Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Volume 56 , Issue 11
Showing 1-31 articles out of 31 articles from the selected issue
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Soichiro Sue, Hirofumi Kuwashima, Yuri Iwata, Hiroyuki Oka, Isao Arima ...
    2017 Volume 56 Issue 11 Pages 1277-1285
    Published: June 01, 2017
    Released: June 01, 2017
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objective We evaluated the safety and efficacy of vonoprazan-based amoxicillin and clarithromycin 7-day triple therapy (VAC) in comparison to proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based (PAC) as a first-line treatment and vonoprazan-based amoxicillin and metronidazole 7-day triple therapy (VAM) in comparison to PPI-based (PAM) as a second-line treatment for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    Methods We performed a non-randomized, multi-center, parallel-group study to compare first-line VAC to PAC and second-line VAM to PAM. A pre-planned subgroup analysis on CAM resistance was also performed. Safety was evaluated with an adverse effects questionnaire (AEQ), which was completed by patients during therapy.

    Results The first-line eradication rates (ER) in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses were 84.9% (95% CI: 81.9-87.6%, n=623) and 86.4% (83.5-89.1%, n=612), respectively, for VAC and 78.8% (75.3-82.0%, n=608) and 79.4% (76.0-82.6%, n=603), respectively, for PAC. The ER of VAC was higher than that of PAC in the ITT (p=0.0061) and PP analyses (p=0.0013). The ERs for VAC in patients with CAM-resistant and CAM-susceptible bacteria were 73.2% (59.7-84.2%, n=56) and 88.9% (83.4-93.1%, n=180), respectively. PAC was associated with higher AEQ scores for diarrhea, nausea, headache, and general malaise. In the second-line ITT and PP analyses VAM achieved ERs of 80.5% (74.6-85.6%, n=216) and 82.4% (76.6-87.3%, n=211), respectively, while PAM achieved ERs of 81.5% (74.2-87.4%, n=146) and 82.1% (74.8-87.9%, n=145), respectively. No significant differences were observed in the ITT (p=0.89) or PP (p=1.0) analyses.

    Conclusion The ER of first-line VAC was higher than that of PAC, but still <90%. No difference was observed between second-line VAM and PAM. Vonoprazan-based triple therapy was safe and well tolerated.

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  • Kazuhiro Kashiwagi, Yoshihiro Nakazato, Mari Arai, Eisuke Iwasaki, Mak ...
    2017 Volume 56 Issue 11 Pages 1287-1292
    Published: June 01, 2017
    Released: June 01, 2017
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objective We investigated whether dual-time-point 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) could improve the positive predictive value for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasms (cancer, adenoma ≥10 mm or adenoma with high-grade dysplasia).

    Methods We retrospectively searched for consecutive patients with a known primary cancer, who had a colonic 18FDG uptake incidentally found by PET/CT, followed by colonoscopy between January 2013 and August 2014. The clinical characteristics including the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were compared between advanced colorectal neoplasms and non-advanced lesions.

    Results Forty-eight patients had 51 foci with an incidental focal colorectal uptake of 18FDG. Among these 51 foci, 28 foci were judged as being advanced neoplasms, whereas 23 foci identified as non-advanced lesions. Four cases were missed by PET/CT: two laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) with intramucosal cancer and two severe adenomas (<10 mm). The positive predictive value for the detection of advanced neoplasms was 55%. The per-spot performance of PET/CT showed that SUVmax was significantly higher in advanced neoplasms than in non-advanced lesions for the early-phase (10.1±4.9 vs. 6.5±3.2, p=0.029) and the delayed-phase (12.0±6.0 vs. 7.4±4.0, p=0.022). However, more importantly, there was a significant overlap of the SUVmax and no significant difference was found in the retention index (19.2±20.1 vs. 16.6±29.4, p=0.767).

    Conclusion Dual-time-point PET/CT was found to have limited impact for identifying advanced colorectal neoplasms in spite of its high sensitivity and it might therefore not be able to identify either LSTs or small advanced neoplasms.

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  • Tomonori Ida, Masahiko Inamori, Yumi Inoh, Koji Fujita, Jun Hamanaka, ...
    2017 Volume 56 Issue 11 Pages 1293-1300
    Published: June 01, 2017
    Released: June 01, 2017
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objective The risk factors associated with severe erosive esophagitis are not well defined in Japan. We aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with the endoscopic severity of esophageal mucosal injury.

    Methods Eighty consecutive Japanese patients with severe erosive esophagitis [Los Angeles (LA) classification grade C or D] who had undergone upper endoscopies in the Gastroenterology Division of Omori Red Cross Hospital between June 2010 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. For each case, a control with mild erosive esophagitis (LA classification grade A or B) who was matched by sex and age was randomly selected during the same period. Among the endoscopic findings, the condition of the gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV) was graded according to Hill's classification. We identified the risk factors for severe erosive esophagitis using a multivariable logistic regression model.

    Results A poor performance status (PS) (odds ratio [OR]=17.1201, 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.0268-140.3121, p=0.0008) and an abnormal GEFV (OR=3.0176, 95% CI=1.0589-9.4939, p=0.0385) were risk factors for severe erosive esophagitis, while the presence of open-type gastric mucosal atrophy (GMA) was inversely associated with severe erosive esophagitis (OR=0.2772, 95% CI=0.1087-0.6675, p=0.0040).

    Conclusion Among patients with erosive esophagitis, a poor PS and an abnormal GEFV were associated while GMA was inversely associated with severe erosive esophagitis. Drug therapy alone or in combination with physical therapy may improve the therapeutic effect on severe erosive esophagitis in patients with a poor PS.

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  • Hiroko Mori, Yosuke Okada, Yoshiya Tanaka
    2017 Volume 56 Issue 11 Pages 1301-1306
    Published: June 01, 2017
    Released: June 01, 2017
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objective The use of thiazolidinediones is reported to be associated with an increased frequency of fractures, especially in women; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this prospective study, we compared the effects of pioglitazone and metformin on bone metabolism in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Methods A total of 58 patients with type 2 diabetes (24 men and 34 women) were randomly assigned to receive either pioglitazone (30 and 15 mg/day for men and women, respectively) or metformin (750 mg/day). The changes in serum and urinary type 1 cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTX), type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), homocysteine, and serum pentosidine were evaluated before and after three months of treatment. The primary endpoint was changes in bone resorption markers after three months.

    Patients The subjects of this research were male and female type 2 diabetes patients, less than 80 years of age.

    Results Pioglitazone significantly increased the serum and urinary NTX and serum and urinary CTX levels. The rates of changes in the serum and urinary NTX and CTX were significantly greater in the pioglitazone group than in the metformin group. Although the BAP levels decreased significantly in the pioglitazone group, the rates of change were similar between the two groups. In the pioglitazone group, the changes in fasting insulin levels correlated significantly with increased bone resorption, independent of age and gender.

    Conclusion The results demonstrated that pioglitazone increased bone resorption independent of age and gender in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

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  • Yoichi Ohnuki, Yuko Ohnuki, Saori Kohara, Mie Shimizu, Shunya Takizawa
    2017 Volume 56 Issue 11 Pages 1307-1313
    Published: June 01, 2017
    Released: June 01, 2017
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objective Some previous studies have found clinical benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and cilostazol for prevention of secondary stroke, but the physiological mechanism involved remains unknown. We aimed to clarify the effects of aspirin/cilostazol therapy on the platelet and endothelial functions of patients with acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke, in comparison to patients who were treated with aspirin alone.

    Methods The present randomized prospective pilot study enrolled 24 patients within a week after the onset of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke. The patients were randomly allocated to receive aspirin (100 mg/day) (A group; 11 patients) or cilostazol (200 mg/day) plus aspirin (100 mg/day) (CA group; 13 patients). We measured platelet aggregation, platelet activation, and the thrombomodulin (TM), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and von Willebrand (vWF) antigen levels and vWF activity over a 4-week period after enrollment.

    Results There was no significant difference in the platelet functions of the A and CA groups. However, the platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was decreased at 2 and 4 weeks (p<0.05) after treatment in comparison to the pre-treatment values in the CA group, but not in the A group. Platelet activation, and the hs-CRP, TM, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and vWF values did not significantly decrease after treatment in either group.

    Conclusion Although there were no significant differences in platelet aggregation, platelet activation or the endothelial biomarker levels of the A and CA groups, dual therapy with aspirin and cilostazol inhibited platelet aggregation in comparison to the pre-treatment values, similarly to patients who received aspirin alone. This may suggest the clinical usefulness of dual therapy with aspirin and cilostazol in the treatment of patients with noncardioembolic ischemic stroke.

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  • Issei Tokimatsu, Katsumi Shigemura, Tomohiro Kotaki, Hiroki Yoshikawa, ...
    2017 Volume 56 Issue 11 Pages 1315-1319
    Published: June 01, 2017
    Released: June 01, 2017
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objectives To investigate the efficacy of oral moxifloxacin (MFLX) as a treatment for pneumonia in hemodialysis (HD) patients and the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of MFLX after oral administration.

    Methods Thirteen adult patients who required HD due to chronic renal failure were enrolled in the present study, which was performed to investigate the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in HD patients. A standard dose of MFLX (400 mg, once daily) was administered. The therapy was continued, discontinued, or switched to another antibiotic depending on the response of the pneumonia to MFLX. A population PK model was developed using the post-hoc method.

    Results In total, 13 HD patients with pneumonia (male, n=7; female, n=6) were enrolled in the present study. The evaluation on the 3rd day showed that treatment was successful in 11 patients (84.6%) and that 10 patients were cured (76.9%). In the one case in which MFLX treatment failed, the patient was cured by switching to ceftriaxone (CTRX) (2 g, intravenously) plus levofloxacin (LVFX) (250 mg, orally). The causative bacterium in this male patient was P. aeruginosa. It did not display resistance to fluoroquinolones. One patient had liver dysfunction due to MFLX. The estimated PK parameters of MFLX were as follows: AUC0→24, 61.04±17.74 μg h/mL; Cmax, 5.25±1.12 μg/mL; and Ctrough, 1.15±0.45 μg/mL. The PK parameters of MFLX among the patients in whom adverse events occurred or in whom a cure was not achieved did not differ from those of the other patients to a statistically significant extent.

    Conclusion MFLX showed good efficacy and safety in HD patients with community-acquired pneumonia and the results of the PK analysis were favorable. Further prospective studies with larger numbers of patients will be needed to draw definitive conclusions.

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  • Minoru Kawamura, Tomoko Hashimoto, Tadayoshi Ogino, Hirosumi Kaneko, S ...
    2017 Volume 56 Issue 11 Pages 1321-1329
    Published: June 01, 2017
    Released: June 01, 2017
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Objective Although the daily urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) is considered to provide the most reliable estimate of the daily sodium intake, it may be affected by salt loss due to sweating in summer. However, the seasonal variation in the daily UNaV associated with a normal lifestyle is unknown.

    Methods This study was performed in 348 outpatients from the Morioka region during three seasons: summer (summer 1), winter, and the following summer (summer 2). The daily UNaV (g salt/day) was estimated by the second morning urine method three times during each season. Seasonal variation was defined as a significant trend across the three seasons together with a significant difference between winter and both summers.

    Results In women, the daily UNaV was higher in winter (11.8±3.0 g salt/day) than in summer 1 (11.2±2.9 g salt/day) or summer 2 (11.0±2.9 g salt/day). In contrast, there was no marked seasonal variation in men. An analysis stratified by age (4 quartiles) identified seasonal variation in the older 2 quartiles of women (aged ≥68 years). In these women, the mean seasonal difference in the daily UNaV was 0.9 g of salt/day for both winter vs. summer 1 and winter vs. summer 2, while it was 0.1-0.8 g of salt/day in the other groups.

    Conclusion Seasonal variation in the daily UNaV only occurred in older female patients and was relatively small. This is evidence for restricting salt intake throughout the year and should reassure patients who are anxious about salt loss due to sweating in summer.

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