Objective The Kyoto gastritis classification categorizes the endoscopic characteristics of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastritis and identifies patterns associated with a high risk of gastric cancer. We investigated its efficacy, comparing scores in patients with H. pylori-associated gastritis and with gastric cancer.
Methods A total of 1,200 patients with H. pylori-positive gastritis alone (n=932), early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer (n=189), and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer (n=79) were endoscopically graded according to the Kyoto gastritis classification for atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, fold hypertrophy, nodularity, and diffuse redness.
Results The prevalence of O-II/O-III-type atrophy according to the Kimura-Takemoto classification in early-stage H. pylori-positive gastric cancer and successfully treated H. pylori-negative cancer groups was 45.1%, which was significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (12.7%, p<0.001). Kyoto gastritis scores of atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cancer group were significantly higher than in subjects with gastritis alone (all p<0.001). No significant differences were noted in the rates of gastric fold hypertrophy or diffuse redness between the two groups. In a multivariate analysis, the risks for H. pylori-positive gastric cancer increased with intestinal metaplasia (odds ratio: 4.453, 95% confidence interval: 3.332-5.950, <0.001) and male sex (1.737, 1.102-2.739, p=0.017).
Conclusion Making an appropriate diagnosis and detecting patients at high risk is crucial for achieving total eradication of gastric cancer. The scores of intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the scoring system in the Kyoto gastritis classification may thus be useful for detecting these patients.
Objective The management of blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients is the key to preventing a progression of organ damage. The brachial BP (bBP) has been used as the representative method for measuring the BP. The central BP (cBP), which is, different from the bBP due to the propagation and the reflection of the pulse wave in the arterial system, has recently received attention because it can now be estimated non-invasively. We examined the relationships between the difference in the central systolic BP (csBP) and the brachial systolic BP (bsBP) (Δ) and other factors in hypertensive patients.
Methods The bsBP and csBP were measured in patients with essential hypertension and the relationships between the bsBP, csBP, or Δ and background factors including age, the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), flow-mediated vasodilation (an index of vascular endothelial function), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, an index of arteriosclerosis), and the carotid intima-media thickness (an index of atherosis) were investigated.
Results The data of 191 patients were analyzed. Although there was no significant correlation between the CAVI and the bsBP; positive correlations were observed between the CAVI and the csBP (r=0.249, p=0.001). The Δ value showed significant positive correlations with age, and the BNP, eGFR, and CAVI values.
Conclusion The csBP is more strongly associated with arteriosclerosis than the bsBP. Moreover, the Δ value is more strongly associated with cardiac function, renal function, and arteriosclerosis than the bsBP or csBP. These data suggested that the Δ value may have a greater prognostic value than the bsBP or csBP and may be worth calculating in the clinical setting.
Objective and Methods An SGLT2 inhibitor (ipragliflozin, dapagliflozin, luseogliflozin, tofogliflozin, or canagliflozin) was administered to 132 outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without other antidiabetic drugs for 6 months to evaluate its efficacy, the incidence of adverse events, and its influence on the renal function.
Results The patient's mean glycated hemoglobin level significantly improved from 7.52±1.16% to 6.95±0.98% (p<0.001). The body weight of the patients was significantly reduced from 78.0±15.3 kg to 75.6±15.1 kg (p<0.001). The estimated visceral fat area was also significantly reduced from 108.4±44.6 cm2 to 94.5±45.3 cm2 (p<0.001). The waist circumference, blood pressure, serum alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, and uric acid levels also showed a significant decrease. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (U-ACR) was significantly reduced in the patients whose U-ACR levels were 30-300 mg/gCr at the baseline. The mean eGFR significantly decreased in the patients with a pre-treatment eGFR value of ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 but remained unchanged in the patients with a pre-treatment value of <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. A total of 13 adverse events were noted, including systemic eruption (n=1), cystitis (n=2), pudendal pruritus (n=2), nausea (n=1), malaise (n=1), a strong hunger sensation and increased food ingestion (n=1), and non-serious hypoglycemia (n=5).
Conclusion SGLT2 inhibitors seemed to be useful in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Furthermore, these data suggest that SGLT2 inhibitors may protect the renal function.
Objective Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are the most frequently prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents in Japan. Although a relationship between the efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors and the body mass index (BMI) has been reported, this relationship is controversial. We investigated whether the BMI value affects the glucose-lowering efficacy of sitagliptin in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods One hundred sixty-two outpatients with inadequate glycemic control were divided into four groups based on their baseline BMI values. They were then treated with sitagliptin (a DPP-4 inhibitor) for 3 months and followed-up for 12 months.
Results Sitagliptin significantly reduced the hemoglobin A1c level (HbA1c: -0.71±0.55%) after 3 months, and continued to reduce the HbA1c level until 12 months. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of sitagliptin among the four BMI groups. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the factors contributing to the change in the HbA1c level were the baseline level of HbA1c and the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β). In terms of the relationship between the baseline BMI value and the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment, the number of patients who responded to sitagliptin treatment after 3 months was lowest in the group of patients with the highest BMI values. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the baseline HOMA-β function and HbA1c level and a baseline BMI value of ≥30 kg/m2 significantly contributed to the response to sitagliptin treatment.
Conclusion The results indicated that sitagliptin treatment was effective in controlling glucose metabolism disorder in obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the efficacy of sitagliptin treatment might be attenuated in severely obese patients, such as those with a BMI value of ≥30 kg/m2.
Objective The current study investigated whether or not patients taking multiple daily oral medications for lifestyle-related chronic diseases would have positive perspectives on changing one of their medications to a once-weekly one.
Methods A total of 1,071 Japanese outpatients participated in the current study. We performed a questionnaire-based survey and compared the current satisfaction with the ongoing daily oral treatment (current daily-only treatment) and an expected satisfaction with an imaginary oral treatment changing one of their daily oral medications to a once-weekly oral medication (imaginary daily-and-weekly treatment).
Results Medications were taken for diabetes mellitus in 72% of the patients, for dyslipidemia in 54%, and for circulatory diseases, including hypertension, in 73%. Compared to their satisfaction with the current daily-only treatment, an expected satisfaction with the imaginary daily-and-weekly treatment was on average significantly attenuated (p<0.001, effect size d=0.49). The prevalence of a higher satisfaction score for the imaginary daily-and-weekly treatment versus the current daily-only treatment was 30% in the overall population. The prevalence was 59%, 40%, 29%, 14%, and 8% in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th quintile of the satisfaction score with the current daily-only treatment (p<0.001 for trend).
Conclusion Treatment satisfaction would be on average attenuated if one of the multiple daily oral medications was changed to a once-weekly one. Improvement in the satisfaction was less expected in the subgroup that was more satisfied with the current daily-only treatment.
Objective The arterial concentration of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) in subjects with inflammatory pulmonary disease is higher than that in healthy individuals. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the CO-Hb concentration and established markers of disease severity in subjects with interstitial lung disease (ILD).
Methods The CO-Hb concentration was measured in subjects with newly diagnosed or untreated ILD and the relationships between the CO-Hb concentration and the serum biomarker levels, lung function, high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings, and the uptake in gallium-67 (67Ga) scintigraphy were evaluated.
Results Eighty-one non-smoking subjects were studied (mean age, 67 years). Among these subjects, (A) 17 had stable idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), (B) 9 had an acute exacerbation of IPF, (C) 44 had stable non-IPF, and (D) 11 had an exacerbation of non-IPF. The CO-Hb concentrations of these subjects were (A) 1.5±0.5%, (B) 2.1±0.5%, (C) 1.2±0.4%, and (D) 1.7±0.5%. The CO-Hb concentration was positively correlated with the serum levels of surfactant protein (SP)-A (r=0.38), SP-D (r=0.39), and the inflammation index (calculated from HRCT; r=0.57) and was negatively correlated with the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (r=-0.56) and the predicted diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (r=-0.61). The CO-Hb concentrations in subjects with a negative heart sign on 67Ga scintigraphy were higher than those in subjects without a negative heart sign (1.4±0.5% vs. 1.1±0.3%, p=0.018).
Conclusion The CO-Hb levels of subjects with ILD were increased, particularly during an exacerbation, and were correlated with the parameters that reflect pulmonary inflammation.
Objective The prevalence of the non-convulsive type of late seizure after stroke is unknown. The aim of the present study was to clarify the characteristics of late seizure in clinical practice, mainly focusing on the prevalence of non-convulsive seizure.
Methods A total of 178 consecutive patients who were admitted and diagnosed with late seizure after stroke were retrospectively enrolled, and the data of 127 patients for whom the complete seizure was observed by a bystander were analyzed. Clinical information was obtained from the medical records and nursing notes.
Results A non-convulsive seizure was observed in 37 patients (29%). A focal seizure and its secondary generalization accounted for 79% of the seizure types. Status epilepticus was observed in 60 patients (47%), including 11 patients (9%) without convulsion. The patients with non-convulsive seizures were significantly younger than those with convulsive seizures, but there were no other significant differences between the two groups with respect to sex, classification or the lesion of stroke.
Conclusion There was a high rate of non-convulsive seizures in patients with late seizure after stroke. A non-convulsive seizure may be caused by any type or location of preceding stroke. More attention is needed in the differential diagnosis of neurological deterioration after stroke.
Objective We performed a prospective study to determine the efficacy and safety of denosumab on bone metabolic indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in 29 patients receiving long-term glucocorticoids (GCs) who had clinical risk factors for fracture.
Methods Among these patients, 16 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 RA, 4 other autoimmune diseases, and 3 renal diseases. All patients received donosumab 60 mg at baseline and 6 months. Serum N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (NTX) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were measured as bone metabolic indices. BMD at the lumbar spine (LSBMD) and femoral neck (FNBMD) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and expressed as a percentage of the young adult mean (%YAM).
Results Denosumab therapy significantly reduced serum NTX and BAP levels from baseline after 12 months (from 19.2 to 13.9 nmol BCE/L; from 11.9 to 9.2 U/L, respectively). In 18 patients treated with bisphosphonates before the start of denosumab therapy, the improvements in the LSBMD and FNBMD values were 1.5%YAM/year and 1.1%YAM/year, respectively. The LSBMD and FNBMD values were both significantly higher 12 months after denosumab therapy (3.5%YAM/year and 3.0%YAM/year, respectively). The LSBMD gain was significantly higher after denosumab therapy than during bisphosphonate therapy. No fractures were observed in any patients during denosumab therapy.
Conlusion Denosumab is effective and safe in preventing bone resorption and BMD loss in patients treated with long-term GCs for inflammatory diseases. This is the first study showing a significant increase in not only LSBMD but also FNBMD in GC-induced osteoporosis after denosumab therapy.
Objective Emphysematous cystitis (EC) has a high mortality rate compared with urinary tract infection without emphysema. However, its prognostic factors have yet to be determined. The presence of venous gas is suspected to be a rare, adverse prognostic factor of EC. However, all four previously reported cases improved. We hypothesized that venous gas is not an adverse prognostic factor of EC and aimed to assess the effect of venous gas on the EC prognosis.
Methods Medical records were reviewed retrospectively.
Patients The patients diagnosed with EC at Yodogawa Christian Hospital between April 2004 and September 2014 were included.
Results Venous gas was present in 15 of 23 patients with EC. There was no significant difference in the background or clinical presentation between patients with or without venous gas. All patients with venous gas survived without invasive measures, whereas 50% of patients without venous gas died.
Conclusion There was no marked difference in the mortality rate due to EC between the patients with and without venous gas. Venous gas may be a more common and less worrying finding in EC than assumed. It does not reflect the severity of infection, and air embolisms have not been reported so far. Venous gas may not affect the prognosis. This may be due to the differences in the mechanism of venous gas production. Gas in EC may develop due to glucose fermentation and intravesical pressurization, in contrast to the necrotizing infection seen in other emphysematous infections. This is the first study to assess the effect of venous gas on EC prognosis.
Objective Hypercholesterolemia, a risk factor in cognitive impairment, can be treated with statins. However, cognitive decline associated with "statins" (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) is a clinical concern. This pilot study investigated the effects of combining statins and regular exercise on cognitive function in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with prior mild cognitive decline.
Methods We recruited 43 consecutive CAD patients with mild cognitive decline. These patients were treated with a statin and weekly in-hospital aerobic exercise for 5 months. We measured serum lipids, exercise capacity, and cognitive function using the mini mental state examination (MMSE).
Results Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased, and maximum exercise capacity (workload) was significantly increased in patients with CAD and mild cognitive decline after treatment compared with before. Combined statin-exercise therapy significantly increased the median (range) MMSE score from 24 (22-25) to 25 (23-27) across the cohort (p<0.01). Changes in body mass index (BMI) were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in the MMSE. After treatment, MMSE scores in the subgroup of patients that showed a decrease in BMI were significantly improved, but not in the BMI-increased subgroup. Furthermore, the patients already on a statin at the beginning of the trial displayed a more significant improvement in MMSE score than statin-naïve patients, implying that exercise might be the beneficial aspect of this intervention as regards cognition. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age >65 years, sex, and presence of diabetes mellitus, a decrease in BMI during statin-exercise therapy was significantly correlated with an increase in the MMSE score (odds ratio: 4.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-20.0; p<0.05).
Conclusion Statin-exercise therapy may help improve cognitive dysfunction in patients with CAD and pre-existing mild cognitive decline.
A 70-year-old man was referred to our hospital to undergo treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. In hospital, he complained of hematochezia and a laboratory analysis revealed a decreased level of hemoglobin. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the small intestine, with slow enhancement of the dorsal region. Double-balloon enteroscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with a depression in the jejunum. Partial enterectomy was performed and a pathological examination demonstrated the presence of a solitary varix. Solitary varix in the small intestine has not been reported previously. We herein report an extremely rare case of solitary varix in the jejunum.
We present a case in which the accidental ingestion of a toothpick caused duodenal perforation and small intestinal obstruction. A 58-year-old man visited our emergency room with acute abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed obstructive ileus as well as a foreign body penetrating the duodenum, which was identified as a toothpick and removed endoscopically. Unenhanced CT was superior in detecting the object. The patient has been doing well since the operation.
We experienced a case of a 19-year-old man with Gilbert syndrome with concomitant hereditary spherocytosis. The patient presented with moderate unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, and inherited etiology was strongly suspected. The diagnosis of Gilbert syndrome was confirmed by the genetic analysis of the UGT1A1 gene, demonstrating UGT1A1*28 and compound heterozygote UGT1A1*6. In addition, since the laboratory findings and imaging studies revealed lysemia as well as gallstone and splenomegaly, a diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis was made as a comorbidity.
Both Gilbert syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis are hereditary diseases with a high frequency, and the hyperbilirubinemia may be exacerbated when these two diseases are concomitant.
A 63-year-old Japanese woman with an adrenal tumor was transferred to our hospital due to cardiogenic shock. Right and left ventriculography showed severe hypokinesis of the middle segment and the apex in both ventricles, and an endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated a small number of necrotic myocytes and cellular infiltration. She was diagnosed with pheochromocytoma and quickly recovered after treatment with an α-blocker. The functional disability of both the right and left ventricles with less myocardial damage due to an excessive level of catecholamine seemed to be related to the early recovery the present patient with catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy due to pheochromocytoma.
A 55-year-old man was transported to our hospital after a sudden onset of left lower abdominal pain while driving. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdominal region revealed an extensive iso-intense signal region that had a maximum area of 14×15 cm, which we treated conservatively. A series of follow-up CT images showed the gradual decrease of the left peritoneal mass, while continuity with the left adrenal gland became apparent. He was diagnosed with idiopathic adrenal hemorrhage. Adrenal hemorrhage presenting with huge retroperitoneal tumors is rare, and most cases are treated surgically. Therefore, CT images with conservative treatment are rare, holding both clinical interest and significance.
Hyponatremia is a common finding after subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH) and can be caused by either cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinguishing between these two entities can be difficult because they have similar manifestations, including hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, and high urine osmolality. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from SAH complicated by hyponatremia. During his initial hospitalization, he was diagnosed with CSWS. He was readmitted one week later with hyponatremia and was diagnosed with SIADH. This is the first report of SAH causing CSWS followed by SIADH. These two different sources of hyponatremia require different treatments.
An 84-year-old woman presented to our hospital with dyspnea on exertion and left back pain. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) revealed an irregular pleural mass invading her left chest wall with rib destruction and pleural effusion. CT-guided needle biopsy revealed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Low-dose oral etoposide produced a complete response, and she continued oral chemotherapy for one year after the diagnosis and maintained good performance status. We herein report a very rare case of non-pyothorax-associated lymphoma that nonetheless resulted in great recovery.
Massive hemoptysis is a medical emergency and needs immediate treatment. It occurs in a wide variety of pulmonary diseases and typically originates from the bronchial arteries. We herein report a very rare case of a patient bleeding from a right phrenic artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula accompanied with focal bronchiectasis in the right middle lobe of the lung. In this case, multi-detector computed tomography was useful for clarifying the etiology and the abnormal anastomosis and facilitated effective angiographic embolization.
A 40-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with abnormal findings on chest X-ray. Her medical history was remarkable in that she had presented with a pleomorphic adenoma in the right parotid gland treated by surgical removal approximately 12 years previously. Chest computed tomography showed well-defined non-calcified nodules of the bilateral lobes, so she underwent segmentectomy of the right upper lobe and middle lobe. The histopathological diagnosis was metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma of the lung, a rare entity.
A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer with multiple liver metastases. Three days after initiating chemotherapy, he experienced abdominal discomfort with hypotension. Computed tomography revealed a ruptured liver metastasis and the presence of hemorrhagic ascites. Transcatheter arterial embolization to the appropriate hepatic artery in concomitant with supportive therapies successfully stabilized his condition. Unlike with hepatocellular carcinoma, the rupture of a liver metastasis and associated hemoperitoneum is very rare in patients with lung cancer. We comprehensively reviewed the literature and found 10 similar cases with this serious condition. Physicians should therefore be aware of the risk of hemoperitoneum caused by ruptured liver metastases in patients with lung cancer.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) sometimes occur following Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) administration for allogenic stem cell transplantation but are rare in aplastic anemia (AA) patients. A 55-year-old woman with AA following ATG developed refractory fever and was diagnosed with EBV-LPD. She was successfully treated with weekly rituximab monotherapy; however, she developed EBV encephalitis. She was admitted to the intensive care unit and finally recovered from unconsciousness. EBV-LPD should be considered after ATG for AA when symptoms appear. Because EBV-LPD following ATG for AA can rapidly progress, weekly monitoring of EBV-DNA and early intervention may be necessary.
Pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) is a life-threatening fungal infection in patients with hematologic malignancies, and early and accurate diagnostic modalities are urgently needed. We conducted a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting these fungi in peripheral blood from four patients with hematologic malignancies who were strongly suspected of having PM. In these four patients, the Rhizopus species was identified in two patients, and the Cunninghamella and Absidia species in one each. Based on these molecular findings, all of the patients were successfully treated via targeted therapy with liposomal amphotericin B. In this report, a PCR analysis proved very useful for managing PM in patients with hematologic malignancies.
A 20-year-old Japanese woman had an attack of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed symmetrical lesions in the cerebrum and cerebellar hemisphere, corresponding to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Our administration of heme arginate gradually improved the clinical condition associated with AIP and the level of metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vascular dilator. Repeated MRI and magnetic resonance angiography revealed exacerbated PRES, part of which showed a small infarction, accompanied by progressive vasoconstriction. These findings suggest that the recovery of NO by heme replacement alone is insufficient for preventing brain damage during an AIP attack.
A 40-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presented with high-grade fever and severe thrombocytopenia. Acalculous cholecystitis and thrombocytopenia were initially suspected to be complicated with SLE and vasculitis. Contrary to our expectation, however, the patient was finally diagnosed with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia. SLE patients show various symptoms, especially when their condition is complicated with vasculitis, which mimics H. cinaedi bacteremia. It is therefore difficult to provide a definite diagnosis. Physicians should be mindful of the presence of H. cinaedi infection.
A 71-year-old man was admitted because of nausea and abdominal pain. He was receiving an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent for anemia and dysregulated iron metabolism due to stage G5 chronic kidney disease. He had a history of raw fish intake and was diagnosed with infectious enterocolitis, which worsened and led to septic shock. Shewanella putrefaciens grew in the blood culture, but Shewanella algae was identified in a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We herein report a case of S. algae bacteremia believed to have been transmitted orally. We also reviewed previous case reports on Shewanella infection in end-stage renal disease patients.
A 71-year-old Japanese woman presented with progressive fatigue, lethargy, dysarthria and a gait disorder. Her laboratory data revealed hyponatremia (Na 101 mEq/L), and we started correcting her serum sodium level. Within a few days, she became comatose, bedridden, and was intubated. We diagnosed osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) and started performing plasma exchange (PE) on the 39th day of hospitalization. She fully recovered after starting PE, and was discharged on foot unassisted. PE can be a beneficial treatment in patients with chronic ODS.
A 40-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who was taking mirtazapine presented with mydriasis, abnormal diaphoresis, myoclonus and muscle rigidity after taking metocloplamide. Her medical history, which included the use of serotonergic agents, and the presence of symptoms including myoclonus and muscle rigidity were consistent with a diagnosis of serotonin syndrome (SS) according to the Hunter criteria. The symptoms diminished following three days of treatment with oral lorazepam and cyproheptadine and a reduced dose of mirtazapine. Metoclopramide is frequently used to various gastric symptom. Metoclopramide is not widely known to induce SS. This potentially fatal condition should be avoided by exercising care in the use of drugs that have the potential to cause drug-drug interactions.