cirrhosis were detected. Transarterial embolization (TAE) was performed a total of 4 times for HCCs. A left adrenal gland metastatic lesion was detected and it was found to increase in diameter from 3 cm to 6 cm over a four-month period; left adrenalectomy was performed in June 2002. Because of marked splenomegaly and findings of hypersplenism, the spleen was also resected. Although no metastatic lesions were evident on macroscopic examination of the spleen, a small metastatic lesion from moderately differentiated HCC, approximately 0.5 mm in diameter, was detected histopathologically. Splenic metastasis from HCC is rare, usually occurring with metastases involving other organs. Our patient also had adrenal gland metastasis. Therefore, hematogenous metastasis to the congested spleen via the systemic circulation was suspected.
A 72-year-old woman had insidious onset of heart failure, and was diagnosed as multicentric Castleman’s disease. She underwent myocardial imaging with technetium-99m tetrofosmin, I-123 beta-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP). Technetium-99m tetrofosmin studies showed almost normal uptake of the left ventricular myocardium indicating normal myocardial perfusion. I-123 BMIPP showed reduced uptake in the apical segment of the myocardium, indicating regional fatty acid metabolic abnormalities.
A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea. Radiographic examination showed an anterior mediastinal mass and pericardial effusion. Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) levels were elevated, and serum CYFRA 21-1 level was extremely high. Results of percutaneous needle biopsy under computed tomography guidance led to a diagnosis of moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistological staining showed the tumor cells to be positive for PTHrP and cytokeratin monoclonal antibodies. Postmortem findings were considered to indicate thymic carcinoma. Thymic carcinoma is rare, but our case indicates that thymic squamous cell carcinoma can be identified in terms of paraneoplastic hypercalcemia.
A 64-year-old woman with scleroderma without marked dermatological change developed anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-related renal failure. She had neither malignant hypertension nor elevation of plasma renin concentration. Renal biopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis (pauci-immune type) and the myeloperoxidase-specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (MPO-ANCA) titer was found to be elevated to 757 IU/ml. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone effectively suppressed renal failure and lowered the MPO-ANCA titer. We believe this is a rare case of ANCA-related renal failure in a patient with scleroderma without marked dermatological change.
An 80-year-old man was admitted because of dyspnea on effort. We suspected an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia caused by right-sided pneumonia. A nodular shadow in right upper lobe spread and consolidated into the airspace, and it failed to improve despite administration of meropenem trihydrate, vancomycin hydrochloride and clindamycin. A definitive diagnosis of Legionella micdadei pneumonia was made on the basis of this organism being isolated in culture from bronchial lavage fluid and subsequent identification of Legionella micdadei using DNA-DNA hybridization. The airspace consolidation gradually improved following treatment with intravenous erythromycin and minocycline hydrochloride.
A 27-year-old woman had congenital lissencephaly syndrome and mental retardation. She had a fever of unknown origin and visited her local physician. Blood test indicated leukocytosis, so she was referred to our hospital for detailed examination. She was diagnosed to have acute myelogeneous leukemia (M5a). The chromosome analysis in blast cells revealed Robertsonian 13;21 translocation. Complete remission was obtained by induction chemotherapy. As normal karyotype (46, XX) was observed in the chromosome analysis of bone marrow cells after remission, it was considered that the patient had acquired Robertsonian 13;21 translocation complicated by acute myelogeneous leukemia.
We describe a 24-year-old man who developed minimal change nephrotic syndrome after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). One year after undergoing allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), this patient presented with proteinuria. He also presented with skin and lip lesions considered to be chronic graft-versus host disease. Observation of renal biopsy specimens by light microscopy revealed minor glomerular abnormalities. However, electron microscopy disclosed focal mesangial interposition, irregular thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and subendothelial loosening. Two years after HSCT, the patient developed nephrotic syndrome. Long use of cyclosporine improved the proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia within 12 months.
A 17-year-old woman was admitted because of proteinuria, microhematuria and liver dysfunction with increased antinuclear antibody and anti-myeloperoxidase antibody (MPO-ANCA). Fourteen months’ previously, urinalysis and liver function showed normal range. At that time she suffered from tachycardia and weight reduction, diagnosed as Graves’ disease, she was given propylthiouracil for treatment of her Graves’ disease. The histological finding of renal biopsy was compatible with minor glomerular abnormalities. Liver biopsy finding was compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. After we had administered prednisolone, liver function returned to normal range and urine protein became negative. Then we performed subtotal thyroidectomy, and she was not given propylthiouracil. MPO-ANCA decreased gradually.
Hepatic tuberculosis is one of the uncommon forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We report a 78-year-old woman who developed tuberculous liver abscesses with splenic abscess not associated with pulmonary foci. Ultrasonography and computed tomography of the abdomen showed the low-density lesions in the liver and spleen. Histopathology of specimens obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy revealed coagulation necrosis and epithelioid cells but not tumor cells, suggesting tuberculosis infection in the liver and spleen. Systemic chemotherapy with anti-tuberculous agents led to the improvement of the lesions in the liver as well as spleen. Although tuberculous liver abscess is a very rare case, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of unknown hepatic mass lesions.