Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Volume 55 , Issue 8
Showing 1-40 articles out of 40 articles from the selected issue
EDITORIAL
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Maiko Kishino, Shinichi Nakamura, Keiko Shiratori
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 8 Pages 857-862
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Differentiated gastric cancer generally develops in the atrophic gastric mucosa, although undifferentiated cancer is sometimes encountered in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. We characterized the endoscopic features of undifferentiated gastric cancer in patients with severe atrophic gastritis.
    Methods Stage IA early gastric cancer was diagnosed in 501 patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2003 and March 2012. The endoscopic and pathological findings were compared among 29 patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis, 104 patients with undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate atrophic gastritis and 223 patients with well-differentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis. Endoscopic atrophic gastritis was classified according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification as no gastritis, C-1 and C-2 (mild), C-3 and O-1 (moderate) or O-2 and O-3 (severe).
    Results The tumors were larger and showed deeper mural invasion in the patients with undifferentiated cancer and severe atrophic gastritis than in those with well-differentiated cancer and severe gastritis or undifferentiated cancer and mild/moderate gastritis. On endoscopy, undifferentiated cancer associated with severe gastritis was often red in color.
    Conclusion It is often difficult to diagnose early undifferentiated gastric cancer, especially in patients with severe atrophic gastritis. The present study characterized the important endoscopic features of such tumors.
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  • Nagisa Hara, Motoh Iwasa, Ryosuke Sugimoto, Rumi Mifuji-Moroka, Kyoko ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 8 Pages 863-870
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    Objective Although the prognosis is known to be poor in cirrhosis patients associated with sarcopenia, the relationships among skeletal muscle, visceral fat, and the liver have not yet been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the prognosis and its associations with body composition and the severity of liver disease were examined in patients with cirrhosis.
    Methods The skeletal muscle mass and visceral fat area were measured in 161 patients with cirrhosis, the effects of body composition on the prognosis were analyzed, and any factors that contribute to changes in body composition were assessed.
    Results During the mean observation period of 1,005 days, 73 patients died. Patients with sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity had a poor prognosis, and this difference was pronounced in the subset of patients classified as Child-Pugh class A. A decreased skeletal muscle mass was strongly correlated with decreased serum albumin levels. Sarcopenia is a common feature of advanced cirrhosis, and transitions were observed from normal body composition to sarcopenia and from obese to sarcopenic obesity.
    Conclusion The body composition is a prognostic factor for cirrhosis, and a better body composition may be advantageous for obtaining a long-term survival in patients with cirrhosis.
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  • Junichi Nishida, Nobuaki Kokubu, Mina Kawamukai, Akiyoshi Hashimoto, H ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 8 Pages 871-877
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor of coronary events, however, its impact on coronary artery stenosis has not yet been clarified with the use of a large database. We examined the association between a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the overall severity of coronary stenosis.
    Methods We enrolled 1,150 patients [mean age, 68±12 (SD) years; 66.6% men] who consecutively underwent coronary angiography for suspected stable angina pectoris. The overall severity of stenosis in the coronary arteries was assessed by the Gensini score (GS), and its logarithmic values (log-GS) were used for statistical analyses since the GS does not follow a normal distribution.
    Results The log-GS was significantly larger in men than in women (2.5±1.5 vs. 1.9±1.7), while the estimated GFR (eGFR) and comorbidities were comparable between both sexes. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that age, smoking, eGFR, HDL-cholesterol and HbA1c were independent explanatory variables of the log-GS in men, although the eGFR explained only 1.2% of the log-GS variation. In women, the eGFR was not included in the significant explanatory variables shown by the multivariate analysis. However, the sex difference in the regression for the eGFR-log-GS relationship was not statistically significant.
    Conclusion A reduced eGFR is a significant, but minor, determinant of the overall severity of coronary artery stenosis in men and potentially women.
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  • Naoki Matsumoto, Masahiro Ogawa, Shunichi Matsuoka, Mitsuhiko Moriyama
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 8 Pages 879-885
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective The administration of corticosteroids is a standard treatment for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), but it can occasionally induce various adverse effects. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major complication of chronic liver diseases. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of DM in patients with AIH.
    Methods We retrospectively analyzed 118 Japanese patients diagnosed with AIH from 1990 to 2014 at our institution. The prognosis of patients with and without DM was also compared.
    Results Twenty-nine (24.5%) patients had DM and 21 (72.4%) received corticosteroids. The annual cumulative incidence rate of newly diagnosed DM was 1.2%. Multivariate analysis showed that DM occurred in older patients [OR=6.290; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.230-32.100; p=0.018] with higher serum immunoglobulin G levels (OR=12.400; 95% CI=2.560-60.400; p=0.002). A Cox hazard regression analysis revealed that predictive factors for DM were absence of other autoimmune diseases (OR=0.171; 95% CI=0.036-0.805; p=0.025), use of corticosteroids (OR=6.693; 95% CI=1.391-32.210; p=0.049) and lower platelet counts (OR=3.873; 95% CI=1.021-14.690; p=0.046). The 10 year survival rates of the DM and non-DM groups were 94.1% and 94.6%, respectively. There was no significant difference between these groups (p=0.293).
    Conclusion DM occurred in 24.5% of patients with AIH; older age, absence of other autoimmune diseases and higher serum immunoglobulin G levels are risk factors. Taking corticosteroids and a lower platelet count are risk factors for a new onset of DM. DM did not influence the prognosis of AIH patients.
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  • So Yeon Lee, Seung-Ick Cha, Hyewon Seo, Serim Oh, Keum-Ju Choi, Seung- ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 8 Pages 887-893
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Supplementary material
    Objective The optimal prognostic model for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify independent predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with CAP and to determine whether adding specific prognostic factors to each of the two clinical prediction scores could improve the prognostic yield.
    Methods This retrospective study involved 797 CAP patients who had been hospitalized at a tertiary referral center. The patients were categorized into two groups: those who survived and those who had died on or before 30 days after admission. Select clinical parameters were then compared between the two groups.
    Results During the 30-day period, there were 72 deaths (9%). We constructed two models for a multivariate analysis: one was based on a high CURB-65 score (3-5) and the other on a high pneumonia severity index (PSI) class (V). In both models, a high CURB-65 score or a high PSI class, along with the presence of dyspnea, high Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (3-4), and a low serum albumin level, were independent predictors of 30-day mortality. In both the CURB-65-based and PSI-based models, the addition of dyspnea, high ECOG performance status, and hypoalbuminemia (<3 g/dL) enhanced the prognostic assessment, and subsequently, the c-statistics calculated with the use of three- or four- predictor combinations exceeded 0.8.
    Conclusion In addition to the CURB-65 or PSI, the clinical factors of dyspnea, the ECOG performance status, and serum albumin level may be independent predictors of 30-day mortality in CAP patients. When combined with the CURB-65 or PSI, these parameters provide additional evidence for predicting poor prognoses.
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  • Jiamei Cheng, Huiyu Li, Shenghua Jie
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 8 Pages 895-900
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by a novel Bunyavirus. Recent data suggest that the physiological balance of multiple proinflammatory cytokines is substantially changed in cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection, and the inflammatory response probably plays an important role in disease progression. Angiotensin II is an important active substance of the renin-angiotensin system, and studies have demonstrated that angiotensin II is involved in key events in the inflammatory process and can regulate inflammatory cell responses.
    Methods In order to elucidate the role of angiotensin II in the pathogenesis of SFTS, we collected serum samples from SFTS patients in the acute or convalescent phase and tested the angiotensin II levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as SFTSV viral RNA with real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we explored possible correlations between the angiotensin II levels and clinical parameters in SFTS patients.
    Results Our data showed that the serum level of angiotensin II was significantly increased in the acute phase compared with that seen in the convalescent phase and the healthy controls, while there were no significant differences between the convalescent cases and healthy controls (p>0.05). A correlation analysis demonstrated that the level of angiotensin II positively correlated with the SFTS viral RNA load. The angiotensin II levels were also found to be correlated with clinical parameters indicating impairments in organ functions. Moreover, we also found that the angiotensin II levels were significantly increased in the severe cases versus the non-severe cases (p<0.001).
    Conclusion The serum angiotensin II levels in SFTS patients may be used to stratify the disease severity and are possibly predictive of disease outcomes.
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  • Umpei Yamamoto, Mari Nishizaka, Chikara Yoshimura, Nobutoshi Kawagoe, ...
    2016 Volume 55 Issue 8 Pages 901-905
    Published: 2016
    Released: April 15, 2016
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Objective We assessed the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and characteristics among patients who visited a urology clinic complaining of nocturia (URO group) and those who visited a sleep apnea (SA) clinic complaining of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (SA group). Additionally, we evaluated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in the URO group patients with nocturia and SDB resistant to conventional therapy for nocturia.
    Methods Questionnaires were used to assess EDS, nocturia and lower urinary tract symptoms in 34 URO group patients and 49 age-matched SA group patients. We also compared these factors in the male patients in both groups and the male and female patients in the SA group. Significant SDB was diagnosed as a 3% oxygen desaturation index (3%ODI) on pulse oximeter of >5/h. The treatment response was analyzed in six URO group patients treated with CPAP after not responding to the conventional medical treatment.
    Results SDB was found in 91.8% of the SA group patients and 70.6% of the URO group patients. The level of EDS and lower urinary tract symptoms were similar in both groups. The SA group showed higher 3%ODI values, while the frequency of urination during bedtime was higher in the URO group. The frequency of nocturnal urination was reduced after CPAP in the subjects resistant to conventional therapy.
    Conclusion SDB is as prevalent in patients who visit a urology clinic complaining of nocturia as in those who visit a sleep apnea clinic. Patients who complains of nocturia must be assessed for SDB before starting therapy for nocturia.
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