Objective Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most frequently occurring mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract. Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) and capsule endoscopy (CE) promise the detection and accurate diagnosis of small bowel diseases in patients with obscure GI bleeding (OGIB). The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of small bowel GISTs and the usefulness of DBE, CE and computed tomography (CT). Methods Among 705 cases with OGIB examined between December 2003 and January 2011, 12 (1.7%) cases of small bowel GIST were identified. We analyzed endoscopic appearance, tumor-size and location, detection rate by DBE, CE and CT and clinical course in each of these cases. Results Of the 12 patients with GIST, eight were men. The mean patient age was 53.6 years. The presenting symptoms in most patients included tarry stools and/or anemia. Six patients required blood transfusions. The detection rates of DBE, CE and CT were 92%, 60% and 67%, respectively. All cases, except for one incomplete study, were identified using DBE; however, one case was not diagnosed as a tumor because of the presence of extramural growth. A pathological diagnosis of GIST was obtained using biopsies during DBE in three (45%) of seven cases. Lower detection rates were found in cases with intramural and extramural growth, larger tumors (≥35 mm) detected by CE and intraluminal growth and smaller tumors (<35 mm) detected by CT. Conclusion DBE or a combination of CE and CT are thus considered to be useful for detecting small bowel GISTs.
Objective To assess the ability to predict the local recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma by analyzing tissues adhering to the radiofrequency ablation probe after complete ablation. Methods From May 2002 to March 2011, tissue specimens adhering to the radiofrequency ablation probe from 284 radiofrequency ablation sessions performed for hepatocellular carcinomas ≤3 cm in size were analyzed. The specimens were classified as either viable tumor tissue or complete necrosis, and the local recurrence rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results From the tumors ≤3 cm in size, viable tissue was present in 6 (2.1%) of 284 specimens, and the local recurrence rates after 1 and 2 years of follow-up were 6.7% and 11.2%, respectively. Local recurrence developed significantly earlier in the viable tissue group. The recurrence rate was not significantly different based on whether transcatheter arterial chemoembolization was performed. Conclusion The histopathology of the tissue adhering to the radiofrequency ablation probes used for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment can predict local recurrence. Additional aggressive treatment for patients with viable tissue can therefore improve the overall survival.
Background The structures composing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads have become more complicated and thinner with technological advances. Silicon insulation defects with and without clinically manifested electrical abnormalities have been reported in Riata leads (St. Jude Medical). Objective The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical implications of insulation defects in Riata leads implanted at our hospital. Methods The subjects included 10 consecutive patients who received 8-French Riata ICD leads with dual-coil conductors (model 1580 or 1581) between 2006 and 2010 at our hospital. Operative records, chest X-rays and interrogation data were reviewed. Results In all cases, Atlas+ (St. Jude Medical) was used as an ICD generator and the Riata leads were implanted transvenously and fixed to the right ventricular apex. During a mean follow-up period of 52±9 (36-70) months, chest X-rays revealed insulation defects in Riata leads and conductor wires projecting from the bodies of the Riata leads in two of 10 (20%) patients. One of the patients received inappropriate ICD therapies due to T-wave oversensing based on attenuation of R waves and augmentation of T waves 41 months after implantation. In the other patient, an insulation defect without any clinically manifested electrical troubles was detected 50 months after implantation. Conclusion Riata leads have a high incidence of insulation defects, which may be occasionally accompanied by inappropriate ICD discharges. For patients with Riata leads, careful observation of any changes in the lead-electrical measurements and a routine chest X-ray follow-up are necessary.
Objective We retrospectively analyzed the midterm clinical and angiographic outcomes after the implantation of paclitaxel- (PES, TAXUS Express) and sirolimus- (SES, Cypher Bx Velocity) eluting stents in Japanese patients with complex coronary lesions. Methods From August 2004 to May 2009, 1,335 nonrandomized de novo native complex coronary lesions treated with either a PES (357 cases) or SES were included. The inclusion criteria for patients with complex lesions were those with diabetes, those undergoing hemodialysis, and those with a low ejection fraction, as well as subjects who had lesions with severe calcification, ostiums of the right coronary and left circumflex arteries, and who underwent the side-branch bifurcation 2-stent technique. The subjects were evaluated for consistent predictors of cardiac events, binary restenosis and target lesion vascularization of the SES. The composite primary endpoint percentage (900-day cardiac death, nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction, and definite stent thrombosis) after PES placement was 0.6%, which was not significantly different from that after SES placement (0.12%; p=0.290). The incidence of the secondary endpoint (binary restenosis; stenosis >50% of the diameter at the secondary angiographic examination performed within 550 days after the procedure) after PES placement (15.0%) was also not significantly different than that after SES placement (13.3%; p=0.498). There was no relationship between PES placement and binary restenosis upon angiographic follow-up of 989 lesions (odds ratio of 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.77; p=0.57). Conclusion For de novo native complex coronary stenosis, the midterm safety and efficacy of PES placement was statistically equivalent to that of SES placement in a clinical setting in Japan.
Objective The present study investigated the risk for future diabetes among individuals with high-normal glycemia (fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 100-109 mg/dL) in an early middle-aged population. Methods We retrospectively observed a workplace cohort all aged 40 and followed the incidence of diabetes according to the FPG levels at baseline. A total of 901 non-diabetic males were included in the analysis. The 10-year cumulative incidence of diabetes was calculated. The hazard ratios of developing diabetes were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards regression. Results The proportions of those with high-normal glycemia and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (FPG of 110-125 mg/dL) at baseline were 21.5% and 4.7%. The 10-year cumulative incidence of diabetes was 14.7% and 48.9%, respectively, in these individuals. After adjustment for possible confounders, the hazard ratios of developing diabetes among individuals with high-normal glycemia and IFG were 5.2 (95% CI=2.4-11.2) and 21.3 (95% CI=9.2-49.5) relative to those with an FPG of <90 mg/dL. Conclusion High-normal glycemia is a risk for future diabetes even in the relatively young and healthy workplace population. Although the relative risk is much higher in those with IFG, the absolute number of incident diabetes developing from those with high-normal glycemia seems to be considerable given the prevalence of this condition.
Objective To evaluate the use of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant, to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Methods We prospectively studied 209 patients (106 in the NAC group and 103 in the control group) who received contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in the emergency department (ED). The NAC group received intravenous NAC (600 mg) before CECT imaging to prevent CIN. Both the NAC and control groups were treated using a standardized hydration strategy, where clinically feasible. Results The patients' mean age was 79.6±9.8 years. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were 63.2%, 27.3%, and 21.5%, respectively. The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups except for their body weight (p=0.011), amount of contrast material administered (p=0.049) and prevalence of CKD (p=0.002). The incidence of CIN was 7.5% in the NAC group and 14.6% in the control group. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.305 (95% confidence interval: 0.097 to 0.960, p=0.042). All-cause mortality was 7.5% in the NAC group and 12.6% in the control group, which was not significantly different. Temporary hemodialysis was required in 0% of subjects in the NAC group and 1.0% in the control group, which was not a statistically significant difference. Conclusion A single dose of NAC before CECT imaging can prevent CIN in an ED setting. However, it does not improve the mortality rate or the need for dialysis.
Background Approximately 10% of asthmatic patients are refractory to inhaled corticosteroids and therefore need long-term oral corticosteroid therapy, which is associated with a risk of opportunistic infections due to immunosuppression. Objective To ascertain the applicability of serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) as a marker for predicting the risk of opportunistic infections in patients undergoing oral corticosteroid therapy. Methods Three thousand asthmatics were screened, and 14 patients who had been administered daily oral corticosteroids for more than two years were enrolled. The patients enrolled were maintained under observation with ordinary check-ups and treatments for one year. After the observation period, the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence (OPI) or absence (Non-OPI) of opportunistic infections during the period. The differences in the clinical parameters between the groups were investigated. Results There were no statistically significant differences in age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), smoking status or serum albumin between the groups. The serum IgG level of the OPI group was significantly lower than that of the Non-OPI group (567.2±151.1 mg/dL vs. 931.6±198.8 mg/dL, p<0.01). The average total dose of corticosteroids administered during the one year period was higher in the OPI group (2,633±554.2 mg) than that in the Non-OPI group (1,793±466.2 mg) (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the serum IgG and total dose of corticosteroids administered during the one-year period (r=-0.75, p<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve regarding the serum IgG and incidence of opportunistic infections was 0.97, which suggests that the serum IgG level has a high accuracy for predicting the risk of opportunistic infections. Conclusion The serum IgG was therefore found to be a useful marker for predicting the risk of opportunistic infections in steroid-dependent asthmatics.
Objective Although endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors have become the most commonly used treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) since their introduction in 2005, it remains unknown whether these medications play a significant role in the survival of Japanese patients with PAH. Methods The cardiac catheterization and survival data of 103 PAH patients were retrospectively reviewed. A comparison of survival benefits with regard to the type of PAH was completed in PAH patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2012 and those diagnosed between 1983 and 2004 and in patients undergoing treatment with ERAs and/or PDE5 inhibitors and those being treated with conventional therapy and/or oral beraprost. Although pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at baseline differed, the more recent group showed better survival rates compared with those observed in the early group (5-year survival: 70.1% vs. 44.8) (p<0.05). In addition, the survival of PAH patients treated with ERAs and/or PDE5 inhibitors was superior to that of the patients treated without these medications (5- and 8-year survival: 77.8% and 66.7% vs. 39.0% and 37.0%, respectively) (p<0.05), especially in patient with idiopathic and heritable PAH. Conclusion Superior survival rates are observed in patients with idiopathic and heritable PAH after introduction of ERAs and PDE5 inhibitors, and the use of these drugs provides benefits for survival.
Objective The intrathoracic administration of OK-432, a lyophilized preparation of the heat- and penicillin-treated Su-strain of type 3, group A Streptococcus pyogenes, is performed in Japan for pleurodesis of malignant pleural effusion or pneumothorax. Persistent fever is often observed after pleurodesis. To elucidate whether procalcitonin (PCT) is useful for distinguishing between the side effects of OK-432 and infection, we measured the serum PCT levels before and after pleurodesis. Methods We performed a prospective study of 12 patients with refractory pleural effusion or pneumothorax who required pleurodesis using OK-432 between August 2011 and February 2012. The serum PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured on days 1 and 3. Results Of the 12 patients, five had pneumothorax and seven had uncontrolled pleural effusion with carcinomatous pleurisy. The median serum levels of PCT and CRP increased from 0.055 to 1.59 ng/mL (p=0.0022) and from 1.52 to 16.82 mg/dL (p=0.0022), respectively. The fevers subsided without antibiotic administration. Conclusion The serum PCT level may not be useful for distinguishing fever caused by side effects of OK-432 from that caused by bacterial infection. The intrathoracic administration of OK-432 increased the serum levels of both PCT and CRP in the absence of any bacterial infection.
ObjectiveBacillus cereus (B. cereus) septicemia is a cause of life-threatening infection in patients with hematologic diseases. However, preventing a fatal prognosis in patients with B. cereus infection has not yet been achieved due to insufficient clinical investigations. To discover more optimal treatment strategies, we analyzed B. cereus septicemia in patients with hematologic diseases. Methods At our institution, we observed 13 cases of B. cereus septicemia in 12 patients with hematologic diseases between January 2001 and September 2010. The susceptibility of B. cereus strains to antibiotics was also analyzed. Results Of 12 patients, four died of B. cereus septicemia. In this study, the delayed administration of appropriate antibiotics (starting >24 hours after presentation), the presence of liver dysfunction and evidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement tended to result in a fatal prognosis. All of the bacterial strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin and quinolones (such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin), whereas many strains were resistant to clindamycin (76.9%) and imipenem (30.8%). In seven of 10 patients, central venous (CV) catheter tips were removed and routinely cultured. Catheter tip cultures were positive for B. cereus in three of seven patients. Conclusion Although not specific to B. cereus bacteremia, patients who died of B. cereus tended to present with CNS symptoms and/or liver dysfunction. Our clinical data suggested that carbapenem and clindamycin are no longer appropriate choices for treating B. cereus. In addition, B. cereus septicemia was found to frequently originate from CV catheters. Constant attention must be paid to update assessments of antibiotic susceptibility and careful management must be applied to CV catheters in patients with hematologic diseases.
Most cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occur in those treated with immunosuppressants and/or corticosteroids. We herein present the case of a 57-year-old man with toxic megacolon associated with CMV colitis in corticosteroid-naïve ulcerative colitis (UC). To date, there have been only eight previous case reports of CMV colitis in steroid-naïve UC. We discuss the need to consider CMV colitis when making a differential diagnosis of patients with refractory UC who are not receiving corticosteroid treatment.
Links between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and several non-Hodgkin lymphomas have been suggested by epidemiological studies. We herein report the first documented case of a patient with HCV-associated Hodgkin lymphoma who showed a marked regression following interferon-based antiviral therapy. This unique case extends the spectrum of HCV-associated malignant lymphomas, confirms the efficacy of antiviral therapy for this rare extrahepatic manifestation and provides valuable clues for achieving a better understanding of lymphomagenesis in HCV.
An 88-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to abdominal discomfort. Imaging modalities showed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) compressing the duodenum, the distal common bile duct and the head of the pancreas concurrent with distension of the proximal bile and main pancreatic ducts in the body and tail of the pancreas. After admission, the patient underwent endovascular stent grafting to treat the AAA. The size of the aneurysm decreased and the dilatation of the bile and pancreatic ducts became less prominent. AAA should therefore be considered as a possible diagnosis in patients with findings of dilatation of the bile ducts in the absence of stones or tumors in the pancreaticobiliary system. This is the first reported case of a patient treated for both AAA and dilatation of the bile and pancreatic ducts with endovascular stent grafting via the femoral artery.
Splanchnic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare condition in which patients present with portal hypertension, which thus causes bleeding varices and ascites. However, to our knowledge, hepatic nodules associated with splanchnic AVM have not yet been described. We herein first report the case of a 78-year-old man with inferior mesenteric AVM presenting with portal hypertension and multiple hepatic nodules dominantly supplied by the portal vein. This unique case not only extends the spectrum of hepatic nodules resulting from abnormal hepatic circulation, but also provides clues for better understanding the etiology of hepatic nodules.
We herein describe a case of a myocardial infarction, in which Lambda-like J waves were documented. The patient was referred to our hospital due to ventricular fibrillation. The twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) on admission showed prominent J waves in the lateral and precordial leads. Coronary angiography revealed 99% stenosis with a delay in the left anterior descending artery, 75% stenosis in the left main trunk, and possible ischemia in the conus branch. Our report addresses the possibility that ischemic J waves can be used as an important marker for lethal arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been shown to affect glucose metabolism in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); however, their precise mechanism of action remains unknown. We herein report the case of a 57-year-old diabetic CML patient who was resistant to imatinib and initially required 20 units of insulin daily to control his blood glucose levels. After the initiation of dasatinib, the patient's insulin requirements declined rapidly and insulin treatment was discontinued within two weeks. Meanwhile, the fasting C-peptide immunoreactivity increased two-fold, suggesting that dasatinib facilitated the recovery of insulin production. Dasatinib may therefore be beneficial for diabetic CML patients, especially those who require insulin treatment.
A 29-year-old man developed a persistent dry cough. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed centrilobular ultrafine granular shadows scattered in all lung fields. A lung biopsy with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed findings compatible with pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM). However, the primary tumor was not identified. Combination chemotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin decreased his cough and improved the chest HRCT findings. The illness, however, gradually became difficult to control. He eventually developed pulmonary hypertension and died. Typically, an antemortem diagnosis of PTTM cannot be made. In this case, the diagnosis of PTTM and combination chemotherapy improved the chest HRCT findings, respiratory symptoms, and prognosis.
A 56-year-old woman diagnosed with squamous cell lung carcinoma after a transbronchoscopic examination underwent left upper lobectomy, which revealed a pathological diagnosis of adenosquamous carcinoma containing moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 delE746-A750 mutation was detected in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) isolated from specimens of both components using microdissection. Treatment with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, resulted in a long-term tumor response lasting three years. Adenosquamous carcinoma is difficult to diagnose using transbronchoscopic procedures. Therefore, the examination of EGFR mutation status is important in order to determine the appropriate treatment, even in patients with non-adenocarcinoma.
A 34-year-old woman with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates was diagnosed with sarcoidosis. She refused corticosteroid treatment despite a worsening of the pulmonary infiltrate, and thereafter developed dyspnea following hemoptysis 6 years later. The upper lobe branches of the pulmonary artery were obstructed and the left main pulmonary artery was narrowed by mediastinal soft tissue, thus complications of granulomatous mediastinitis and fibrosing mediastinitis were suspected. The mediastinal soft tissue regressed, following the administration of corticosteroids, whereas the vascular obstruction and narrowing remained unchanged. Although the obstruction or stenosis of major pulmonary vessels is rare in sarcoidosis, such potential developments should be considered when mediastinal soft tissue appears in follow-up examinations.
Treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has drastically changed with the introduction of novel agents such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib, but treatment outcome of elderly patients has remained dismal mainly due to toxicities. We report an 82-year-old MM patient attaining stringent complete response (sCR) at 12 months with a daily dose of 100 mg of thalidomide monotherapy. She remains on thalidomide monotherapy and presently maintains a normalized serum free light chain ratio at 18 months. This is the first case of MM achieving sCR with thalidomide monotherapy, and shows that single-agent thalidomide can be effective and concomitant use of dexamethasone may not be necessary in frail elderly patients.
No standard therapeutic approaches have so far been established for the treatment of relapsed angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), a subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This case report describes an AITL patient who relapsed with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) two months after receiving high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) supported by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). The patient was successfully treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) and subsequent allogeneic PBSCT with reduced intensity conditioning regimen (RIST). RIST may deserve consideration for treatment of AITL patients with severe complications such as HPS. Additionally, CsA could be a less-toxic therapeutic option for pre-RIST induction therapy against AITL.
Central neurogenic hyperventilation (CNH) is a rare condition that is generally associated with infiltrative tumors of the brainstem. Respiratory dysfunction, particularly central hypoventilation, is common in anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis. CNH, to the best of our knowledge, has not been described previously in this disease. A 24-year-old woman was diagnosed with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis secondary to ovarian teratoma. In addition to the typical symptoms of the disease, recurrent CNH episodes were observed during the course of the illness, which subsided with midazolam and propofol infusion. Supportive and disease-specific treatments, including oopherectomy, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin, provided excellent recovery. These observations suggest that NMDA receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of CNH.
A 76-year-old Japanese woman with essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus abruptly presented with nausea, dizziness, an occipital headache, truncal ataxia, gaze-evoked nystagmus and alternating skew deviation (ASD) with abducting eye hypertropia. Cranial computed tomography demonstrated hemorrhage in the cerebellar vermis and its vicinity. These symptoms gradually resolved within three weeks. This is the first reported case of ASD secondary to cerebellar hemorrhage without hydrocephalus. The vertical misalignment of the eyes during the right-sided gaze was consistently larger than during the left-sided gaze. We speculated that bilateral and asymmetrical damage to the utricular pathway due to the bilateral involvement of the nodulus and uvula might have caused the ASD.
This is a report of a 24-year-old woman who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) at Imam Hossein Hospital in Tehran, Iran with a one-week history of headache and agitation following her father's death. Before presenting to our ED, a diagnosis of conversion reaction was suggested by three physicians in different outpatient clinics. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) was confirmed in this case on the basis of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV). In this report, current knowledge regarding cerebral venous thrombosis and its related clinical features are discussed.
A 78-year-old Japanese man with adult-onset Still's disease that was refractory to conventional treatment, such as prednisolone (PSL) concomitant with methotrexate (MTX). Etanercept (50 mg/week) was added to PSL (12.5 mg/day) and MTX (12 mg/week). His manifestation improved dramatically, nonetheless massive edema of the periorbital region developed by the fourth injection, which kept his palpebral fissure completely closed. There was also a marked injection site reaction to etanercept. A diagnosis of angioedema due to etanercept was thus made, and the drug was discontinued. His angioedema began to ameliorate soon after antihistamines were introduced without any critical involvement, such as laryngeal obstruction.
A 62-year-old man was hospitalized for acute rheumatic fever. He had previously suffered from rheumatic fever at 15 years of age. The rheumatic fever was complicated by carditis, which caused valve disease that required surgical treatment. The incidence of rheumatic fever has decreased in most developed countries with improvements in sanitary conditions. The low incidence of this disease makes a timely and accurate diagnosis difficult. Due to the fact that both the first occurrence and recurrence of acute rheumatic fever can occur in the elderly and adults, this potential disease should not be overlooked when making a differential diagnosis.
A previously healthy 39-year-old woman with severe chest pain presented at our hospital. She was diagnosed with bacterial pneumonia by chest X-ray and computed tomography. Despite adequate antimicrobial treatment, she had to undergo intubation for respiratory distress and was treated with mechanical ventilation 42 hours after admission. However, her condition improved markedly after plasmapheresis. Bacterial culture specimens from the sputum, blood, and pleural fluid were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in previously healthy individuals is very rare, rapidly progressive, and often fatal. This is the first report of the successful treatment of this life-threatening pneumonia with plasmapheresis.
Edwardsiella tarda is a bacterium that is associated with both an asymptomatic oral carrier state and self-limiting diarrhoeal illness in humans. We herein report a case of sepsis and liver abscess caused by E. tarda and review the patients with E. tarda sepsis who presented at our hospital. An 85-year-old woman developed enterocolitis and sepsis caused by E. tarda. She was administered intensive care and thus was able to soon show a good recovery, however, she subsequently developed a liver abscess. During a complicated course, she continued to be treated with antibiotics and after a successful course was discharged on the 44th day after admission.
A 46-year-old man was diagnosed with brain metastasis after a two-year history of melanoma. Paliative radiotherapy was administered followed by dacarbazine, temozolamide, ipilimumab, stereotactic radiosurgery, ipilimumab reinduction and finally vemurafenib, to which the patient showed objective responses. The patient received vemurafenib for four months and died after progresive disease. Long-term follow-ups after surgery have been reported in the literature. However, in patients with unresectable metastases, outcomes are mostly detrimental. The present patient survived for 40 months after brain metastasis. The unusually long survival observed in the present case indicates the sequential effectiveness of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, ipilimumab, stereotactic radiosurgery and vemurafenib.
We treated a 77-year-old woman with pleural and pericardial effusion and ascites. Initially, collagen vascular disease was suspected due to the presence of anti-centromere antibodies and suspected complication of pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, soft-tissue abnormalities surrounding the bilateral kidneys detected on computed tomography (CT) and symmetrical lesions of the long bones detected on bone scintigraphy made us consider a diagnosis of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), which is a rare form of histiocytosis. We immunochemically analyzed the cells derived from the ascites in detail and confirmed the diagnosis. Immunocytochemical analyses may therefore help to achieve a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this rare disease.
Mycotic aneurysms of the common femoral artery are rare and usually occur in intravenous drug abusers who use the femoral vessels for injection. We herein describe a case of mycotic aneurysm of the common femoral artery caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus seeding of an atherosclerotic plaque in which the bacteria possibly originated from psoriatic skin lesions. A 67-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the hospital after experiencing chest pain for two days. He was known to have psoriasis and coronary artery disease with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery three years earlier. He was found to have methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and later developed a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery opposite to the site of catheterization access. Mycotic aneurysms are rare clinical conditions associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In patients with psoriasis, a high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization of the skin makes possible bacterial seeding of existing atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, the risk of mycotic pseudoaneurysm formation in these patients should be considered.