Objective Denosumab, an anti-RANKL monoclonal antibody, was reported to improve bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce fracture risk, offering favorable efficacy against postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, some patients have experienced a reduced BMD despite denosumab therapy.
Methods We performed an observational study to clarify the clinical efficacy of denosumab for osteoporosis in rheumatic disease patients. Serum levels of bone turnover markers and lumber BMD in 100 rheumatic disease patients were examined at baseline and 6 and 12 months after denosumab therapy. The independent influence of changes in the BMD was examined by multiple regression analyses adjusted for patient characteristics and bone turnover markers.
Results As bone resorption markers, serum levels of N-telopeptide crosslinked of type I collagen (NTx) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b were statistically decreased after 12 months. As bone formation markers, serum levels of osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal peptide, and bone alkaline phosphatase were significantly decreased after 12 months. The mean BMD was significantly increased after 12 months. However, in 10 patients, the BMD decreased. A multivariate analysis of factors related to BMD changes highlighted a young age, low prednisolone dosage, and reduction in NTx.
Conclusions Denosumab increases the BMD to combat osteoporosis in rheumatic disease patients, and potential predictors of a better response to denosumab include a young age, reduction in bone turnover markers, and low-dose glucocorticoid use.
Objective This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary team deprescribing intervention to reduce polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in elderly orthopedic inpatients.
Methods In this single-center retrospective observational study, orthopedic inpatients ≥75 years old and prescribed ≥6 different medications were enrolled as participants. Interventions comprised multidisciplinary team-led polypharmacy screening and suggestions regarding deprescribing any unnecessary medications during hospital stays. The primary outcome was reduction in the mean number of regular medicines and PIMs. Secondary outcomes included falls, delirium, and other adverse events during hospitalization as well as emergency department visits or unplanned hospital admissions within six months after discharge.
Results After propensity score matching, 184 patients (intervention group, n=92; control group, n=92) were included in the analysis. The mean patient age was 83 years old. The mean number of prescribed medications and PIMs at admission were similar in both groups. The mean change in the number of regular medicines was -1.4 [standard deviation (SD), 2.3] in the intervention group and +0.2 (SD, 1.8) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean change in the number of PIMs was -0.5 (SD, 0.9) in the intervention group and +0.1 (SD, 0.8) in the control group (p<0.001). In-hospital adverse events other than falls and delirium were significantly less common in the deprescribing intervention group than in the control group.
Conclusion Deprescribing intervention by our multidisciplinary team seems to have been effective in reducing the number of prescribed medicines and PIMs in elderly orthopedic inpatients, with some accompanying reduction in certain adverse events.
Objective Epipericardial fat necrosis (EFN) has been considered to be a rare cause of acute chest pain, and especially important for emergency physicians. Chest computed tomography (CT) is often used for the diagnosis of EFN after excluding life-threatening states, such as acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. While the proportion of EFN patients who underwent chest CT in emergency departments is being clarified, little is still known about other departments in Japan. To investigate the proportion of EFN patients who underwent chest CT for acute chest pain in various departments.
Methods Chest CT performed from January 2015 to July 2020 in Asahikawa Medical University Hospital in Japan was retrospectively analyzed in this study. All images were reviewed by two radiologists.
Results There were 373 outpatients identified by a search using the word 'chest pain' who underwent chest CT. Eight patients satisfying the imaging criteria were diagnosed with EFN. The proportions of patients diagnosed with EFN were 10.7%, 4.8%, 2.8%, 0.9% and 0% in the departments of general medicine, cardiovascular surgery, emergency medicine, cardiovascular internal medicine and respiratory medicine, respectively. Only 12.5% of the patients were correctly diagnosed with EFN, and the other patients were treated for musculoskeletal symptoms, acute pericarditis or hypochondriasis.
Conclusion EFN is not rare and is often overlooked in various departments. All physicians as well as emergency physicians should consider the possibility of EFN as the cause of pleuritic chest pain.
Objective This cross-sectional national study determined which educational approaches are associated with the effectiveness of online clerkship for medical students.
Method A survey was conducted for medical students at 78 medical schools in Japan from May 29 to June 14, 2020. It comprised the following aspects: (a) participants' profiles, (b) number of opportunities to learn from each educational approach (lecture, medical quiz, assignment, oral presentation, observation of a physician's practice, clinical skill practice, participation in interprofessional meetings, and interactive discussions with physicians) in online clerkship, (c) frequency of technical problems, and (d) educational outcome measurement (satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition, skill acquisition, change in self-study time, and understanding of the importance of medical care team).
Results Of the 2,640 respondents, 2,594 (98.3%) agreed to cooperate. Ultimately, 1,711 matched our inclusion criteria. All educational approaches but assignments were positively associated with satisfaction and motivation. All educational approaches excluding assignment submission and interprofessional meeting were positively associated with knowledge acquisition. Observation, practice, and interprofessional meeting were positively associated with skill acquisition. Only assignment submission was positively associated with the change in self-study time. Educational approaches excluding medical quizzes were positively associated with understanding the importance of the medical care team. Technical problems were negatively associated with motivation, knowledge acquisition, and skill acquisition.
Conclusions Educators should implement various educational approaches, especially observation and practice, even in online clinical clerkship. They also need to minimize the technical problems associated with the Internet, as they reduce the effectiveness of online clerkship.
A 69-year-old woman with multiple neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) was referred to our hospital. Although she had extreme hypergastrinemia (11,675 pg/mL), no findings that indicated types I to III gastric NENs were found. Although gastric corpus atrophy was suspected on conventional white-light imaging, findings on magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging indicated no severe atrophy. A biopsy from the background fundic gland mucosa revealed no atrophic changes, parietal cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and negative findings for H+K+-ATPase. Thus, this case was diagnosed as multiple NENs with parietal cell dysfunction. Neither progression nor metastasis has been confirmed during two-year follow-up.
Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency induces severe adverse events in patients receiving fluoropyrimidines. We encountered a 64-year-old DPD-deficient man with a severe capecitabine-related gastrointestinal disorder. He received capecitabine-containing chemotherapy after rectal cancer resection. During the first course of chemotherapy, he developed severe diarrhea, a fever, and hematochezia. Endoscopy revealed mucosal shedding with bleeding throughout the gastrointestinal tract. DPD deficiency was suspected because he developed many severe adverse events of capecitabine early and was finally confirmed based on the finding of a low DPD activity level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. After one month of intensive care, hemostasis and mucosal healing were noted, although his gastrointestinal function did not improve, and he had persistent nutritional management issues.
Although dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a widely used analgesic and sedative agent for endoscopic procedures, cardiovascular complications, such as bradycardia and hypotension, are frequently experienced. We herein report the first case of asystole-induced bradycardia due to DEX during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). An 81-year-old man without cardiovascular diseases was referred for gastric carcinoma. ESD was started after administering a loading dose of DEX followed by a continuous maintenance infusion of DEX. The patient's heart rate gradually decreased, and then cardiac arrest occurred. DEX has a risk of cardiac arrest, so bradycardia should not be underestimated during sedation with DEX.
A 69-year-old man with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer was treated with pembrolizumab for 4 months. Three months after pembrolizumab was discontinued, computed tomography showed enlargement of the pancreatic head, with hypoattenuating areas in the pancreatic head to body. On endoscopic ultrasonography, the entire pancreatic parenchyma was hypoechoic. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed narrowing of the main pancreatic duct at the pancreatic head. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration showed inflammatory cell infiltration in the stroma but no neoplastic lesions. CD8-positve T cells were dominant over CD4-positive T cells in the infiltrating lymphocytes, and the patient was diagnosed with pembrolizumab-induced pancreatitis.
The case of a 28-year-old man who had primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis overlapping syndrome (PSC-AIH OS) complicated by ulcerative colitis (UC) is reported. First, he was diagnosed with PSC complicated by UC and initially treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and mesalazine. Twenty-four months later, liver damage reappeared, and we performed a liver biopsy, which showed the features of AIH. We eventually diagnosed him with PSC-AIH OS complicated by UC. If liver damage worsens in PSC patients, PSC-AIH OS should be considered. The optimum management approach for PSC-AIH OS should be established.
Eosinophilic cholangiopathy (EC) presents with thickening and stenosis of the bile duct wall that is histologically characterized by eosinophil infiltration. The diagnosis is often difficult. We herein report a patient who had been followed up with a diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis but had a final diagnosis of EC based on eosinophilia, histological findings of bile duct and liver biopsy specimens, and a review of a previous surgical specimen of the gallbladder. Antigen tests, isolation from her house, and accidental re-exposure to the antigen revealed that the causative antigen was the mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.
Spontaneous dissection of the brachiocephalic artery is rare, and there is insufficient evidence for optimal treatment. We herein report a case of ischemic stroke due to spontaneous dissection of the brachiocephalic to the right common carotid artery. The patient was treated medically but died suddenly 18 days after the onset because of aortic dissection. Although almost all reported cases of spontaneous dissection of the brachiocephalic artery have had good outcomes with medical management, it is important to note that sudden development of aortic dissection might occur, even without initial findings suggestive of this condition.
An 82-year-old man was transferred to our hospital due to impaired consciousness. His albumin-corrected calcium level was 14.2 mg/dL, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein levels were reduced, and his 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25 (OH) 2VitD] level was elevated at 71.5 pg/mL. Computed tomography revealed masses on the bilateral ribs. The mass on the rib was biopsied and diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Immunostaining of the biopsy sample with the anti-CYP27B1 antibody revealed the ectopic expression of 1α-hydroxylase in the lesion. We herein report a rare case of hypercalcemia induced by the overproduction of 1,25 (OH) 2VitD in DLBCL ectopically expressing 1α-hydroxylase.
A 49-year-old woman presented with nephrotic-range proteinuria, microhematuria, and moderate renal dysfunction. Diuretic-resistant refractory ascites associated with nephrotic syndrome were observed. Based on the histopathological findings, the patient was diagnosed with proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal immunoglobulin G deposits (PGNMID). Rituximab was administered due to steroid and immunosuppressive drug resistance, and partial remission was achieved after six months. Cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) performed to treat the refractory ascites improved the ascites and anasarca. Rituximab successfully treated the PGNMID, while CART effectively treated the refractory ascites associated with nephrotic syndrome.
A 74-year-old woman was diagnosed with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (WM/LPL) in X-18. Fludarabine plus rituximab (FR) was started, and she showed remission. In July X-7, the serum creatinine (Cr) level increased to 1.67 mg/dL, and bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) was started. By November X-7, the Cr level had increased to 8.41 mg/dL, so she was started on hemodialysis (HD). In September X-1, she developed nephrotic syndrome. She was started on tirabrutinib at 480 mg. In July X, her nephrotic syndrome had improved, and a complete response (CR) was achieved. This is the first case of the administration of tirabrutinib in a patient undergoing HD.
A 72-year-old woman presented with gradually-worsening myalgia and muscle weakness of the proximal lower limbs as well as elevated serum creatine kinase level. Based on a clinicoseropathological examination including a muscle biopsy, she was diagnosed with anti-signal recognition particle (SRP) myopathy. Although the myopathy relapsed two times in two years under oral prednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, the myopathy remained in remission for more than three years after resection of gastric cancer. Although the anti-SRP myopathy is not considered to be cancer-associated in general, we should note that some cases of anti-SRP myopathy may be ameliorated with appropriate cancer treatment.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia of type 10 (SCAR10) is a very rare neurodegenerative disease caused by mutations in the TMEM16K (ANO10) gene. This disorder is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs inconstantly associated with cognitive decline, polyneuropathy, epilepsy, and vesicorectal dysfunction. To date, more than 40 cases have been reported in Europe. In contrast, only three cases have been identified in Asian countries. We herein report the third Japanese case of SCAR10 harboring a novel homozygous deletion mutation (c.616delG, p.Glu206Lysfs*17). This case presented with adult-onset slowly progressive spastic ataxia with cerebellar atrophy and mild cognitive decline.
A patient with follicular lymphoma treated with obinutuzumab and bendamustine experienced prolonged coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). One month after the symptoms transiently improved, the patient experienced exacerbated COVID-19 symptoms. The patient recovered from COVID-19 with remdesivir and dexamethasone and was discharged 77 days after the disease onset. The patient completed a primary series of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations on day 176, but the anti-spike protein IgG was not detected later. A careful observation to detect any subsequent relapse of COVID-19 symptoms is necessary in immunocompromised patients. Chemotherapy should be based on the disease status and type of lymphoma.
We herein report a case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) complicated with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD). A previously healthy 41-year-old man presented with painful swelling of the cervical lymph nodes, fever, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, edema, and hypotension one month after the onset of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019. Laboratory investigations revealed an elevation of CRP, and echocardiography indicated diastolic dysfunction. We diagnosed the patient to have MIS-A. Histopathology of the lymph nodes showed necrotizing lymphadenitis. After the initiation of hydrocortisone and diuretics, his symptoms resolved immediately. This case suggested that post-viral immune dysregulation in MIS-A could play a role in the etiology of KFD.
Intravenous use of contrast medium (CM), which may cause kidney dysfunction, is admissible for hemodialysis patients because of the efficient removal by hemodialysis. We herein report a 61-year-old woman on hemodialysis who suffered from cholecystitis and cholangitis after large-volume CM administration during continuous renal replacement therapy. After catheter ablation, she developed life-threatening retroperitoneal hemorrhage, which led to the use of 500 mL CM for 5 consecutive days. It should be kept in mind that excessive vicarious CM excretion in the biliary system may become a predisposing factor of cholecystitis and cholangitis in patients who frequently undergo radiological interventions and imaging.